American federation of teachers

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Joyce Wheeler was a member of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a national teachers' labor union founded in 1900. She was particularly active in the United Action Caucus (UAC), a rank and file organization within the AFT. The UAC took stands on various issues within the American educational system, supported progressive politics in general, and campaigned for internal democracy within the AFT. Members of the Communist Party USA are thought to have played an important role in the UAC. Wheeler was also a participant in the Baltimore Teachers Union (BTU), AFT and in BTU's Teacher Unity Caucus.

From the guide to the Joyce Wheeler American Federation of Teachers Papers, circa 1980-1999, (Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive)

With the formation of the AFT in 1916, teacher unionism spurted forward. In its first four years the AFT claimed 174 locals and approximately 9,000 members, but this growth was short-lived.

World War I brought increased calls for budget austerity, and teachers suffered with the rest of labor in the anti-union and red scare campaigns of the 1920s. However, by the 1930s, AFT organizing moved forward again with increased membership in urban areas which coincided with general labor union growth in the cities. The AFT launched a drive to improve academic freedom that resulted in a passage of limited teacher tenure laws in 17 states. The growing Communist influence within the AFT in the 1930s caused a crisis for teachers torn between a philosophy of academic freedom and those seeking political respectability. In 1941, the AFT expelled two New York City locals and the Philadelphia union as Communist-dominated.

During World War II, AFT locals in some cities won contracts through the collective bargaining process. In the postwar period the AFT continued to emphasize the need for collective bargaining, and by 1946, the St. Paul, Minnesota, AFL local struck for six weeks. It was the first strike by an AFT local and marked the beginning of a wave of teacher militancy in the postwar period. In the 1950s, teacher discontent increased as wages in private employment continued to outpace teacher salaries. The pivotal battle for collective bargaining in education began in New York City. Albert Shanker and David Selden brought about a merger of the fragmented New York locals in 1960 under the title of United Federation of Teachers. In 1960, the UFT won bargaining rights, and after a short strike in 1962, concluded a contract with the board of education. The UFT victory in New York moved it into a dominant position within the AFT. In 1963 the AFT national convention repealed its no-strike policy.

In the 1960s and 1970s, organized labor continued to place emphasis on organizing white-collar workers. Attempts to effect a national merger of the AFT and the NEA collapsed over the issue of AFL-CIO affiliation. Although NEA membership still exceeds that of the AFT, the federation bargains for a total of over a half-million teachers with members in nearly every major American city.

From the description of Oral histories, 1986-1987. (New York University). WorldCat record id: 477232483

