Bullitt, William C. (William Christian), 1891-1967

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William Christian Bullitt (b. Jan. 25, 1891, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-d. Feb. 1967), was Ambassador to the U.S.S.R. from 1933 to 1936, and to France from 1936 to 1941. He was ambassador at large in 1941 and 1942, and special assistant to the Secretary of the Navy in 1942 and 1943. He began his career at the State Department in 1917 where he also served as an attaché to the American Commission to Negotiate Peace at the end of World War I. In 1944 he joined the French Army and was a major in the infantry. He received both French and American decorations including the Croix de Guerre.

From the description of Bullitt, William C. (William Christian), 1891-1967 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). naId: 10570284

American diplomat, journalist and novelist.

From the description of William C. Bullitt letter, 1939 Aug. 27. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 435680981

American diplomat. Assistant in State Dept. 1917-18; U.S. ambassador to Russia (1933-36); and to France 1936-41), at large (1941-42) and special assistant to Secretary of Navy (1942).

From the description of William Christian Bullitt microfilm collection, 1916-1951 [microform]. (US Army, Mil Hist Institute). WorldCat record id: 22569006

William Christian Bullitt, Jr., was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on January 25, 1891. He graduated from Yale in 1913 and joined the staff of the Philadelphia Ledger in 1915. Starting in 1917, he served as Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and attach ̌to the American Commission to Negotiate the Peace at the Paris Peace Conference. In 1919, Bullitt undertook a secret mission to Russia to investigate conditions there. After divorcing his first wife, Aimě Ernesta Drinker, he married Louise Bryant in 1923 and they had a daughter Anne in 1924. He returned to government service in 1933 again as a Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and helped to negotiate U.S. recognition of the Soviet Union. Bullitt served as ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1933 to 1936 and as ambassador to France from 1936 to 1940, during which he developed a close relationship with Franklin Roosevelt. After the war, Bullitt spent nine years as a journalist writing for Life, Reader's Digest, Time, and Look magazines, mainly about the threat of communism. During his life, Bullitt was also the author of It's Not Done (1926) and The Great Globe Itself (1946) and co-authored Thomas Woodrow Wilson: A Psychology Study (1966) with Sigmund Freud. He died in Neuilly, France, on February 15, 1967.

From the description of William C. Bullitt papers, 1813-1998 (inclusive), 1909-1967 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702153733

William Christian Bullitt, Jr. was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on January 25, 1891. He was the first child of the wealthy lawyer William Christian Bullitt Sr. and his wife Louisa Horwitz Bullitt. Bullitt attended the DeLancy prepatory school before enrolling at Yale University. He joined the Class of 1912, but a year's absence due to illness delayed his graduation until 1913 (Phi Beta Kappa, Townsend Debating Prize, Scroll and Key Society, Dramatic Association, Yale Daily News . He attended Harvard Law School for less than a year and left after his father died in 1914. For the second half of 1914, he traveled extensively throughout Europe including Germany, Russia, France, and Great Britain. Returning to Philadelphia, he joined the staff of the Philadelphia Ledger where he rose to the positions of Washington correspondent, associate editor, and foreign correspondent. In 1915, he accompanied Henry Ford's peace expedition to Europe and gained recognition for his reporting on Ford's efforts to facilitate a peace settlement. The following year Bullitt married Aimée Ernesta Drinker of Philadelphia.

Bullitt began his career as a diplomat in December 1917 when he joined the State Department as a special assistant to the secretary. There he was appointed chief of the Bureau of Central European Information, which produced weekly intelligence reports on the European powers. In December 1918, he sailed to France to serve as an attaché to the American Commission to Negotiate the Peace and chief of the Division of Current Intelligence at the Paris Peace Conference. Under instructions from Secretary of State Robert Lansing, Bullitt undertook a secret mission to Russia in February 1919 to investigate conditions there, accompanied by the journalist Lincoln Steffens. After the mission, Bullitt grew critical of President Wilson's plans for a post-war peace settlement, resigned from the State Department, and testified against the Treaty of Versailles before the Senate.

From 1919 to 1933, William Bullitt withdrew from government service. In 1921, he was managing editor for the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation in New York City. He spent the rest of this period writing and traveling, splitting his time between his farm in Ashfield, Massachusetts, Philadelphia, Paris, Turkey, and various tours through Europe. In addition to a number of unpublished plays, short stories, and a screenplay, Bullitt published a satirical novel It's Not Done (1926) about upperclass society in Philadelphia and wrote another novel "The Divine Wisdom" which was never published. Sometime after meeting Sigmund Freud in the mid-1920s, Bullitt began a collaboration with the doctor to write a psychological analysis of Woodrow Wilson. By 1932, the book manuscript was finished, but it would remain unpublished until 1966. After divorcing Aimée Ernesta Drinker, he married the journalist Louise Bryant in 1923 who gave birth to their daughter Anne Moen Bullitt the following year. In 1930, Bullitt divorced Bryant and won sole custody of Anne.

