Billikopf, Jacob, 1883-1950

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Leader in Jewish philanthropy, social legislation, and labor management relations; b. in Russia; emigrated to the U.S. in 1896.

From the description of Papers, 1900-1951. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70958905

Leader in Jewish philanthropy, social legislation, and labor management relations; b. in Russia; emigrated to the U.S. in 1896. He died in Philadelphia, Pa.

From the description of Jacob Billikopf will, 1950 Dec. 31. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 717484933

Jacob Billikopf (Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1903) was a prominent figure in Jewish social work, an arbitrator and mediator.

Billikopf served as superintendent of the United Jewish Charities in Milwaukee and Kansas City; as executive director of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies in Philadelphia; as impartial chairman in the New York men's clothing industry; as chairman of the National Labor Board for the Philadelphia region during the 1930's; and as chairman of the ladies' garment industry in Philadelphia. He was an important member of the boards of the New School for Social Research and of Howard University, and was a vice-president of the American Association for Social Security, among numerous other public service activities.

From the description of Jacob Billikopf arbitration awards for the New York men's clothing industry, 1925-1927. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63891041

Jacob Billikopf was born the first of June, 1883, in Wilna, Russia. After coming to the United States, he attended the University of Chicago, and, upon graduation, began a career in public service work. He served as superintendent of the United Jewish Charities in Milwaukee and in Kansas City; Executive Director of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies in Philadelphia; Impartial Chairman in the New York men's clothing industry; Chairman of the National Labor Board for the Philadelphia region during the New Deal; Chairman of the ladies' garment industry in Philadelphia. He was a member of the boards of the Hew School for Social Research, and of Howard University. He died on the last day of December, 1950. (N.Y. Times obituary 1 Jan. 1951)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America was organized in December 1914, after the militant New York City locals of the United Garment Workers of America had been denied representation at that body's October convention. Although the purposes of the Union were expressed by its Constitution in terms of class struggle and worker solidarity, ACWA leaders instituted a program of union-management cooperation based upon the experiences of the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union with the Protocols of 1910-13, and the UGW locals in New York and Chicago with the establishment of permanent arbitration machinery during the same period.

A prototype of subsequent agreements in the men's clothing industry may be found in the Chicago Hart, Schaffner & Marx agreements of 1911-1913, since they involved the Union and a single manufacturer, rather than the Union and the associated manufacturers of a particular geographical area, as was the case in the ladies' garment industry. These agreements, however, differed from the majority of Amalgamated Clothing Workers' agreements in following the Protocol's model of grievance machinery: "Clerks" for the workers and the employer attempted to settle disputes on the shop level. In cases of disagreement, the matter went to a "Board of Trade" (Board of Grievances) composed of equal numbers of representing both sides, but with an impartial chairman. Supreme authority was held by a Board of Arbitration, composed of a representative each of the Union and the manufacturer, and a third person not connected with the industry chosen by the other two.

So complex a system was suitable for the Chicago market, where a few large manufacturers dominated the production of ready-to-wear clothing, or a market in which a strong association of manufacturers might be established. The men's clothing industry in New York City, however, was characterized by intense competition among numerous small manufacturers operating "inside" or "outside" shops, or both. Although several associations existed, their membership determined by type of garment produced (as Boys' Wash Suit Manufacturers' Association), geographical location (as the East Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers' Association), or the type of manufacturing involved (ready-to-wear, special order, or custom tailoring), none was strong enough to represent even a single sub-industry within the market. As a consequence, agreements of the New York locals with associations or with individual manufacturers, from the time of the general strike in the winter of 1912-1913, called for negotiations of grievances by a shop chairman and a representative of the particular employer involved. In case of disagreement, an impartial umpire was to be consulted, either as an individual arbitrator or as an Impartial Chairman of an Arbitration Board. (Short-lived experiments with other methods were made from time to time, as in the agreement of 1915-1916 with the American Clothing Manufacturers' Association, which provided for a "Board of Moderators" composed of three representatives of the Union, three of the Association, and three of the public.)

Although strikes of short duration seemed to have been held before each new agreement was made, in each case the issues involved were wages and hours, or out-of-town contracting, rather than the grievance procedure. The "Impartial Chairman" system has functioned continuously and successfully whenever employers have been willing to bargain with the Amalgamated and to consider seriously its demands. When they have not, as during the 1920-1921 lockout by member firms of the Clothing Manufacturers' Association of New York, the result of a desire to return to a prewar "normalcy", amicable relations between workers and employers has been impossible.

During the summer of 1919, a National Industrial Federation of Clothing Manufacturers was formed by manufacturers in the New York, Chicago, Rochester, and Baltimore markets, in an attempt to create machinery for regulating and stabilizing the entire men's clothing industry. Such a plan was not to be successful until the Federal Government interfered to form the Men's Clothing Code Authority under the National Recovery Administration in 1933. When the National Industrial Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional in May, 1935, however, the cooperative Code Authority was dissolved, and conditions in the industry reverted to those of 1932.

