Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885

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Charles Babbage was a mathematician and inventor.

From the guide to the Charles Babbage selected correspondence, 1827-1871, 1827-1871, (American Philosophical Society)

Chemist; professor at Yale, from 1853. Son of Benjamin Silliman, also a chemist, geologist, and Yale professor, 1802-1852.

From the description of Correspondence, 1875-1884. (University of Arizona). WorldCat record id: 31440798

This is Benjamin Silliman, Jr., a chemist and professor at Yale. His father was the chemist and naturalist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864).

From the description of Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1845. (University of Pennsylvania Library). WorldCat record id: 155886687

American chemist and mineralogist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New Haven, to James N. Palmer, Esq., 1848 June 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270663539

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New Haven, to Rev. Robt. C. Learned, 1858 Jan. 21. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270663543

Professor of chemistry at the Yale Scientific School.

From the description of Benjamin Silliman correspondence, 1874 January 26. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70983283

Stephen Bowers (1832?-1907) was a geologist, archaeologist, journalist and Methodist minister, who maintained an interest in southern California, including area fossils and artifacts. His geological and archaeological work was financed by the Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Department of the Interior. In 1997 a California archaeologist and Simi Valley, California resident Arlene Benson published Bowers’ field notes, collected by Smithsonian field ethnologist John Peabody Harrington, under the title The Noontide Sun: The Field Journals of the Reverend Stephen Bowers, Pioneer California Archaeologist.

Bowers was born near Wilmington, Indiana on March 3, 1832 to David and Esther Bowers. One of thirteen children, the family moved to a farm eight miles north of Indianapolis when he was one year old. A studious lad, he walked or rode on horseback several miles to a small rural schoolhouse. Poor health kept him indoors as a child during the winter months. Realizing that he was not cut out to be a farmer, Bowers decided at an early age to pursue the ministry, and at twenty-three was ordained a Methodist minister, affiliated with the Indiana Conference. He was dispatched as a Methodist circuit rider ninety miles west of his birthplace in Lawrence County, Indiana. In November 1856, just ten months after beginning his ministry, Bowers married the seventeen-year-old Martha Cracraft from the farming community of Greencastle. Their first son, Hayden, was named for Bowers’ hero Dr. Ferdinand V. Hayden (1829-1887, APS 1860), the leader of U.S. government surveying expeditions to 109 western territories in 1859-60.

From his youth Bowers became a lifelong collector of artifacts and geological specimens. Although he dedicated himself to the pastorate and later also pursued a second career as a newspaper publisher, his primary interest was always archaeology. With the exception of military service with the 67th Indiana Volunteers during the Civil War, Bowers spent several decades in pastoral ministry that took him to churches in Kentucky, Oregon and finally (because of his wife’s failing health) to California. In 1874 he moved from his first pulpit in Napa City to the city of Santa Barbara. There Bowers found the lure of the Indian burial grounds on the Santa Barbara channel irresistible.

In the summer of 1875 Bowers accepted an assignment as guide for several survey parties of the Army Corp of Engineers, working on both sides of the Santa Barbara channel. Wheeler’s party included archaeologist Paul Schumacher, botanist Joseph Trimble Rothrock (1839-1922, APS 1877) of the University of Pennsylvania and Henry Wetherbee Henshaw, an ethnologist and ornithologist with the Smithsonian Institution. The Wheeler survey occupied all of Bowers’ time, except Sundays, for three months and Wheeler’s notes make sixteen references to him. It was through Henshaw that Bowers came to the attention of Smithsonian professor Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887, APS 1855), who carried on an extensive twelve-year correspondence with him. Through Bowers’ excavations the Smithsonian would acquire thousands of California and Midwestern fossils and native American artifacts for its collections-seventeen accessions over twenty-nine years.

Since no trained archaeologist had ever visited the native American burial grounds on the San Nicholas and Santa Rosa Islands before Bowers’ 1875 excavation, he was the first to examine the remains of these settlements, and remove the skulls, implements and artifacts for shipment to the Smithsonian and other museums, as well as to private collectors. Most of the skeletons and artifacts were from the Chumash tribe. During his three-year tenure as pastor of the Santa Barbara Methodist congregation at the corner of De la Vina and De la Guerra streets, made one trip after another to the islands, usually accompanied by correspondent Simon Peter Guiberson of the Ventura Free Press and sometimes by his wife Martha and Dr. Lorenzo Yates of Centerville.

