Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865)

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The political and cultural review, the Nation , was founded in 1865 by Edwin Lawrence Godkin who also served as the first editor. In 1881 Godkin sold the magazine to the New York Evening Post, where he became editor of the Post and Wendell Phillips Garrison became editor of the Nation. It became a weekly edition of the Post until 1914.

Originally it was self-described as "A weekly journal of politics, literature, science and art." Under Godkin, the Nation railed against Reconstruction excesses, abuses of the civil service and corruption in the goverment. It is America's oldest such continuously published periodical still extant.

From the guide to the Nation, papers, 1865-1893., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

The Nation has been published continuously as a liberal weekly magazine of politics and culture since its founding in 1865 by Edwin Lawrence Godkin. A number of theses and books have explored the history of the magazine and its political and social impact; the most useful to date in the context of this collection is: Alpern, Sara, 1942- . Freda Kirchwey, a woman of the Nation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Freda Kirchwey's editorship at the Nation is the focus of the bulk of this collection. She brought a "militant liberalism" to the magazine, inevitably experiencing a bumpy ride, nonetheless keeping the magazine afloat under dire financial circumstances while expanding activities associated with the magazine. The dates of the bulk of this collection encompass the effects of the Great Depression and New Deal, the rise of fascism, growing comprehension of the Holocaust, the domestic and international crises of World War II, the dawning of the atomic age, and the roots of the Cold War and McCarthyism, all topics documented in this collection. Kirchwey was also personally representative of a new social order, a woman possessing power, in public, with family, surviving personal tragedy and the stress inherent in producing a weekly magazine. During the 1930s and 1940s the magazine was perpetually fund raising and reorganizing, trying to survive one financial hardship after another, and then came the banning of the magazine from New York public schools and the attendant legal and social battles of the early 1950s.

Freda Kirchwey was born Mary Frederika Kirchwey in 1893 in Lake Placid, New York, and attended Barnard College. She married Princeton instructor Evans Clark (1888-1970) in 1915. The couple had three sons, the first two, Brewster and Jeffrey, dying in their first and seventh years respectively; son Michael served in the war and was an occasional contributor to the Nation. In 1928 Evans Clark became director of the Twentieth Century Fund, a liberal philanthropic and research organization from which he retired in 1953. Clark and the Twentieth Century Fund worked closely with the Nation in various ways, Clark's personal finances becoming entwined when Freda Kirchwey purchased the magazine in 1937.

Kirchwey joined the staff of the Nation's international relations section in 1918 at the age of 25. By 1922 she was managing editor and in 1928 became literary editor. Oswald Garrison Villard (1872-1949) was editor and owner of the Nation from 1918-1932. Kirchwey was absent from the magazine during 1930-1932, a time that included the death of her son. She returned and was made executive editor in 1933 following Oswald Garrison Villard's retirement as editor; he continued as contributing editor and publisher, finally severing all ties in 1940. In 1935 Villard sold the magazine to banker Maurice Wertheim, stipulating that Kirchwey would remain as editor. Kirchwey purchased the magazine in 1937 from publisher Wertheim. After a decade of struggle and fatigue keeping the magazine alive, Freda Kirchwey handed over the editorship to Carey McWilliams in 1955; McWilliams had secured labor expert George G. Kirstein as his new publisher. Kirchwey initially intended to continue writing for the Nation but contributed only a few pieces until her death in 1976.

The Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.) was created in 1943 as a non-profit membership corporation "to provide the media for free discussion of the large issues which it regards as basic to the preservation and the extension of the democratic way of life." It acquired the stock of the magazine and became its publisher, in part to distinguish between the magazine's welfare and Freda Kirchwey's personal finances. Its membership activities included an annual forum, public policy conferences, special issue-focused committees, and radio broadcasts, many of which were also fund raisers. Its director, Lillie Shultz, hired in 1944, became chief staff fund raiser.