From the guide to the Jacob Billikopf. Arbitration awards, 1925-1927., (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn George S. Messersmith papers, 1907-1955 University of Delaware Library - Special Collections
referencedIn Berkowitz, Henry, 1857-1924. Papers, 1875-1923. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Feldman, Abraham J. (Abraham Jehiel), 1893-1977. Papers, 1906-1977. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Johnson, Alvin Saunders, 1874-. Alvin Saunders Johnson papers, 1902-1969 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Papers, 1918-1993 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn David A. Brown Papers., 1894-1959., 1930-1936. The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
creatorOf Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949. Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1856-1949. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Papers, 1894-1960 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Morris S. Lazaron Papers., 1851-1979, 1930-1950 The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
creatorOf Glueck, Sheldon, 1896-1980. Papers, 1916-1972. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
referencedIn Passamaneck, Herman, 1889-1984. Papers, 1917-1966 American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966. Margaret H. Sanger correspondence, 1929-1934. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Lessing J. Rosenwald Papers, 1891-1979, (bulk 1932-1979) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Taft, Charles P. (Charles Phelps), 1897-1983. Papers, 1816-1983 (bulk 1937-1979). Library of Congress
referencedIn Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964. John Haynes Holmes letter, 1929 Dec. 3. American Jewish Archives
creatorOf Billikopf, Jacob, 1883-1950. Jacob Billikopf will, 1950 Dec. 31. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Papers, 1894-1960 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Hyman G. Enelow Papers., 1897-1933. The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Oko, Adolph S. (Adolph Sigmund), 1883-1944. Adolph Oko-Gebhardt correspondence, [ca. 1905]-1941. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Jacob Billikopf. Arbitration awards, 1925-1927. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn L. C. Dunn Papers, ca. 1920-1974 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Billikopf, Jacob, 1883-1950. Jacob Billikopf arbitration awards for the New York men's clothing industry, 1925-1927. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Cohen, Felix S., 1907-1953. Felix S. Cohen papers, 1916-1992. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Louis Broido papers, undated, 1922-1976 American Jewish Historical Society Archives
referencedIn Charles P. Taft Papers, 1816-1983, (bulk 1937-1979) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Papers, 1840-1961. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Billikopf, Jacob, 1883-1950. Papers, 1900-1951. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Warburg, Felix M. (Felix Moritz), 1871-1937. Papers, 1895-1937. American Jewish Archives
creatorOf Billikopf, Jacob, 1883-1950. Correspondence with Johan Thorsten Sellin, 1931. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Papers, 1916-1972 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Waldman, Morris D. (Morris David), b. 1879. Papers, 1912-1963. American Jewish Archives
creatorOf Hull, William Isaac, 1868-1939. Papers, 1892-1939. Swarthmore College, FRIENDS HIST LIBR
referencedIn H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings papers, ca. 1893-1947, Circa 1893-1947 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Taft, Charles P. (Charles Phelps), 1897-1983. Papers of Charles P. Taft, 1816-1983 (bulk 1937-1979). Library of Congress
referencedIn Felix S. Cohen papers, 1916-1992 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Alvin Saunders Johnson papers, 1902-1969 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Papers, 1927-1969 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
correspondedWith Acheson, Dean, 1893-1971 person
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. corporateBody
correspondedWith Baruch, Bernard M. (Bernard Mannes), 1870-1965 person
associatedWith Berkowitz, Henry, 1857-1924. person
correspondedWith Berle, A. A. (Adolf Augustus), 1866-1960 person
associatedWith Broido, Louis person
correspondedWith Brown, David Abraham, 1875-1958 person
associatedWith Cohen, Felix S., 1907-1953. person
correspondedWith Dubinsky, David, 1892-1982 person
associatedWith Dunn, L. C., (Leslie Clarence), 1893-1974 person
correspondedWith Du Pont, Irénée, 1876-1963 person
correspondedWith Enelow, Hyman Gerson person
correspondedWith Feldman, Abraham J. (Abraham Jehiel), 1893-1977. person
correspondedWith Freehof, Solomon Bennett, 1892-1990 person
associatedWith Glueck, Sheldon, 1896-1980. person
correspondedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
associatedWith Hart, Henry Melvin. person
correspondedWith Haskell, Henry Joseph, 1874-1952 person
correspondedWith Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Hudson, Manley Ottmer, 1886- person
associatedWith Hull, William Isaac, 1868-1939. person
associatedWith Jennings, H. S., (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947 person
associatedWith Johnson, Alvin Saunders, 1874- person
correspondedWith Kallen, Horace Meyer, 1882-1974 person
correspondedWith Lazaron, Morris Samuel person
correspondedWith Magnes, Judah Leon, 1877-1948 person
associatedWith Messersmith, George S., (George Strausser), 1883-1960 person
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
associatedWith Oko, Adolph S. (Adolph Sigmund), 1883-1944. person
correspondedWith Passamaneck, Herman, 1889-1984. person
associatedWith Paul A. Freund person
correspondedWith Rosenwald, Lessing J. (Lessing Julius), 1891-1979 person
correspondedWith Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966. person
correspondedWith Silver, Abba Hillel, 1893-1963 person
associatedWith Taft, Charles P. (Charles Phelps), 1897-1983. person
correspondedWith Taft, Charles Phelps, 1843-1929 person
associatedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949. person
correspondedWith Wagner, Robert F. (Robert Ferdinand), 1877-1953 person
correspondedWith Waldman, Morris D. (Morris David), b. 1879 person
correspondedWith Warburg, Felix M. (Felix Moritz), 1871-1937. person
correspondedWith Weizmann, Chaim, 1874-1952 person
correspondedWith Wise, Stephen S. (Stephen Samuel), 1874-1949 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Palestine
United States
New York (N.Y.)
Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
Subject
Fund raising
Refugees
Antisemitism
Social problems
Arbitration, Industrial--Cases
Clothing workers
Arbitration, Industrial--New York (State)--New York--Cases
Emigration and immigration
Jews
Zionism
Arbitrators, Industrial
Industrial relations
Occupation
Social reformers--United States
Philanthropists--United States
Fund raisers (Persons)--United States
Clothing workers
Function

Person

Birth 1883-06-01

Death 1950-12-31

Information

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