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Elliot S. Wolk Papers., 1961-1985. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Center.
referencedIn Wheeler, Mary. Mary Wheeler papers, 1938-1967. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf Adell, James C. (James Claude), 1887-1971. Papers, 1916-1957. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
referencedIn Summers, Clyde W. Summers, Clyde. Office files, 1940-2004. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Eisenberg, Frances R., 1905-. Collection of material about the Los Angeles city schools loyalty oath controversy, ca. 1946-1958. University of California, Los Angeles
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creatorOf American Federation of Teachers. Local 716 (Cedar Rapids, Iowa). American Federation of Teachers Local 716 records, 1946-1988. Iowa State Historical Society
creatorOf American Federation of Teachers. American Federation of Teachers records, 1916-1980. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn American Federation of Teachers. Local 28. American Federation of Teachers Local 28 records, 1898-1970. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Alan McSurely Papers, 1928-1985 (bulk 1960s-1980s) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection
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creatorOf American Federation of Teachers. Oral histories, 1986-1987. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Wisconsin Federation of Teachers. Records, 1936-1998. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Davis, Jerome, 1891-1979. Papers, 1912-1965. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Roth, Herrick S., 1916-. Herrick S. Roth papers, 1948-1970, (bulk 1961-1970). Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Greater Hartford Labor Council, AFL-CIO Records., undated, 1947-1982. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.
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creatorOf Graff, Rebecca S. Oral history interview with Antonio H. and Beverley Calvo, 12 October 2004. California State University, Northridge
creatorOf Joyce Wheeler American Federation of Teachers Papers, circa 1980-1999 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn University of Pittsburgh. United Faculty. United Faculty and Pitt Professional Union records, 1970-1995 University of Pittsburgh
referencedIn American Federation of Teachers. Local 1295. American Federation of Teachers Local 1295 records, 1957-1974. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Mills, Jewell, 1925-. Jewell Mills papers, 1962-1968. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf American Federation of Teachers. [Constitutions, agreements, etc.] Wisconsin Historical Society
referencedIn American Federation of Teachers. State Federations. American Federation of Teachers State Federations records, 1922-1967, (bulk 1945-1967). Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Hiscox, Harvey B. Harvey B. Hiscox papers, 1968-1984, (bulk 1974-1984). Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
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referencedIn Charles James Hendley Papers, Bulk, 1930-1960, 1914-1962 (bulk 1930-1960) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Doxey A. Wilkerson papers, 1927-1993, 1950's-1980's The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn University of Connecticut, Labor Education Center Records., undated, 1948-1970. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.
referencedIn American Federation of Teachers. Local 250. American Federation of Teachers Local 250 records, 1933-1968. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Wilkerson, Doxey Alphonso, 1905-1993. Doxey A. Wilkerson papers, 1927-1993 (bulk 1950's-1980's) New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Israel Kugler Papers, 1951-2007 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Benjamin Evans Lippincott papers, 1929-1946 University of Minnesota Libraries. University Archives [uarc]
referencedIn Horace Mann Bond Papers MS 411., 1830-1979, 1926-1972 Special Collections and University Archives, UMass Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Earl Browder Papers, 1879-1990 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
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referencedIn United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Special Subcommittee. Hearings. Transcript, 1948., 1948 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University.
referencedIn Colby, Josephine. Papers, 1912-1933, 1922-1933 (bulk). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Mississippi AFL-CIO. Mississippi AFL-CIO affiliated unions files, 1957-1983 (bulk 1957-1978). Georgia State University
referencedIn Link, Eugene P., 1907-. Eugene P. Link papers, 1907-1993. University at Albany, University Libraries
referencedIn Guide to the Sol Stetin Papers, 1935-1992, bulk 1972-1989 Rutgers University Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Herstein, Lillian,. Oral history interview with Lillian Herstein, 1970-1971. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Connecticut State Labor Council, AFL-CIO Records, undated, 1909-1991. Archives and Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries
referencedIn Don Eklund papers, 1851-1990, 1973-1990 Western Washington University Heritage Resources