From the guide to the The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk)., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

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creatorOf The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Martha Dickinson Bianchi correspondence concerning publication of the poetry of the American poet, Emily Dickinson:, 1881-1943 (inclusive), 1925-1937 (bulk). Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard UniFversity
referencedIn Godkin, Edwin Lawrence, 1831-1902. Edwin Lawrence Godkin papers, 1845-1927. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Harold Rosenberg papers, 1923-1984 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Nation, papers, 1865-1893. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Gore Vidal papers, 1875-2004 (inclusive), 1936-2000 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
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correspondedWith Berrien, F. Kenneth (Frederick Kenneth). person
associatedWith Berrien, William person
correspondedWith Berry, Mildred Freburg. person
associatedWith Bertha Klausner. corporateBody
correspondedWith Bertrand, Lewis. person
correspondedWith Berul, Zalmon. person
associatedWith Bessaignet, Pierre person
correspondedWith Bessie, Simon Michael. person
correspondedWith Bester, Leonard R. person
associatedWith Betancourt, Rómulo person
associatedWith Bet ha-sefarim ha-le'umi veha-universita'i bi-Yerushalayim corporateBody
associatedWith Bethel (Conn.) Lions Club. corporateBody
correspondedWith Bettelheim, Bruno. person
correspondedWith Bettelheim, Charles. person
correspondedWith Bettelheim, Ralph W. person
associatedWith Betty Zoss. person
correspondedWith Betzig, Edward. person
correspondedWith Beukema, Herman. person
associatedWith Bevan, Aneurin person
correspondedWith Beyer, Stanley J. person
associatedWith Bianchi, Martha Dickinson, 1866-1943 person
correspondedWith Bickel, Alexander. person
correspondedWith Biddle, Francis, 1886-1968 person
correspondedWith Biddle, Katherine. person
correspondedWith Bieber, Hugo, 1883-1950 person
correspondedWith Biemiller, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1906-1982 person
correspondedWith Bienenfeld, Jesse. person
correspondedWith Biermann, Berthold. person
correspondedWith Billikopf, Jacob, 1883-1950 person
associatedWith Bill O'Malley person
associatedWith Bill Polk person
correspondedWith Billstein, Alfred H. person
correspondedWith Bing, Edward J. person
associatedWith Binger, Carl person
correspondedWith Bingham, Barry, 1906-1988 person
correspondedWith Bing, Ralph A. person
correspondedWith Binstock, Louis. person
associatedWith Bipin K. Sinha person
correspondedWith Birge, Paul R. person
correspondedWith Birger, Samuel. person
associatedWith Birgers, Daniel person
correspondedWith Birkhead, L. M. (Leon Milton), 1885-1954 person
correspondedWith Bisham-Holmes, Heriot. person
correspondedWith Bishop, A. S. person
correspondedWith Bishop, John Peale, 1892-1944 person
correspondedWith Bissell, Stanford. person
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correspondedWith Black, Frances K.? . person
correspondedWith Black, Marvin M. person
correspondedWith Blackmur, R. P. (Richard P.), 1904-1965 person
correspondedWith Blair, H. deVore. person
correspondedWith Blair, Janet M. person
correspondedWith Blakeman, Charles E. person
correspondedWith Blake, Peter J. person
correspondedWith Blanchard, Fessenden Seaver, 1888-1963 person
associatedWith Blanche M. Fasnacht person
correspondedWith Blanco, Louise S. person
correspondedWith Blankfort, Alice. person
associatedWith Blanshard, Paul person
correspondedWith Blassingame, Lurton, 1904-1988 person
correspondedWith Blatt, Sidney. person
associatedWith Blau, Pat person
correspondedWith Blaustein, Jacob. person
correspondedWith Bledsoe, Thomas. person
correspondedWith Bleiberg, Robert M. person
correspondedWith Blelloch, David. person
correspondedWith Blinken, Samuel M. person
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correspondedWith Blitzer, Clara. person
correspondedWith Blitzer, Moses D. person
correspondedWith Blitzstein, Madelin. person
correspondedWith Bliven, Bruce, 1889-1977 person
associatedWith B. L. Mazel person
correspondedWith Bloch, David M. person
correspondedWith Bloch, Henry Simon, 1915- person
correspondedWith Block, Harry. person
