Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Clement Greenberg, for many years America's most influential art critic, helped to create an audience and market for New York School artists such as Pollock, Newman, and David Smith. Greenberg wrote for Partisan review in the late 1930s and began writing art reviews for The Nation in the 1940s. Beginning in the 1950s, he abandoned regular reviewing in favor of the occasional article, organized exhibitions, lectured around the world, and served as a consultant for galleries, museums, and dealers.

From the description of Clement Greenberg papers, 1928-1995. (Getty Research Institute). WorldCat record id: 81665292

Greenberg, was an art critic; Cast, a professor of art history; Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Penn.

From the description of Clement Greenberg letters to David Cast, 1981-1987. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 77808799

d. May 7, 1994.

From the description of Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. (Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)). WorldCat record id: 84111702

Art critic; New York, N.Y.

Highly influential critic of the 1940s who advocated the formal purity of flatness in modernism. Greenberg studied at the Art Students League and at Syracuse University.

From the description of Museum without walls. Cubism : transcript, [ca. 1971]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122502699

Art critic; New York, N.Y.

Highly influential critic of the 1940s who advocated the formal purity of flatness in modernism. Greenberg studied at the Art Students League and at Syracuse University.

From the description of Sound track narration for Museum without walls: Cubism, [ca. 1971]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779476903

Art critic; New York, N.Y. Died May 7, 1994.

Greenberg was a highly influential critic of the 1940s who advocated the formal purity of flatness in modernism. Greenberg studied at the Art Students League and at Syracuse University.

From the description of Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1984. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 422875173

Art critic; New York, N.Y. Died May 7, 1994.

Greenberg was a highly influential critic of the 1940s who advocated the formal purity of flatness in modernism. Greenberg studied at the Art Students League and at Syracuse University.

From the description of Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1984. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 86132985

Clement Greenberg (1909-1994) was an art critic from New York, N.Y.

Greenberg was a highly influential critic of the 1940s who advocated the formal purity of flatness in modernism. Greenberg studied at the Art Students League and at Syracuse University.

From the description of Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 669910196

Biographical/Historical Note

Clement Greenberg, born in 1909 to Lithuanian Jewish immigrants, was raised in New York City, Norfolk, Virginia, and Brooklyn. As a child, Greenberg drew from nature with unusual accuracy, and as a teenager he joined the Art Students League, but by the time he attended Syracuse University his interests had shifted to languages and literature, and upon graduation he set out to become a writer. For nearly a decade Greenberg wrote poetry, short stories, and a novel (never finished) while also reading extensively in English, German and French. To earn a living, he worked in his father's businesses, which gave him opportunity to travel and live in various parts of the U.S. During this period he published two stories, one poem, and two book-length translations. He was also briefly married, fathered a son, and divorced.

He returned to New York City in 1936 and found employment as a clerk, first for the Civil Service Comission, then for the Veteran's Administration, and finally for the Customs Service, Department of Wines and Liquors. His interest in art re-emerged as he began taking drawing classes at a WPA studio and consorting with Greenwich Village artists, including Hans Hofmann, Lee Krasner, and Jackson Pollock. At the same time, Greenberg met the circle of writers around Partisan Review, with whom he shared an interest in socialist politics on the one hand, and aesthetics on the other. In 1939 Partisan Review published Greenberg's "Avant-garde and Kitsch," to great acclaim.

Soon thereafter, Greenberg joined the editorial staff of Partisan Review, and was employed primarily as a literary reviewer. In 1941 he wrote his first art review for The Nation and, resigning from Partisan Review, served as The Nation 's regular art reviewer from 1942 to 1949. He was also the associate editor of Commentary from 1944 to 1957. Greenberg wrote four books: Miró (1948), Matisse (1953), Hans Hofmann (1961), and Art and Culture (1961). The latter, a classic of American art criticism, has influenced artists and critics alike.

