Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America

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From the description of ACWA's Sidney Hillman Foundation Records. 1955-1974. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 520925303

From the description of ACTWU's National Textile Recruitment and Training Program Records. 1975-1981. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 520924922

Sidney Hillman, labor organizer, leader, and president, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

Sidney Hillman was born in Russian-controlled Lithuania in 1887. He studied to be a rabbi until the age of 15. While working in a chemical laboratory in Kovno, Russia, he was arrested for labor agitation and jailed for eight months. Upon release, he fled to England, and in 1907 emigrated to the United States. He settled in Chicago, where he found work as a garment cutter.

Hillman became a member of the United Garment Workers and was actively involved in labor activities. He participated in the strike against Hart, Schaffner & Marx in Chicago in 1910, eventually becoming the strike's leader. He moved to New York City and became chief clerk of the New York Cloakmakers' Union in 1914. That same year, disenchantment with the leadership of the United Garment Workers (UGW) led to the formation of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union (ACWA). With the support of Bessie Abramowitz, his future wife and a leader of the breakaway UGW faction, Hillman became the new union's president.

Under Hillman's leadership, the ACWA experienced rapid growth, due to an aggressive organizing campaign in the U.S. and Canada. By the end of the 1920s, the ACWA had 100,000 members and contracts with most of the major clothing manufacturers. But the stock market crash in 1929 and the ensuing depression decimated the union. By the early 1930s, membership had dropped by 75% as unemployment soared.

The election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 ushered in a new era for Hillman and the ACWA. Roosevelt's New Deal policies, along with Hillman's leadership, helped union membership to grow to 150,000 by the end of the 1930s. During the Rossevelt administration, Hillman became an important advisor on labor and economic issues and a figure of national significance. He served on the Labor Advisory Board of the NRA, and later was named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which helped to mobilize the economy for the war effort. He was also a member of the National Defense Advisory Committee and the War Production Board. Hillman played an important role in the formation of the CIO, serving as its first vice-president and chairman of its Textile Workers Organizing Committee. He died of a heart attack in July 1946.

From the description of Sidney Hillman correspondence, 1911-1929, 1914-1929 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 64755356

Sidney Hillman, labor organizer, leader, and president, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

Sidney Hillman was born in Russian-controlled Lithuania in 1887. As a youth, he was arrested for labor agitation and jailed for eight months. Upon release, he fled to England, and in 1907 emigrated to the United States. He settled in Chicago, where he found work as a garment cutter.

Hillman became a member of the United Garment Workers and was actively involved in labor activities. He participated in the strike against Hart, Schaffner & Marx in Chicago in 1910, eventually becoming the strike's leader. He moved to New York City and became chief clerk of the New York Cloakmakers' Union in 1914. That same year, disenchantment with the leadership of the United Garment Workers (UGW) led to the formation of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union (ACWA). With the support of Bessie Abramowitz - his future wife and a leader of the breakaway UGW faction - Hillman became the new union's president.

Under Hillman's leadership, the ACWA experienced rapid growth, due to an aggressive organizing campaign in the U.S. and Canada. By the end of the 1920s, the ACWA had 100,000 members and contracts with most of the major clothing manufacturers. But the stock market crash in 1929 and the ensuing depression decimated the union. By the early 1930s, membership had dropped by 75% as unemployment soared.

The election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 ushered in a new era for Hillman and the ACWA. Roosevelt's New Deal policies, along with Hillman's leadership, helped union membership to grow to 150,000 by the end of the 1930s. During the Rossevelt administration, Hillman became an important advisor on labor and economic issues and a figure of national significance. He served on the Labor Advisory Board of the NRA, and later was named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which helped to mobilize the economy for the war effort. He was also a member of the National Defense Advisory Committee and the War Production Board. Hillman played an important role in the formation of the CIO, serving as its first vice-president and chairman of its Textile Workers Organizing Committee. He died of a heart attack in July 1946.

From the description of Sidney Hillman papers, 1930-1946, 1935-1945 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 64755354

Sidney Hillman was president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA), co-founder of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, and founder of organized labor's political action committee in the 1940s. During the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Hillman worked in the National Industrial Recovery Administration, the National Defense Advisory Commission, and the War Production Board.