Although methods of archaeological excavation were crude at the time, and Bowers was not the only untrained archaeologist doing field work, modern historians and archaeologists, who are familiar with his activities generally regard him as “a meddler who destroyed fully as many artifacts as he preserved-and rendered the site scientifically useless as well.” They find his “flagrant disregard for orderly methods and his failure to preserve sites” inexcusable. It is unclear how many barrels of native American skulls, utensils and implements Bowers sent to collectors in New York, Washington, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Los Angeles and the District of Columbia, but the Smithsonian alone credits 2,200 to 2,500 of its native American relics to his excavations between 1876-1905. Harvard’s Peabody Museum recorded 826 and hundreds made their way in public and private collections from Philadelphia to Los Angeles.

No doubt, Bowers used questionable methods and was generally too impatient to exercise care in his excavations. Dr. Baird of the Smithsonian and Professor Josiah Dwight Whitney (1819-1894, APS 1863) of Harvard, two of his primary customers, were probably unaware of Bower’s methods, although the former was definitely impressed by him. Bowers completed his excavations for the Smithsonian in September 1877, and moved to Indianapolis to accept a temporary call. Sometime in 1878 he returned to California and resumed his excavations. But after his wife and son Hayden died within months of each other in October 1879 and April 1880, he could not bear to continue excavations. Instead, he departed from Santa Barbara to launch a new career as a newspaper publisher in Beloit, California; Platteville, Wisconsin; and Falls City, Nebraska. By October 1883 he had returned to California with a new wife Margaret Dickson to become publisher of the Ventura Free Press. Also serving a the Methodist pastor in the nearby town of Santa Paula, he launched another daily newspaper he called the Golden State. As a Prohibitionist and a Republican Bowers became involved in political controversy in his newspapers and in the pulpit, often teetering on the edge of libel. All the while he found time to continue digging artifacts in the Santa Barbara Channel!

In 1899 the aging Bowers was appointed State Mine Examiner by California Governor Henry T. Gage. He had attracted the attention of one of the governor’s aids by some earlier pamphlets he had written for the state mineralogist, as well as reports that made use of some of his geological contributions on rocks, fossils and oil-bearing strata. During his tenure Bowers endured the heat of the San Diego County desert to dig fossils in thirteen different counties and also undertook an assignment from the U.S. Geological Survey to survey fossil around Riverside.

Bowers enjoyed excellent health into his mid-seventies, and was accustomed to delivering two sermons weekly. However, in the final hours of 1906 while on a New Years vigil, he fell ill and three days later suffered a stroke from which he died. He was survived by his wife Margaret, his son DeMoss, and daughters Anna Bailey and Florence Cooper.

The American Philosophical Society’s holdings of his letters show that he corresponded with major nineteenth century American naturalists, including Asa Gray (1810-1888, APS 1848) and Joseph Le Conte (1823-1901, APS 1873), as well as the Academy of Natural Sciences, the Museum of Natural History, the National Geographic Society and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Geographical Survey. Bowers also received an honorary doctorate from Willamette University in Oregon.