Greenberg is most remembered for having recognized the achievements of Pollock, Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, and other abstract expressionists at a time when few others could perceive them, and still fewer could explain them. Greenberg offered clear, concise explanations in formalist terms, situating these painters squarely within the Western tradition. These painters' unprecedented success assured Greenberg's success; he became America's leading art expert.

In his personal life, Greenberg carried on numerous amorous relationships with women, among whom were intellectuals and painters known in New York in the 1940s and 1950s. From 1950-1955, Greenberg was romantically involved with the much younger Helen Frankenthaler, with whom he remained friends for the rest of his life. In 1955, as that relationship ended, Greenberg began his lengthy psychoanalysis. He married Jenny Van Horne, an actress, in 1956, and they had a daughter in 1963. The marriage floundered soon thereafter, and the couple eventually divorced but then remarried in the decade before Greenberg's death.

In the 1950s Greenberg abandoned regular reviewing in favor of occasional articles for major reviews and catalog essays. He also began organizing exhibitions on such painters as Pollock, Adolph Gottlieb, Newman and Hofmann. He gave lectures at museums and universities, served as a consultant for galleries and museums, and from 1958 to 1960 was employed by French and Company. Greenberg's ties to artists, critics, dealers and curators gave him unequalled influence in a booming American art market, influence that endured through the 1960s and 1970s, even though others did not always endorse the artists he championed, such as Ken Noland and Jules Olitski.

Greenberg's reputation began to decline in the late 1970s after it was discovered that, while serving as the executor of David Smith's estate, he had had the paint stripped from six Smith sculptures. The resulting scandal fueled a kind of revolt against what some saw as Greenberg's tyranny over the New York art world. A new generation of critics emerged who questioned Greenberg's connoisseurship, his view of art history, and his character. Magazine articles referred to him as "the most hated man in the art world."

Despite this growing opposition, Greenberg continued to publish articles, though less frequently, to give talks in the US and abroad, and to advise certain artists, dealers and curators until his death in 1994. His Collected Essays, published in 1986 and 1993 was highly praised, offsetting to some degree the years of disrepute.

From the guide to the Clement Greenberg papers, 1928-1995, (Getty Research Institute)

Clement Greenberg was a highly influential art critic working in New York City from the 1940s through the 1960s. He was an advocate of modern art, particulary the abstract expressionist movement, and one of the first critics to recognize the significance of Jackson Pollock's work.

Greenberg was born in 1909 to Russian immigrants in Bronx, New York. After graduating from Syracuse University in 1930, he married and had a child, David. He settled in New York City while working at the United States Customs Department as an appraiser.

In the late 1930s, Clement Greenberg attended a meeting of the U.S. Works Progress Administration and heard Hans Hofmann speak of avant-garde art. In 1939, he wrote one of his first important critical pieces "Avant-Garde and Kitsch" for the Partisan Review . Greenberg argued that the avant-garde art movement rose out of the need to defend and maintain high art standards against the decline in taste brought about by America's consumerism and capitalist culture.

In 1940, Greenberg joined Partisan Review as an editor. He became art critic for the Nation in 1942, and was associate editor of Commentary from 1945 until 1957. In December 1950, he joined the CIA-fronted American Committee for Cultural Freedom.

Throughout the 1940s through the 1960s Greenberg continued to write and, in his essays and articles, he promoted the work of Abstract Expressionists, among them Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Hans Hofmann, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still. He particularly championed Jackson Pollock. Greenberg wrote several seminal essays that defined his views on art history in the 20th century. "Greenberg on Collage" was one one of his most important.

Greenberg's views on pop art were mixed. He also became less enamored with Abstract Impressionism, particularly the second generation. However, he became very interested in the Color-Field and Hard-Edge painters.

Through the 1960s Greenberg's views informed a younger generation of art critics including Michael Fried and Rosalind E. Krauss. Some writers maintain that Greenberg's views were so well-respected that he had too much of an influence on the world of art. In time, Greenberg's antagonism to Postmodernist theories and other modern art movements caused him to lose much of his credibility among both artists and art critics.

Greenberg died at the age of eighty-five in 1994.