Bessie Abramowitz Hillman founded the ACWA with her husband, Sidney. She was a leader in the 1911 Hart, Schaffner, and Marx walkout.

From the description of Records of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1910-1970 (inclusive), [microform]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 145079359

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA), the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers.

Under the leadership of Sidney Hillman, the ACWU grew rapidly. By the late 1920s the union had organized over 100,000 members across the United States and Canada. The depression severely thinned its ranks, but by the mid-1930s, the union had regained sufficient organizational strength to become a leading player in the creation of the CIO.

Sidney Hillman became an influential figure in political circles and a key advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. During World War II, Hillman was named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort.

Hillman's death in 1946 was a significant blow to the union. Though the union continued to grow under his successor, Jacob Potofsky, its influence in national political and labor affairs was diminished. In 1976, the union merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. In 1995 the ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union to form the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE).

From the description of Papers of executive officers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1914-1971, 1930-1950 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63893782

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in Chicago in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers.

Under the leadership of Sidney Hillman, the ACWU grew rapidly. By the late 1920s the union had organized over 100,000 members in the major garment industry cities across the United States and Canada. The depression severely thinned its ranks, but by the mid-1930s, the union had regained sufficient organizational strength to become a leading player in the creation of the CIO.

Sidney Hillman became an influential figure in political circles and a key advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues, serving on the board of the National Recovery Administration. During World War II, Hillman was named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort.

Hillman's death in 1946 was a significant blow to the ACWU. Though the union continued to grow under his successor, Jacob Potofsky, its influence in national political and labor affairs was diminished. In 1976, the union merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union; In 1995 the ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union to form the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE).

From the description of Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America joint boards and local union records, 1914-1970, 1914-1950 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63891262

Jacob Potofsky, garment worker, labor organizer and leader, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

Jacob Potofsky was born in Radomisl, Ukraine, in 1894. He emigrated to the United States in 1905 and began working in a Chicago men's clothing factory in 1908. He became active in labor matters and took part in the 1910 strike against Hart, Schaffner and Marx that led to the organization of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA). He served as an official in ACWA Local 144 and on the Chicago Joint Board before moving to New York to work as assistant general secretary-treasurer for the national union.

Potofsky held a number of positions within the ACWA, including assistant president and general secretary-treasurer. He became the union's president in 1946 after the death of Sidney Hillman and served in that position until his retirement in 1972.

From the description of Jacob Potofsky correspondence, 1930-1946, 1930-1940 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63892755

August Bellanca, garment worker, general organizer, and vice-president, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA).

Bellanca was one of the ACWA's founding members and longest-serving executives. In the union's early days, he was the official principally responsible for organizing Italian garment workers, particularly in New York State. In later years he became one of the union's vice-presidents.

From the description of August Bellanca correspondence, 1914-1953, 1925-1950 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63893220

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in Chicago in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers.

Under the leadership of Sidney Hillman, the ACWU grew rapidly. By the late 1920s the union had organized over 100,000 members in the major garment industry cities across the United States and Canada. The depression severely thinned its ranks, but by the mid-1930s, the union had regained sufficient organizational strength to become a leading player in the creation of the CIO.

Sidney Hillman became an influential figure in political circles and a key advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues, serving on the board of the National Recovery Administration. During World War II, Hillman was named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort.

Hillman's death in 1946 was a significant blow to the ACWU. Though the union continued to grow under his successor, Jacob Potofsky, its influence in national political and labor affairs was diminished. In 1976, the union merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union; In 1995 the ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union to form the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE).

From the description of Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America records, 1914-1980, 1920-1950 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 64091559

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Subject Records, 1925-1995, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Cotton Garment Control Department Records, 1955-1978, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACWA's Jacob Potofsky Records from the President's Office, 1941-1977, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACWA's Sidney Hillman Scrapbooks, 1910-1964, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Conventions Records, 1972-1987, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Murray Finley Records from the President's Office, 1970-1987, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Locals Records, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Microfiche Collection of Jacob Sheinkman's Speeches, 1949-1992, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Executive Vice-President's Office Records, 1927-1996, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Secretary-Treasurer's Office Records, 1928-1997, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Collective Bargaining Agreements, 1917-1996, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in Chicago in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers.