referencedIn Eklund, John M. (John Manly), 1909-. Papers, 1945-1953. Wayne State University
referencedIn National Education Association of New York. NEA/NY Audio-Visual Materials. 1989-1995. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Megel, Carl J., 1899-. Carl J. Megel papers, 1914-1993. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Lulkin, Sheli. Sheli Lulkin papers, 1962-1979. University of Illinois at Chicago Library, UIC
referencedIn United Federation of Teachers Photographs, Part I: Photographic Prints, Bulk, 1970-1979, 1928-1987, (Bulk 1970s) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Harvard Teachers Union. Records of the Harvard Teachers Union, 1935-1949. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Nelson, Mercedes, 1900-. Papers, 1935-1971. Wayne State University
referencedIn Inter-University Labor Education Committee. Series 3, Subseries 3. Files of the Syracuse, N.Y. project, 1952-1954. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Bierman, A, K. (Arthur Kalmer), 1923-. Arthur K. Bierman Papers, 1959-1969. San Francisco State University Library, J Paul Leonard Library
referencedIn Anne Filardo Papers on Rank and File Activism in the American Federation of Teachers and in the United Federation of Teachers, Bulk, 1970-1989, 1964-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn University of Connecticut, Office of Public Information Records, undated, 1918-2000. Archives and Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries
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creatorOf Jones, Paul, 1911-. Oral history interview with Paul Jones and Howard McKnight in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1979 Oct. 26 [microform] / conducted by Gregory R. Zieren. Iowa State Historical Society
referencedIn Frances R. Eisenberg Los Angeles City Schools Loyalty Oath Collection, ca. 1946-1958 University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections.
referencedIn Loewenthal, Alfred Max, 1916-1980. Alfred Max Loewenthal papers, 1886-1980. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Richard, Zeline,. Oral history interview with Zeline Richard, 1969. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Lewis, Arthur O. (Arthur Orcutt). Arthur O. Lewis papers. [archival material]. 1954-1963. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Tamiment Library Newspapers, Bulk, 1960-1990, 1873-, (Bulk 1960-1990) Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Lauritsen, Frederick M. Papers, 1969-1982, bulk 1980-1982. Eastern Washington University, JFK Library
referencedIn Left Labor Caucuses Collection, 1966-1995 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Miles, Isadore, Mrs. Mrs. Isadore Miles papers, 1958-1961. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn New York State United Teachers. New York State United Teachers. Vice President's Office files. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Lefkowitz, Abraham, 1884-1956. Abraham Lefkowitz papers, 1934-1966, (bulk 1934-1955). Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
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creatorOf Lippincott, Benjamin E. (Benjamin Evans), 1902-. Benjamin E. Lippincott papers, 1929-1946. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
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referencedIn Atlanta Education Association. Atlanta Education Association records, 1905-1971. Georgia State University
referencedIn Merlin D. Bishop Papers., undated, 1924-1975. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adell, James C. (James Claude), 1887-1971. person
associatedWith Affiliated Teachers Organizations of Los Angeles (ATOLA) corporateBody
associatedWith AFL-CIO Connecticut State Labor Council. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Executive Council. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 1295. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 2067 (Pittsburgh, Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 250. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 28. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 29. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 3605. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 61. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Local 716 (Cedar Rapids, Iowa) corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. National Defense Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. Secretary-Treasurer's Office. corporateBody
associatedWith American Federation of Teachers. State Federations. corporateBody
associatedWith Atlanta Education Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Barker, Mary Cornelia, 1879-1963. person
associatedWith Beck, Audrey Phillips, 1931-1983 person
associatedWith Becker, Henry T., 1917- person
associatedWith Berg, Marvin. person
associatedWith Bierman, A, K. (Arthur Kalmer), 1923- person
associatedWith Bishop, Merlin D. person
associatedWith Bond, Horace Mann, 1904-1972 person
associatedWith Browder, Earl, 1891-1973 person
associatedWith California Federation of Teachers. corporateBody
associatedWith Chicago Teachers' Federation corporateBody
associatedWith Cogen, Charles, 1903- person
associatedWith Cohen, Ronald. person
associatedWith Colby, Josephine. person
associatedWith Davis, Jerome, 1891-1979. person
associatedWith Eisenberg, Frances R., 1905- person
associatedWith Eklund, Don person
associatedWith Eklund, John M. (John Manly), 1909- person