From the guide to the Stephen Bowers correspondence, 1860-1915, 1860-1915, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Gray, Asa, 1810-1888. Asa Gray papers, 1840-1859. Library of Congress
referencedIn George Jarvis Brush family papers, 1834-1960, 1834-1939 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Alexander Winchell Papers, 1833-1891 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Treadwell, George A. Papers, 1870-1907. New-York Historical Society
referencedIn John William Draper Family Papers, 1777-1951, (bulk 1860-1882) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn John Trumbull papers, 1750-1961 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Chemical Society of Lehigh University. Archives. Lehigh University Libraries, Lehigh Libraries
referencedIn Gilman, Daniel Coit, 1831-1908. Daniel Coit Gilman papers, 1845-1910 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Stearns Family. Stearns family papers, 1785-1918. Connecticut Historical Society
referencedIn Plumb, Edward Lee, 1827-1912. Edward Lee Plumb papers, 1856-1912. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Autograph letter signed : New Haven, to James N. Palmer, Esq., 1848 June 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Farnam family. Farnam family papers, 1721-2002 (inclusive), 1850-1937 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Samuel George Morton papers, 1832-1862 Library Company of Philadelphia
referencedIn Yale Miscellaneous Manuscripts collection, 1701-2007, 1701-1987 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Gilman Family Papers, 1659-1935 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Herrick, Edward Claudius, 1811-1862. Edward Claudius Herrick papers, 1797-1862 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Stephen Bowers correspondence, 1860-1915, 1860-1915 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Bradley, Joseph P., 1813-1892. Papers, 1836-1937. New Jersey Historical Society Library
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Scientific work of the "Florence"-Howgate Expedition. This work was entrusted to Mr. Orray Taft Sherman as meteorologist, and to Mr. Ludwig Kumelin [sic] as naturalist ... National Geographic Society Library
referencedIn Yale miscellaneous manuscripts collection, 1701-2002 (inclusive), 1701-1987 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Lapham, Increase Allen, 1811-1875. Increase A. Lapham papers, 1825-1930. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Walker, Joseph Robinson, 1836-1901. Letter to Benjamin Silliman, 1880, August 4. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Wood, J., fl. 1815. Journal of "A tour to the Northern States in the summer of 1815 through Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania", 1815. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Brewer, William Henry, 1828-1910. William Henry Brewer papers, 1830-1927 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Theater manuscripts collection, 1784-1941 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. B. Silliman, Jr. Reports &c. Yale University Library
referencedIn John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Smith, Nathan Ryno, 1817-1877. Letter 1846 Feb. 7, Baltimore, to B. Silliman / N.R. Smith. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Farnam family papers, 1721-1941 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Prince, L. Bradford (Le Baron Bradford), 1840-1922. Letters: to James Wadsworth, /by LeBaron Bradford Prince, 1880-1889. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IId, 1837-1844 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wightman, Stillman King, 1803-1899. Stillman King Wightman papers, 1817-1837 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Abbott, Jacob, 1803-1879,. Petition signed by 83 American authors to the Committee on Ways and Means, January 17th, 1866. Brown University, John Hay Library
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Correspondence, 1875-1884. University of Arizona Libraries
referencedIn Petroleum Anniversary (1953 : Dartmouth College). Records, 1952-1959. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Woolsey family. Woolsey family papers, 1750-1976 (inclusive), 1811-1921 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Charles Babbage selected correspondence, 1827-1871, 1827-1871 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Fowler family. Fowler and Wells families papers, 1807-1968, 1836-1901(bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Wormley, Theodore George, 1826-1897. Correspondence, 1853-1896. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Salisbury family. Salisbury family papers, 1753-1904 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Trumbull, John, 1756-1843. John Trumbull papers, 1750-1961 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Claussen, Francis F. Francis F. Claussen letters, 1883. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin (Junior), 1816-1885. Letter, 1865-1882. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Edward Claudius Herrick papers, 1797-1862 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William Henry Brewer papers, 1830-1927 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Warren, John Collins, 1778-1856. John Collins Warren correspondence, 1812-1856 (inclusive). Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library
referencedIn Charles Sumner correspondence, 1829-1874. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Benjamin Silliman correspondence, 1808-1859, 1808-1859 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wood, J., fl. 1815. Journal of "A tour to the Northern States in the summer of 1815 through Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania", 1815. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Woolsey family papers, 1750-1969, 1811-1921 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Theodore G. (Theodore George) Wormley correspondence, 1853-1896, 1853-1896 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1845. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Natural Science manuscripts collection, 1817-1918 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn A. D. Bache Papers, 1828-1863, (bulk 1836-1863) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Draper, John William, 1811-1882. John William Draper family papers, 1777-1951 (bulk 1860-1882). Library of Congress
creatorOf Smith, Augustus William, 1802-1866. Papers, 1816-1918. Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Stillman King Wightman papers, 1817-1837 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Natural Science manuscripts collection, 1817-1918 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Harvard University. Gray Herbarium. Administrative correspondence of the Gray Herbarium, 179?-1965 (inclusive), 1840-1955 (bulk) [microform]. Harvard University, Gray Herbarium