After the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bullitt returned to the State Department in 1933 as a special assistant to the secretary. He served as the executive officer for the American delegation to the London Monetary and Economic Conference of 1933 and assisted with negotiations for American diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union, meeting repeatedly with the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov. In November 1933, Roosevelt appointed Bullitt the first U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, and he arrived in Moscow to a warm welcome by Soviet leaders. During his time in Moscow, Bullitt established the embassy and mentored a later generation of American Soviet experts including George F. Kennan and Loy W. Henderson, who served on the embassy staff. Relations with the Soviets cooled quickly and Bullitt found himself virtually ignored by Stalin's government. In August 1936, Bullitt became the ambassador to France and established extraordinarily close and cordial relations with French leaders. As tensions mounted in Europe in the late 1930s, Bullitt regularly reported directly to Roosevelt on developments in France and its neighbors. When the Germans invaded France and the government fled Paris for Bourdeaux, Bullitt remained behind and, because of his popularity with the French, was appointed provisional mayor of Paris until the Germans occupied the city. He returned to the United States in July 1940 to advocate American intervention in the war, giving a widely publicized speech at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia.

Unsuccessful at securing a higher office in the Roosevelt administration, Bullitt held the position of ambassador-at-large in 1941. Early in 1942, Roosevelt sent him to North Africa and the Middle East on a fact-finding mission. In June 1942, he took the position of special assistant to Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox. There he wrote several long memoranda for Roosevelt advising the president on plans for the post-war peace settlement and warning of the threat the Soviet Union and international communism continued to pose. In the early 1940s, Bullitt was also urging Roosevelt to dismiss the Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles because of Welles's homosexuality. Welles resigned in 1943. In August 1943, Bullitt left the Roosevelt administration to run as the Democratic Party candidate for the mayor of Philadelphia, but lost in the general election. Frustrated in his attempts to join the American armed forces, Bullitt served as a commandant and aide to General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny in the Free French Armed Forces until the end of the war.

Bullitt spent the next nine years as a journalist and writer on current affairs. The major theme of his writing was the danger of communism. In his 1946 book The Great Globe Itself, he criticized Roosevelt's policies toward the Soviet Union which Bullitt viewed as surrendering large parts of the world including Eastern Europe to Stalin's communist dictatorship. Bullitt wrote articles for Life, Reader's Digest, Time, and Look magazines, most based on his visits to Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, India, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. He had especially close ties to Taiwan including a friendship with Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek and a house he maintained there in the early 1950s. In 1948, the Joint Congressional Committee on Foreign Economic Cooperation requested his assistance as a consultant to write a report on the Economic Cooperation Agency and American aid to China. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Bullitt primarily concerned himself with his family and friends, his farm in Ashfield, Massachusetts, and his other private business interests. He died of leukemia in Neuilly, France, on February 15, 1967.

Additional Sources:

Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt (New York: Macmillan, 1987).