Since his death, letters edited by his widow, Janice Van Horne and a re-evaluation of his writings have helped to restore his reputation within the art world.

From the guide to the Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983, (Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Sherry Mangan papers, 1923-1961. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Noland, Kenneth, 1924-. Oral history interview with Kenneth Noland, 1987 July 1-16. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Michel Licht Papers, 1910-1957 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
creatorOf Harrison, Charles, 1942-2009. Miscellaneous papers regarding an interview with Clement Greenberg, 1982-1991 (bulk 1983-1984) Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Held, John, 1947-. John Held papers relating to Mail Art, [ca. 1960-2000]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn New York University. Dept. of Art and Art Professions. Records of the School of Education, Health, Nursing, and Art Professions (SEHNAP), Department of Art and Art Professions dissertations, 1940-1995. Churchill County Museum
creatorOf Taylor, Robert, 1925-. Robert Taylor papers, 1952-1990. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Tuchman, Mitch. Mitch Tuchman papers related to the book Painters Painting, 1980-1989. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Jenkins, Paul, 1923-. Paul Jenkins papers, 1940-2007. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1984. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Sterne, Hedda, 1910-. Oral history interview with Hedda Sterne, 1981 Dec. 17. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Mones, Arthur. Photographs of art critics & historians, 1981. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Loran, Erle, 1905-1999. Erle Loran papers, 1913-1991. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Museum without walls. Cubism : transcript, [ca. 1971]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Carton, Norman, 1908-1980. Norman Carton papers, 1949-1980. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Agostini, Peter. Oral history interview with Peter Agostini, 1968. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Marshall, Margaret, 1900-1974. Margaret Marshall papers, 1805-1980 (inclusive), 1930-1974 (bulk). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Davis, Gene, 1920-1985. Gene Davis papers, 1925-1992. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Faatz, Anita J. (Anita Josephine). Anita Faatz interviews, 1970-1971. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Noland, Kenneth, 1924-. Oral history interview with Kenneth Noland, 1987 July 1-July 16. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Chrisman, Stephanie,. Stephanie Chrisman photographs of artists, 1967-1979. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Sherry Mangan papers, 1923-1961. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Piri Halasz papers, 1969-2009 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
creatorOf Stillman, Ary, 1891-1967. Ary Stillman papers, 1924-1979. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Agostini, Peter. Peter Agostini interview, 1968 [sound recording]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)
creatorOf Loran, Erle, 1905-1999. Erle Loran papers, 1912-1999. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Correspondence to Edward F. Fry, 1971. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Halasz, Piri. Piri Halasz papers, 1969-2000. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Clement Greenberg papers, 1928-1995 Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Sander, Ludwig, 1906-. Ludwig Sander papers, 1910-1975. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Halasz, Piri. Piri Halasz papers, 1969-2007. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Ribicoff, Belle Krasne, 1924-. Belle Krasne Ribicoff papers, 1942-circa 2010, bulk 1945-2004. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Belle Krasne Ribicoff papers, 1942-circa 2010, bulk 1945-2004 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement. Greenberg, Clement : [photography bio file]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
referencedIn Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers, circa 1914-1984, bulk 1942-1984 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
creatorOf Held, John, 1947-. John Held papers relating to Mail Art, [circa 1960-2006]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011. Oral history interview with Helen Frankenthaler, 1969. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Records of the School of Education, Health, Nursing, and Art Professions (SEHNAP), Department of Art and Art Professions Dissertations, 1940-1995 New York University. Archives.