Under the leadership of Sidney Hillman, the ACWA grew rapidly. By the late 1920s the union had organized over 100,000 members in the major garment industry cities across the United States and Canada. The depression severely thinned its ranks, but by the mid-1930s, the union had regained sufficient organizational strength to become a leading player in the creation of the CIO.

Sidney Hillman became an influential figure in political circles and a key advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues, serving on the board of the National Recovery Administration. During World War II, Hillman was named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort.

Hillman's death in 1946 was a significant blow to the ACWA. Though the union continued to grow under his successor, Jacob Potofsky, its influence in national political and labor affairs was diminished. In 1976, the union merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union; In 1995 the ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union to form the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE).

From the guide to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America records, 1914-1980, 1920-1950 (bulk), (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Cotton Garment Control Department Memorabilia, 1955-1974, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Research Department's Industrial Union Department Company Records, 1956-1989, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.

Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.

Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.

Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.

Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.

During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

From the guide to the ACTWU's Out-of-Business Contracts, 1937-2000, (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Organizing Department Records. 1960-1995. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Sam Reiss Photographs - Part I: Negatives, Bulk, 1950-1969, 1946-1975, (Bulk 1950-1969) Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
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creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACWA's Rochester Joint Board Audio-Visual Materials. Cornell University Library
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creatorOf ACTWU's Microfiche Collection of Jacob Sheinkman's Speeches, 1949-1992 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACWA's Jacob Potofsky Records from the President's Office. 1941-1977. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Artoni, Gioacchino, 1866-1937. Papers, 1915-1942. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
referencedIn Bardacke, Judy. [Citizens Committee for Justice for Farah Workers : correspondence.] Michigan State University Libraries, Main Library
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creatorOf ACTWU's Out-of-Business Contracts, 1937-2000 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Communications and Public Relations Department. ACTWU's Communication/Public Relations Department Photographs. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACTWU's National Textile Recruitment and Training Program Records. 1975-1981. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Tamiment Library Newspapers, Bulk, 1960-1990, 1873-, (Bulk 1960-1990) Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees. Amalgamated Social Services. ACTWU's Social Services Department Records, 1960-1995. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations (University of Michigan--Wayne State University). Program on Women and Work. Transcripts of oral history project, 1970-1978 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Gertrude W. Klein Papers, Bulk, 1940-1949, circa 1910-1989 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn ACTWU's Education Department Files, 1948-1983 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Locals Records. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Barron, Sarah,. Oral history interview with Sarah Barron, 1976. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf ACTWU's Locals Records Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Lucia, Carmen, 1902-. Oral history interview with Carmen Lucia, 1976. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Hotchkiss, Willard Eugene, 1874-1956. Willard Eugene Hotchkiss arbitration papers, 1917-1945. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Peterson, Esther, 1906-1997. Papers: Series I-IV, 1884-1998 (inclusive), 1929-1998 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Dudley, Tilford, 1907-1990. Reminiscences of Tilford Dudley : oral history, 1977. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. ILGWU. Research Department records, 1945-1995. Cornell University Library
creatorOf ACTWU's Collective Bargaining Agreements, 1917-1996 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. General Exectutive Board. ACTWU's General Executive Board (GEB) Records. 1916-1988. Cornell University Library
creatorOf ACWA's Jacob Potofsky Records from the President's Office, 1941-1977 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACWA's Sidney Hillman Foundation Records, 1955-1974 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Research Department's Industrial Union Department Company Recordss, 1956-1989. Cornell University Library
creatorOf ACTWU's Conventions Records, 1972-1987 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
creatorOf Chicago Federation of Labor and Industrial Union Council. Chicago Federation of Labor records, ca. 1890-1983. Chicago History Museum
referencedIn Maietta, Julia L. (Julia Luigia), 1909-1994. Julia L. Maietta papers, 1937-1981 (bulk 1964-1980) Pennsylvania State University Libraries
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referencedIn Sam Reiss Papers, Bulk, 1950-1975, 1929-1992, (Bulk 1950-1975) Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Urdaneta, Regina, 1920-. Oral history interview with Regina Urdaneta, 1978. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