correspondedWith Block, Irving. person
correspondedWith Blodgett, William Tilden, 1823-1875 person
correspondedWith Blomfield, Jane Seymour. person
correspondedWith Blume, Isabelle, 1892-1975 person
correspondedWith Blumenthal, Myron S. person
associatedWith Blumenthal, Roy person
correspondedWith Blum, Klara, 1904-1971 person
correspondedWith Blum, Leon, 1902-1969 person
associatedWith Blum, Rose person
associatedWith B'nai B'rith. Anti-defamation League corporateBody
correspondedWith Boardman, Helen M. person
associatedWith Board of Inquiry into Germany. corporateBody
correspondedWith Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 person
associatedWith Bobich, Gica person
associatedWith Bodansky, Harry person
correspondedWith Bode, Boyd Henry, 1873-1953 person
correspondedWith Bodin, Edward. person
correspondedWith Bodin, George E. person
correspondedWith Bodlander, Silvio. person
correspondedWith Bodwell, John T. person
correspondedWith Bogan, John Albert, recipient. person
correspondedWith Bogart, Leo. person
correspondedWith Bogat, Marjorie R. person
associatedWith Bogdan Radica person
correspondedWith Bok, Nellie Lee. person
correspondedWith Bolaffio, Robert E. person
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correspondedWith Boldt, O'Brien. person
correspondedWith Boley, Martha. person
correspondedWith Bolles, Blair, 1911- person
correspondedWith Bolté, Charles G. (Charles Guy), 1920- person
correspondedWith Bond, F. Fraser (Frank Fraser), 1891-1965 person
correspondedWith Bondy, Curt, 1894-1972 person
associatedWith Bonici, Edwin person
associatedWith Boni & Liveright corporateBody
associatedWith Book Find Club corporateBody
correspondedWith Bookstaber, Philip David, b. 1892 person
correspondedWith Boord, Kenneth R. person
correspondedWith Boord, Norma Ellen. person
correspondedWith Booth, Helen M. person
correspondedWith Booth, Philip. person
associatedWith Booth, Windsor person
correspondedWith Borgese, Elisabeth Mann. person
correspondedWith Borgese, Giuseppe Antonio, 1882-1952 person
correspondedWith Borghi, Lamberto, 1907- person
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associatedWith Bornstein, Josef person
correspondedWith Boros, Ferike, 1880-1951 person
correspondedWith Borras, Cristobal. person
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correspondedWith Bossi, Burton F. person
correspondedWith Boswell, Lola. person
correspondedWith Boucher, C. H. person
correspondedWith Boulter, Mrs. H. W. person
correspondedWith Bourbon, Georges Jerome de. person
associatedWith Bourdet, Claude person
correspondedWith Bourdet, Claude, 1909- person
correspondedWith Bousfield, R. G. G. person
correspondedWith Bouton, S. Miles (Stephen Miles), b. 1876 person
correspondedWith Bovet, Eric D. (Eric David), 1900- person
associatedWith Bowen C. (Bowen Causey) Dees person
correspondedWith Bowles, Chester, 1901- person
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correspondedWith Boyden, Polly. person
correspondedWith Boyd, James. person
correspondedWith Boyd, Katharine. person
correspondedWith Boyd-Orr, John Boyd Orr, Baron, 1880- person
correspondedWith Boyle, Kay, 1902- person
correspondedWith Braatoy, Bjarne. person
correspondedWith Bracco, Edgar Jean. person
correspondedWith Brachman, S. person
correspondedWith Braden, Spruille, 1894- person
correspondedWith Bradford, Sax, 1907- person
correspondedWith Bradford, Tex. person
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associatedWith Bradley, David, 1915- person
correspondedWith Bradley, Dwight J. (Dwight Jaques), 1889-1957 person
correspondedWith Bradley, Elizabeth. person
correspondedWith Bradley, Loretta G. person
correspondedWith Brady, Charles A. person
correspondedWith Brailsford, Henry Noel, 1873-1958 person
correspondedWith Branch, John Balch. person
correspondedWith Brandeis, Louis Dembitz, 1856-1941 person
correspondedWith Brandt, Albert A. person
correspondedWith Brandt & Brandt. corporateBody
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correspondedWith Brant, Irving. person
correspondedWith Braude, Michael. person
correspondedWith Braun, Julius. person
correspondedWith Braun, Reinhard. person
correspondedWith Braunstein, Baruch. person
correspondedWith Braverman, M. person
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correspondedWith Brenner, Anita, 1905- person
correspondedWith