referencedIn Rose, Barbara. Barbara Rose papers, 1940-1993 (bulk 1960-1985). Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Smith, David, 1906-1965. David Smith papers, 1926-1965. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Clement Greenberg papers, 1928-1995. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn John Held papers relating to Mail Art, 1973-2008 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Agostini, Peter. Peter Agostini interview, 1968 [sound recording]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Porter, Fairfield. Oral history interview with Fairfield Porter, 1968 June 6. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Solomon, Alan R. Alan R. Solomon papers, 1930-1972. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Porter, Fairfield. Fairfield Porter interview, 1968 June 6 [sound recording]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Sound track narration for Museum without walls: Cubism, [ca. 1971]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Ludwig Sander papers, 1910-1975 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Crile, Susan, 1942-. Oral history interview with Susan Crile, 1972 Aug. 1-3 [sound recording]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011. Helen Frankenthaler interview, 1969. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Schwabacher, Ethel, 1903-1984. Ethel Schwabacher papers, 1940-1975. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Margaret Marshall papers, 1805-1980 (inclusive), 1930-1974 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Erle Loran papers, 1912-1999 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Lipsky, Pat, 1941-. Pat Lipsky papers, 1995. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956. Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers, circa 1905-1984. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Clement Greenberg letters to David Cast, 1981-1987. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Sterne, Hedda, 1916-. Hedda Sterne interview, 1981 Dec. 17. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Lehman, Harold, 1913-. Oral history interview with Harold Lehman, 1997 Mar. 28. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Crile, Susan, 1942-. Susan Crile interviews, 1972 Aug. 1 - 3. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Baziotes, William, 1912-1963. William and Ethel Baziotes papers, 1916-1992. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Louis, Morris, 1912-1962. Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers, 1937-1988. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Louis, Morris, 1912-1962. Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers, 1937-2001. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Bolotowsky, Ilya, 1907-1981,. Oral history interview with Ilya Bolotowsky, 1968 Mar. 24 - Apr. 7 [sound recording]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement. [Clement Greenberg] : artist file John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Library, Ringling Museum Library
referencedIn Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.). Dept. of Publications. Department of Publications collection on proposed David Smith monograph, 1957-1974. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)
creatorOf Leider, Philip, 1929-. Philip Leider papers, 1962-1997, bulk 1965-1977. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Bolotowsky, Ilya, 1907-. Ilya Bolotowsky interview, 1968 Mar. 24 - Apr. 7. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn André Emmerich Gallery records, circa 1929-2008 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
creatorOf Jenkins, Paul, 1923-. Paul Jenkins papers, 1940-2007. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Halasz, Piri. Piri Halasz papers, 1969-2009. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Held, John, 1947-. John Held papers relating to Mail Art, 1973-2008. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994. Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1984. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Held, John, 1947-. John Held papers relating to Mail Art, [circa 1960-2006]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Greenberg, Clement. Greenberg, Clement: Art World Personality Files. Whitney Museum of American Art, Library
referencedIn Porter, Fairfield. Fairfield Porter interview, 1968 June 6. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Agostini, Peter person
associatedWith American Committee for Cultural Freedom corporateBody
associatedWith American Committee for Cultural Freedom. corporateBody
associatedWith André Emmerich Gallery corporateBody
associatedWith Auden, W. H. (Wystan Hugh), 1907-1973. person
associatedWith Avedisian, Edward, 1936-2007. person
associatedWith Bannard, Walter Darby, 1934- person
associatedWith Baziotes, Ethel. person
associatedWith Baziotes, William, 1912-1963. person
associatedWith Bolotowsky, Ilya, 1907- person
associatedWith Bush, Jack, 1909- person
associatedWith Caro, Anthony, 1924- person
associatedWith Carton, Norman, 1908-1980. person