associatedWith Elsila, Dave. person
associatedWith Faulkner, Joseph Kaye person
associatedWith Feinberg, I. Robert (Irving Robert), 1912-1975. person
associatedWith Filardo, Anne Levine, 1922-2010 person
associatedWith Giaimo, Robert N. person
associatedWith Glueck, Sheldon, 1896- person
associatedWith Greater Hartford Labor Council. corporateBody
associatedWith Hanson, Norman, 1919- person
associatedWith Harvard Teachers Union. corporateBody
associatedWith Hendley, Charles J. person
associatedWith Herrick, Mary J. (Mary Josephine), 1895- person
associatedWith Herstein, Lillian, person
associatedWith Hiscox, Harvey B. person
associatedWith Illinois Labor History Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Inter-University Labor Education Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Inter-University Labor Education Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Inter-University Labor Education Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Jones, Paul, 1911- person
associatedWith Kugler, Israel, 1917-2007 person
associatedWith Lane, Layle, 1893-1976. person
associatedWith Lauritsen, Frederick M. person
associatedWith Lefkowitz, Abraham, 1884-1956. person
associatedWith Lewis, Arthur O. (Arthur Orcutt) person
associatedWith Link, Eugene P., 1907- person
associatedWith Linville, Henry R. (Henry Richardson), 1866-1941. person
associatedWith Lippincott, Benjamin E. (Benjamin Evans), 1902- person
associatedWith Loewenthal, Alfred Max, 1916-1980. person
associatedWith Lulkin, Sheli. person
associatedWith Marx, Guido H. (Guido Hugo), b. 1871. person
associatedWith Mason, Gabriel R. person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
associatedWith McSurely, Alan, 1936- person
associatedWith Megel, Carl J., 1899- person
associatedWith Meier, Deborah person
associatedWith Metz, William D. person
correspondedWith Miles, Isadore, Mrs. person
correspondedWith Mills, Jewell, 1925- person
associatedWith Mississippi AFL-CIO. corporateBody
associatedWith National Education Association of New York. corporateBody
associatedWith National Education Association of the United States. corporateBody
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith Nelson, Mercedes, 1900- person
associatedWith New York State United Teachers. corporateBody
associatedWith North Carolina Federation of Teachers. corporateBody
associatedWith Ohio Federation of Teachers. corporateBody
associatedWith Parrish, Richard F. (Richard Franklin), 1914-1983. person
associatedWith Project on the Status and Education of Women (Association of American Colleges) person
associatedWith Prometheus Research Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Rea, Jay W. person
associatedWith Reiss, Sam. person
associatedWith Richard, Zeline, person
associatedWith Roth, Herrick S., 1916- person
correspondedWith Sakharov, Andreĭ, 1921-1989 person
associatedWith Selden, David. person
associatedWith Shanker, ALbert. person
associatedWith Social Democrats, USA corporateBody
associatedWith Stetin, Sol person
associatedWith St. Louis Teachers Union (Saint Louis, Mo.) corporateBody
associatedWith Summers, Clyde W. person
associatedWith Tamiment Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Teachers Action Caucus (United Federation of Teachers). corporateBody
associatedWith Teachers Committee for Peace in Vietnam. corporateBody
associatedWith Union of Professional Employees (University of Illinois) corporateBody
associatedWith United Action Caucus (American Federation of Teachers). corporateBody
associatedWith United Faculty of Florida. corporateBody
associatedWith United Federation of Teachers. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Special Subcommittee To Investigate Teachers Union, Local No. 555, United Public Workers of America, CIO. corporateBody
associatedWith United Teachers Los Angeles. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Connecticut. Labor Education Center. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Connecticut. Office of Public Infomation corporateBody
associatedWith University of Kansas. Libraries. University Archives. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pittsburgh. United Faculty. corporateBody
associatedWith Vermont State Colleges Faculty Federation. corporateBody
associatedWith Wayne State University. Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith Wheeler, Joyce person
associatedWith Wheeler, Mary. person
associatedWith Wilkerson, Doxey Alphonso, 1905-1993. person
associatedWith Wisconsin Federation of Teachers. corporateBody
associatedWith Wolk, Elliot S. person
associatedWith Workers Education Local 189 (U.S.) corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
United States
Michigan
Baltimore (Md.)
United States
Subject
Race relations
Education
Education--Societies, etc
White collar workers--Labor unions
Education--United States
Teachers' unions--United States
Civil rights
Educational law and legislation
Sex discrimination in education
Labor union democracy--United States
Archival resources
Universities and colleges
Labor unions and education
Labor unions--Organizing
Teachers' unions
Teachers' unions--Officials and employees--Interviews
Collective bargaining--Teachers
Labor laws and legislation
Education--Aims and objectives
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1929

Active 1946

Information

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