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referencedIn ACTWU. Presidential Papers (Murray Finley). Correspondence. Microfiche, 1973-1983 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACTWU's Operations Department's Records on the Sidney Hillman Awards, 1947-1999 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACWA's Union Label Department Records, 1931-1975 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Shiplacoff, A. I. (Abraham Isaac), 1877-1946. Papers, 1895-1962 (bulk 1915-1934). Churchill County Museum
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referencedIn Records of the Hart, Schaffner and Marx labor agreement during James H. Tufts's chairmanship of the Chicago Arbitration Board, 1919-1920. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACWA. Hyman Blumberg. Memorabilia. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACWA's Sidney Hillman Foundation Records. 1955-1974. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Research Dept. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Research Department. Files. 1960-1977 Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACWA's Local 284 Records, 1947-1959 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Fredgrant, Sara, 1900-. Oral history interview with Sara Fredgrant, 1978. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACTWU's Rieve-Pollock Foundation Records, 1960-1996. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Casso, Freda. Papers, 1932-1982. 1937-1952 (bulk). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Schwenkmeyer, Frieda, 1901-. Oral history interview with Frieda Schwenkmeyer, 1978. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn ACTWU's Vice-President's Office Records, 1960-1979 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Newman, Pauline,. Oral history interview with Pauline Newman, 1976. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
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referencedIn Maietta, Julia, 1909-. Oral history interview with Julia Maietta, 1976. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Cotton Garment Control Department Records. 1955-1978. Cornell University Library
creatorOf ACTWU's Subject Records, 1925-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America joint boards and local union records, 1914-1970, 1914-1950 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Seager, Henry R. (Henry Rogers), 1870-1930. Correspondence, 1928-1930. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Operations Department's Records on the Sidney Hillman Awards. 1947-1999. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Bellanca, Dorothy. Dorothy Jacobs Bellanca papers, 1914-1946, 1925-1940 (bulk). Cornell University Library
creatorOf ACTWU's Executive Vice-President's Office Records, 1927-1996 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Sidney Hillman papers, 1930-1946, 1935-1945 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACTWU's Social Services Department Records, 1960-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Weinberger, Harry, 1888-. Harry Weinberger papers, 1915-1944 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Barry, Clemmie Shuck,. Clemmie Shuck Barry oral history and papers, 1931-1978 (bulk 1975-1978). California Historical Society
referencedIn McGill, Eula. Eula McGill papers, 1938-1964. Georgia State University
referencedIn Kadish, Jack. Jack Kadish papers, 1942-1966. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Legal Dept. ACTWU's Legal Department Records, 1942-1995. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Brewer, Velma, 1907-. Oral history interview with Velma Brewer in Muscatine, Iowa, 1982 April 07 [microform] / conducted by Merle O. Davis. Iowa State Historical Society
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. Minutes, 1919-1932. Cornell University Library
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creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America strike literature, 1972. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Willard Eugene Hotchkiss arbitration papers, 1917-1945. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Jewish Labor Committee Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Records, 1957-1985. Temple University Libraries, Paley Library
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referencedIn Records of the Hart, Schaffner and Marx labor agreement during James H. Tufts' chairmanship of the Chicago Arbitration Board, 1919-1920. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn ACTWU's Legal Department Records, 1942-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. General Secretary-Treasurer. Joseph Schlossberg correspondence, 1930-1940. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Neal, Fannie, 1919-. Oral history interview with Fannie Neal, 1978. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Murray Finley Records from the President's Office. 1970-1987. Cornell University Library
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creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Jacob Potofsky correspondence, 1930-1946, 1930-1940 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Local 125 Records MS 1., 1928-1984 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Publicity Department. Photographs. General. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Engineering Department Records, 1947-2000. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Peterson, Esther, 1906-1997,. Oral history interview with Esther Peterson, 1977. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Jacob Billikopf. Arbitration awards, 1925-1927. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Board of Arbitration and the Trade Board of Hart, Schaffner & Marx, the Chicago Industrial Federation of Clothing Manufacturers, United Garment Workers and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Decisions, 1913-1925. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Hillman, Bessie. ACWA's Bessie Hillman Papers. 1922-1996. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Fabianski, Alexander. Tailor shop payroll book, 1935-1936. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
referencedIn Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement. Records, 1919-1920 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Women and Work collection, 1978. Yale University Library