From the guide to the William C. Bullitt papers, 1813-1998, 1909-1967, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Wiley, John C. (John Cooper), 1893-1967. Papers, 1898-1967. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf William C. Bullitt papers, 1813-1998, 1909-1967 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Sara and Gerald Murphy papers, 1854-2003 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Barber, John, 1893-1965. John Barber papers, 1911-1975. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
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referencedIn George S. Messersmith papers, 1907-1955 University of Delaware Library - Special Collections
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referencedIn Anson Phelps Stokes family papers, 1761-1960, 1892-1958 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Records of the American Battle Monuments Commission. 1918 - 1995. Moving Images Relating to American War Cemeteries and Memorials. 1937 - 1984. America Honors Her War Heroes
referencedIn Papers, 1944-1988 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Harmon Foundation Collection. 1922 - 1967. Motion Picture Films on Community and Family Life, Education, Religious Beliefs, and the Art and Culture of Minority and Ethnic Groups. 1930 - 1953. CHINA SHALL HAVE OUR HELP
referencedIn George Biddle Papers, 1863-1973, (bulk 1916-1973) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
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referencedIn House, Edward Mandell, 1858-1938. Edward Mandell House papers, 1885-1938 (inclusive). Yale University Library
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referencedIn Clive Day papers, 1892-1943 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
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creatorOf Storrs, John Henry Bradley, 1885-1956. John Henry Bradley Storrs papers, 1847-1987. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
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referencedIn Montgomery, John Flournoy, 1878-1954. John Flournoy Montgomery papers, 1933-1939 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Antheil, George, 1900-1959. George Antheil papers, 1919-1959. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Bryant, Louise, 1885-1936. Louise Bryant papers, 1908-1938 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Loy W. Henderson Papers, 1918-1984, (bulk 1938-1957) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
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referencedIn General Records of the Department of State. 1763 - 2002. Bilateral Political Relations Subject Files
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creatorOf General Records of the Department of Justice. 1790 - 2002. Records Relating to the Investigation of Alger Hiss. 1948 - 1951. Telegram from Ambassador William C. Bullitt Regarding the Sino-Japanese War
referencedIn John Henry Bradley Storrs papers, 1837-1996, bulk 1900-1956 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Max Schur Papers, 1923-1974 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1884-1983, 1920-1960 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Pace, Robert S.,. Papers of Robert S. Pace [manuscript], 1669-1993 (bulk 1830-1965). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Henderson, Loy W. (Loy Wesley), 1892-1986. Papers, 1918-1978 (bulk 1938-1957). Library of Congress
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referencedIn Sherry Mangan papers, 1923-1961. Houghton Library.
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referencedIn Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood papers, 1867-1974 The New York Public Library. Billy Rose Theatre Division.
referencedIn John Reed papers, 1903-1967. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Moore, R. Walton (Robert Walton), 1859-1941. Papers, 1922-1941. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company correspondence, 1881-1981 (inclusive), 1940-1979 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn "March of Time" Collection. 1934 - 1951. March of Time Documentary/Newsreel Films Relating to U.S. History, Government, Politics, Culture, and International Affairs. 1935 - 1953. CHINA FIGHTS BACK! United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Paramount Pictures, Inc., Collection. 1951 - 1951. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1941 - 3/1957. PARAMOUNT NEWS [JULY 22]
referencedIn John Phillips Marquand correspondence, 1892-1960. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Stokes, Anson Phelps, 1874-1958. Anson Phelps Stokes family papers, 1761-1960 (inclusive), 1892-1958 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. Joseph Barnes papers, 1907-1970, 1923-1970. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Angier Biddle Duke Papers, 1923-1990s and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Edward Mandell House papers, 1885-2007, 1885-1938 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Bullitt, William C. (William Christian), 1891-1967. William C. Bullitt letter, 1939 Aug. 27. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Letters and documents. Hollins University, Wyndham Robertson Library
referencedIn John Flournoy Montgomery papers, 1933-1939 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Henry Robinson Luce Papers, 1917-1967, (bulk 1945-1967) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Longines Wittnauer Watch Company, Inc. Collection. 1951 - 1955. Motion Picture Films of Television Interviews With Significant Newsmakers of the Early 1950s. 1951 - 1955. LONGINES CHRONOSCOPE [WITH WILLIAM C. BULLITT]
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Antheil, George, 1900-1959. person
associatedWith Audenreid, Charles Y. person
associatedWith Barber, John, 1893-1965. person
associatedWith Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. person
associatedWith Bergman, Alfred Nathan, 1898- person
associatedWith Biddle, Anthony Joseph Drexel, 1896-1961. person
associatedWith Biddle, Francis, 1886-1968. person
associatedWith Biddle, George, 1885- person
associatedWith Blum, Léon, 1872-1950. person
associatedWith Blum, Suzanne, 1898- person
associatedWith Braun, Leopold. person
associatedWith Bridges, Styles, 1898-1961. person