referencedIn Silliman family papers, 1717-1977, 1717-1911 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Rubens Peale letterbooks, 1802-1814, 1824, Bulk, 1802-1814, 1802-1824 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Brush, George Jarvis, 1831-1912. George Jarvis Brush family papers, 1834-1960 (inclusive), 1834-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Silliman family. Silliman family papers, 1717-1977 (inclusive), 1717-1911 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Yandell family. Yandell family papers, 1823-1877. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Warren, John Collins, 1778-1856. John Collins Warren correspondence, 1812-1856 (inclusive). Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library
creatorOf Batchelder, John M. Papers relating to the Crystal Palace Exhibition, N.Y., 1853-1876. Boston Athenaeum
referencedIn Sellers, Coleman, 1827-1907. Letterbooks ; letters, 1863-1899. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Asa Gray Papers, 1840-1859 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Salisbury family papers, 1753-1904 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Salisbury family. Salisbury family papers, 1753-1904 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Silliman, Benjamin, 1779-1864. Benjamin Silliman autograph collection, 1816-1871. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Silliman family. Silliman family papers, 1717-1977 (inclusive), 1717-1911 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Gilman family. Gilman family papers, 1659-1935 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Robert Hare papers, 1764-1858, 1764-1858 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Theater manuscripts collection, 1784-1941 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Dorothea Lynde Dix papers, 1798-1893 (inclusive), 1827-1887 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Autograph File, S, 1556-1996. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Papers [microform], 1848-1852. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Field, Cyrus W. (Cyrus West), 1819-1892. Autograph letter signed : New York, to Benjamin Silliman, 1861 Dec. 31. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Fowler and Wells families papers, 1807-1968, 1836-1901(bulk) Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIe, 1845-1865 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Benjamin Silliman correspondence, 1874 January 26. Library of Congress
creatorOf Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, 1812-1880. The Geo. M. Greene Collection : the following letters addressed to Prof. S.S. Haldeman, sketches, illustrations of his scientific articles, pieces of manuscript, and the original plates of Thomas Say's "North American entomology" were presented by me (Prof. Haldeman's grandson) to Geo. M. Greene in May 1920. [signed] Guy K. Haldeman. Brown University, Brown University Library
referencedIn Bancroft, George, 1800-1891. Letter : to [Benjamin Silliman], [New Haven, Conn.], 1854 Oct. 31. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Nation, papers, 1865-1893. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Yale miscellaneous manuscripts collection, 1701-2002 (inclusive), 1701-1987 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Autograph letter signed : New Haven, to Rev. Robt. C. Learned, 1858 Jan. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Seymour, George Dudley, 1859-1945. George Dudley Seymour papers, 1684-1944 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Brush, George Jarvis, 1831-1912. George Jarvis Brush family papers, 1834-1960 (inclusive), 1834-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Bacon, Delia Salter, 1811-1859. Papers of Delia Salter Bacon [manuscript], 1820-1952 (bulk 1827-1859). Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Trumbull, John, 1756-1843. John Trumbull papers, 1750-1961 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Silliman family. Silliman family papers, 1836-1868. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Bancroft, George, 1800-1891. Letter : to [Benjamin Silliman], [New Haven, Conn.], 1854 Oct. 31. Texas Christian University
referencedIn George Dudley Seymour papers, 1684-1944 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Peckham, Stephen Farnum, 1839-1918. Stephen Farnum Peckham papers, 1865-1881. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867. A.D. Bache papers, 1828-1863 (bulk 1836-1863). Library of Congress
referencedIn Daniel Coit Gilman papers, 1845-1910 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1816-1885. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Silliman, Benjamin, 1779-1864. Correspondence, 1839-1861. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Letters to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1761-1904 (inclusive) 1820-1888 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Adams, John, d. 1855. [Collection of 19th-century matriculation tickets, lecture admission cards, schedule cards, and graduation tickets from various colleges of medicine and pharmacy.]. Library Company of Philadelphia
referencedIn Miscellaneous correspondence, 1785-1968. Rutgers University
referencedIn Woolsey family. Woolsey family papers, 1750-1950 (inclusive), 1811-1921 (bulk). Yale University Library
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Relation Name
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correspondedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
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correspondedWith Treadwell, George A., 1836-1911 person
associatedWith Trumbull, John, 1756-1843. person
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associatedWith Vail, Isaac N., (Isaac Newton), 1840-1912 person
associatedWith Vaughan, Daniel, ca. 1821-1879 person
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associatedWith Walker, Joseph Robinson, 1836-1901. person
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Place Name Admin Code Country
California
Arizona
Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
Connecticut
Subject
Chemistry--Research
Rubber chemistry
Calculators
Vulcanization
Fossils--Collection and preservation--California
Mines and mineral resources--History--Sources
Scientists--Great Britain
Chemical industry
Indians of North America--California--Antiquities
Research, Industrial
Science--Experiments
Occupation
Chemists
Educators
Function

Person

Birth 1816-12-04

Death 1885-01-14

English,

German,

French

Information

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