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creatorOf ACTWU's Research Department's Industrial Union Department Company Records, 1956-1989 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Communication/Public Relations Department Records. 1951-1985. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Scrapbooks on labor unions in the United States, 1948-1952. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
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creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACTWU's Local 169 Records. 1923-2003. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn C.I.O. Organizing Committee. South Carolina. Papers, 1946-1953. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn ACTWU's Research Department Company Records, 1937-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees. Research Department. Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees. Research Department. Photographs, 1954-1977. Cornell University Library
referencedIn International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU). International Relations Department. Publications. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Office of Corporate and Financial Affairs Records, 1976-1995. Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACTWU's Engineering Department Records, 1947-2000 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Podojil, Antoinette, 1911-. Oral history interview with Antoinette Podojil, 1976. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf Paul, Florence, 1915-. Oral history interview with Florence Paul in Muscatine, Iowa, 1982 April 05 [microform] / conducted by Merle O. Davis. Iowa State Historical Society
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referencedIn Starr, Ellen Gates. Papers 1659-1975 bulk 1850-1970. Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf ACTWU's Cotton Garment Control Department Records, 1955-1978 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. ACWA's Rochester Joint Board Records, 1922-1976. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Valenti, Girolamo, 1892-1958. Papers, 1904-1960. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
referencedIn Draper, Anne, 1917-1973. Anne Draper papers, 1938-1973. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Southern Region. Southern Region records, 1939-1976. Georgia State University
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creatorOf ACTWU's Cotton Garment Control Department Memorabilia, 1955-1974 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Potofsky, Jacob S. (Jacob Samuel), 1894-1979. Reminiscences of Jacob Samuel Potofsky : oral history, 1964. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. August Bellanca correspondence, 1914-1953, 1925-1950 (bulk). Cornell University Library
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referencedIn ACTWU's Research Department Records, 1914-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union Printed Ephemera Collection, 1910-2000 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn ILGWU. Research Department records, 1945-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Sam Reiss Photographs - Part II: Photographic Prints, Bulk, 1950-1975, Circa 1930-1975 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
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referencedIn Organized Labor Awards Banquet Committee. [Organized Labor Awards Banquet Committee records] 1969-2003. Georgia State University
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. ACTWU's Secretary-Treasurer's Office Records. 1928-1997. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Interviews with retirees. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Sidney Hillman correspondence, 1911-1929, 1914-1929 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Grandinetti, Emilio, 1882-1964. Papers, 1910-1960. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
creatorOf ACTWU's Murray Finley Records from the President's Office, 1970-1987 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Women and Work Collection, 1978 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America records, 1914-1980, 1920-1950 (bulk) Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. [Constitutions, agreements, etc.] Wisconsin Historical Society
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf ACWA's Sidney Hillman Scrapbooks, 1910-1964 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Summers, Clyde W. Summers, Clyde. Office files, 1940-2004. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Papers, 1940-1954 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn ACTWU's Office of Corporate and Financial Affairs Records, 1976-1995 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Hollander, Louis, b. 1893. Hollander, Louis. Photographs. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Papers, 1884-1998 (inclusive), 1929-1988 (bulk) Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn ACTWU's Local 169 Records, 1923-2003 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn ILGWU. Alan Howard papers, 1970-1997. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Lambert, George, 1913-1974. George and Latane Lambert papers, 1935-1974. University of Texas at Arlington, Central Library
referencedIn Independent Order of Brith Abraham, Dr. Gaster Lodge, No. 689 - Boston, Massachusetts, records, undated, 1913-1918 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Ellen Gates Starr Papers MS 151., 1659 - 1975, 1850-1970 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Clothing worker union charter certificates from Oregon and Washington [manuscript], 1888-1969. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
creatorOf Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Papers of executive officers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1914-1971, 1930-1950 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn De Leon, Solon, 1883-. Papers, 1900-1975. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Dept. ACTWU Photographs. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Congress of Industrial Organizations (U.S.). Files on the Committee for Industrial Organizations, 1935-1941, bulk 1935-1936. [microform]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Sam Reiss Photographs - Part III: 1975 Retrospective Exhibit, 1948-1975 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