associatedWith Cast, David, 1942- person
associatedWith Chrisman, Stephanie, person
associatedWith Clement Greenberg, person
associatedWith Connolly, Cyril, 1903-1974. person
associatedWith Crile, Susan, 1942- person
associatedWith Davis, Gene, 1920-1985. person
associatedWith Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922- person
associatedWith Dorazio, Piero, 1927- person
associatedWith Dubuffet, Jean, 1901- person
associatedWith Dzubas, Friedel, 1915- person
associatedWith Emmerich, André. person
associatedWith Emmerich, André person
associatedWith Faatz, Anita J. (Anita Josephine) person
associatedWith Feeley, Paul, 1910-1966. person
associatedWith Francis, Sam, 1923-1994. person
associatedWith Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011 person
associatedWith Fuller, Peter, 1947-1990. person
associatedWith Goodnough, Robert, 1917- person
associatedWith Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974. person
associatedWith Halasz, Piri. person
associatedWith Harrison, Charles, 1942-2009. person
associatedWith Held, John person
associatedWith Held, John, 1947- person
associatedWith Heron, Patrick. person
associatedWith Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966. person
associatedWith Hosaisson, Philippe person
associatedWith Hosaisson, Philippe. person
associatedWith Jenkins, Paul, 1923- person
associatedWith Kainen, Jacob. person
associatedWith Krasne Ribicoff, Belle person
associatedWith Krauss, Rosalind E. person
associatedWith Krauss, Rosalind E. person
associatedWith Lazarus, Harold person
associatedWith Lazarus, Harold. person
associatedWith Leavis, F. R. (Frank Raymond), 1895- person
associatedWith Lehman, Harold, 1913- person
associatedWith Leider, Philip, 1929- person
associatedWith Licht, Michel, 1893-1953 person
associatedWith Lindner, Ernest, 1897- person
associatedWith Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973. person
associatedWith Lipsky, Pat, 1941- person
associatedWith Lochhead, Kenneth Campbell, b. 1926. person
associatedWith Loran, Erle, 1905-1999. person
associatedWith Louis, Morris, 1912-1962. person
associatedWith Ludwig Sander person
correspondedWith Mangan, Sherry, 1904- person
associatedWith Marshall, Margaret, 1900-1974. person
associatedWith Moffett, Kenworth. person
associatedWith Mones, Arthur. person
associatedWith Motherwell, Robert. person
associatedWith Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.). Dept. of Publications. corporateBody
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970. person
associatedWith New York University. Dept. of Art and Art Professions. corporateBody
associatedWith Noland, Kenneth, 1924- person
associatedWith O'Faolin, Nuala person
associatedWith O'Faolin, Nuala. person
associatedWith Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007. person
associatedWith Pepper, Beverly. person
associatedWith Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956. person
associatedWith Porter, Fairfield. person
associatedWith Ribicoff, Belle Krasne, 1924- person
associatedWith Rose, Barbara. person
associatedWith Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970. person
associatedWith Russell, John, 1919-2008. person
associatedWith Russell, Vera person
associatedWith Russell, Vera. person
associatedWith Sander, Ludwig, 1906- person
associatedWith Schwabacher, Ethel, 1903-1984. person
associatedWith Smith, David, 1906-1965. person
associatedWith Smith, Kimber, 1922-1981. person
associatedWith Solomon, Alan R. person
associatedWith Solomon, Deborah person
associatedWith Solomon, Deborah. person
associatedWith Sterne, Hedda, 1910- person
associatedWith Sterne, Hedda, 1916- person
associatedWith Still, Clyfford, 1904- person
associatedWith Stillman, Ary, 1891-1967. person
associatedWith Taylor, Robert, 1925- person
associatedWith The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Truitt, Anne, 1921- person
associatedWith Tuchman, Mitch. person
associatedWith Waddington, Leslie person
associatedWith Waddington, Leslie. person
associatedWith Whitney Museum of American Art. corporateBody
associatedWith Wisenski, Kurt person
associatedWith Wisenski, Kurt. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
India
New York (State)--New York
Japan
United States
New York (State)--New York
New York (State)--New York
New York (State)--New York
Subject
Art--India
Arts
Art criticism--History--20th century
Art critics--United States--Correspondence
Art critics--New York (State)--New York
Modernism (Art)--New York (State)--New York
Art--Economic aspects
Art criticism--New York (State)--New York
Art criticism--History--20th century--United States
Modernism (Art)
Art--Japan
Art criticism
New York school of art
Art, Abstract
Art, Abstract--United States
Art critics--Correspondence
Art critics
Abstract Expressionism
Occupation
Photographers
Function

Person

Birth 1909-01-16

Death 1994-05-07

Americans

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6sf2xzx

Ark ID: w6sf2xzx

SNAC ID: 22014608