associatedWith Bryant, Louise, 1885-1936. person
associatedWith Bullitt, Aimée Ernesta Drinker. person
associatedWith Bullitt, Anne Moen. person
associatedWith Bullitt family. family
associatedWith Bullitt family. family
associatedWith Chamberlain, William Henry, 1855- person
associatedWith Chiang, Kai-shek, 1887-1975. person
associatedWith Chiang, May-ling Soong, 1897-2003. person
associatedWith Cudahy, John, b. 1887. person
associatedWith Daladier, Edouard, 1884-1970. person
associatedWith Day, Clive, 1871-1951. person
associatedWith Delano, William Adams, 1874-1960. person
associatedWith Depew, Chauncey M. (Chauncey Mitchell), 1834-1928. person
associatedWith Dodd, William Edward, 1869-1940. person
correspondedWith Doris Stevens person
associatedWith Duke, Angier Biddle, 1915-1995 person
associatedWith Earle, George H. (George Howard), 1856-1928. person
associatedWith Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969. person
associatedWith Farley, James Aloysius, 1888- person
associatedWith Ferry, Elinor person
associatedWith France combattante. Armée. corporateBody
associatedWith Frankfurter, Felix, 1882-1965. person
associatedWith Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. person
associatedWith Grew, Joseph C. (Joseph Clark), 1880-1965. person
associatedWith Hapgood, Elizabeth Reynolds person
associatedWith Hapgood, Elizabeth Reynolds. person
associatedWith Harriman, W. Averell (William Averell), 1891-1986. person
associatedWith Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943. person
associatedWith Henderson, Loy W. (Loy Wesley), 1892-1986. person
associatedWith Henry Ford Peace Expedition (1915-1916) corporateBody
associatedWith Hillenkoetter, Roscoe Henry, 1897-1982. person
associatedWith Hornbeck, Stanley Kuhl, 1883-1966. person
associatedWith Houghton Mifflin Company. corporateBody
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associatedWith Keiser, Laurence B. person
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associatedWith Kennedy, Sinclair, 1985-1947 person
associatedWith Kirk, Alexander C. person
associatedWith Knox, Frank, 1874-1944. person
associatedWith Kohlberg, Alfred, 1887-1960. person
associatedWith Koo, V. K. Wellington, 1888-1985. person
associatedWith Lamont, Corliss, 1902- person
associatedWith Lane, Arthur Bliss, 1894-1956. person
associatedWith Lattre, Jean de, 1889-1952. person
associatedWith LeHand Marguerite A. person
associatedWith Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974. person
associatedWith Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974. person
associatedWith Litvinov, M. M. (Maksim Maksimovich), 1876-1951. person
associatedWith Lodge, Henry Cabot, 1902-1985. person
associatedWith Lovett, Robert A. (Robert Abercrombie), 1895- person
correspondedWith Luce, Henry Robinson, 1898-1967. person
associatedWith MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982. person
correspondedWith Mangan, Sherry, 1904- person
correspondedWith Marquand, John P. (John Phillips), 1893-1960 person
associatedWith Matthews, H. Freeman, 1899- person
associatedWith Messersmith, George S., (George Strausser), 1883-1960 person
associatedWith Meyer, Annie Nathan, 1867-1951. person
associatedWith Monetary and Economic Conference (1933 : London, England) corporateBody
associatedWith Monnet, Jean, 1888- person
associatedWith Montgomery, John Flournoy, 1878-1954. person
associatedWith Moore, R. Walton (Robert Walton), 1859-1941. person
associatedWith Morgenthau, Henry, 1891-1967. person
associatedWith Murphy, Gerald, 1888-1964. person
associatedWith Murphy, Robert D. (Robert Daniel), 1894- person
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
associatedWith Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994. person
associatedWith Offie, Carmel. person
associatedWith Pace, Robert S., person
associatedWith Paris Peace Conference (1919-1920) corporateBody
associatedWith Phillips, William, 1878-1968. person
associatedWith Polk, Frank L. (Frank Lyon), 1871-1943. person
associatedWith Reed, John, 1887-1920 person
associatedWith Rhee, Syngman, 1875-1965. person
associatedWith Robinson, Elmer E., 1894-1982. person
correspondedWith Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945 person
associatedWith Schur, Max. person
associatedWith Schur, Max. person
associatedWith Shen, Sampson C. person
associatedWith Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968. person
associatedWith Souvarine, Boris. person
associatedWith Spellman, Francis, 1889-1967. person
associatedWith Steffens, Lincoln, 1866-1936. person
associatedWith Stimson, Henry L. (Henry Lewis), 1867-1950. person
associatedWith Stokes, Anson Phelps, 1874-1958. person
associatedWith Storrs, John Henry Bradley, 1885-1956. person
associatedWith Straus, Jesse Isidor. person
associatedWith Streit, Clarence K. (Clarence Kirshman), 1896-1986. person
associatedWith Tuck, S. Pinkney (Somerville Pinkney), 1891-1967. person
associatedWith United States. Dept. of State. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Embassy (Soviet Union). corporateBody
associatedWith Vardaman, James Kimble, 1861-1930. person
associatedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949. person
associatedWith Wallace, DeWitt, 1889-1981. person
associatedWith Walworth, Arthur, 1903- person
associatedWith Walworth, Arthur Clarence, 1844-1920. person
associatedWith Ward, Angus. person
associatedWith Wedemeyer, Albert C. (Albert Coady), 1896- person
associatedWith Welles, Sumner, 1892-1961. person
correspondedWith White, Henry, 1850-1927. person
associatedWith White, Thomas D. (Thomas Dresser), 1901-1965 person
associatedWith Wiley, John C. (John Cooper), 1893-1967. person
associatedWith Wilson, Edwin, C. person
associatedWith Wilson, Hugh Robert, 1885-1946. person
associatedWith Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Vietnam
Paris (France)
United States
Germany
Soviet Union
Korea
United States
Taiwan
Philadelphia (Pa.)
France
Subject
Spies
World War, 1939-1945
Diplomatic and consular service, American
Jewish refugees
Anti-communist movements
Diplomats
World War, 1914-1918
Nazis
World War, 1939-1945--Diplomatic history
World War, 1914-1918--Peace
European federation
Occupation
Diplomats
Function

Person

Birth 1891-01-25

Death 1967-02-15

Americans

English

Information

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