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referencedIn New York (State). Office of the Lieutenant Governor (1928-1932 : Lehman). Records, 1929-1932. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn George and Latane Lambert Papers AR127., 1935-1974 Special Collections, The University of Texas at Arlington Library
referencedIn ACWA's Buttonhole Makers Local 50 Tribute to President Kennedy, 1963 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn ACTWU's Department of Occupational Safety and Health Records, 1934-2001 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Legislative and Political Dept. ACTWU's Legislative and Political Department Records. 1947-1993. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Inter-University Labor Education Committee. Series 3, Subseries 3. Files of the Syracuse, N.Y. project, 1952-1954. Cornell University Library
referencedIn La Capria, Vincent, 1899-ca. 1965. Papers, 1952-1971. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
creatorOf ACTWU's Secretary-Treasurer's Office Records, 1928-1997 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn AFL-CIO. Internal Disputes Plan. Decisions of the Impartial Umpire, 1964-1976. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University.
referencedIn Robinson, Dolly Lowther,. Oral history interview with Dolly Lowther Robinson, 1978. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Hardman, J. B. S. (Jacob Benjamin Salutsky), 1882-1968. Reminiscences of J.B.S. Hardman : oral history, 1962. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
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Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Abt, John J. person
associatedWith Addams, Jane, 1860-1935 person
associatedWith Addes, George F., 1910- person
associatedWith AFL-CIO corporateBody
associatedWith AFL-CIO. person
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associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union. Research Department corporateBody
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associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Research Dept. corporateBody
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associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. corporateBody
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Southern Region. corporateBody
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Twin Cities Joint Board. corporateBody
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associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. corporateBody
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associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Secretary-Treasurer. corporateBody
associatedWith International Textile and Garment Workers' Federation. corporateBody
associatedWith International Union, United Automobile Workers of America (CIO) corporateBody
associatedWith Internationla Ladies' Garment Workers' Union . corporateBody
associatedWith Internationla Ladies' Garment Workers' Union . corporateBody
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associatedWith Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees. Local 169 (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees. Research Department. corporateBody
associatedWith Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees. Research Department. corporateBody
associatedWith Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE) corporateBody
associatedWith UNITE corporateBody
associatedWith United Garment Workers of America. corporateBody
associatedWith United Needeltrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE). Engineering Department. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Commission on Industrial Relations. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Dept. of Labor. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Dept. of Labor. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Dept. of Labor. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Dept. of Labor. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. National Defense Advisory Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. National Labor Relations Board. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. National Recovery Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. National War Labor Board (1918-1919) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Navy corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Occupational Safety and Health corporateBody
associatedWith United States Pipe and Foundry Company corporateBody
associatedWith United States. War Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. War Production Board. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Women's Bureau. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Works Progress Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith United Textile Workers of America. corporateBody
associatedWith UNITE HERE (Organization) corporateBody
associatedWith Urdaneta, Regina, 1920- person
associatedWith Valenti, Girolamo, 1892-1958. person
associatedWith Vladeck, B. 1886-1935. person
associatedWith Vladeck, B. (Baruch Charney), 1886-1935 person
associatedWith Wagner, Robert F. 1877-1953. person
associatedWith Wallace, Henry A. 1888-1965. person
associatedWith Weinberger, Harry, 1888- person
associatedWith Wertheimer, Valentin. person
associatedWith Whirlpool Corporation corporateBody
associatedWith White, Walter Francis, 1893-1955. person
associatedWith William DuChessi person
associatedWith Williams, John E. person
associatedWith Williams, John E. person
associatedWith Williams, John E. (John Elias), 1853-1919. person
associatedWith Wolf, Benjamin H., b. 1909. person
associatedWith Wolf, Herman. person
associatedWith Wolfson, Theresa, 1897-1972. person
associatedWith Woll, Matthew, 1880-1956. person
associatedWith Women's Trade Union League. corporateBody
associatedWith Women's Trade Union League of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Workmen's Circle/Arbeter Ring. corporateBody
associatedWith