Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940

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Lev Davidovich Bronstein[a] (7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940), better known as Leon Trotsky, was a Ukrainian revolutionary, political theorist and politician. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Trotskyism.

Born to a wealthy Ukrainian-Jewish family in Yanovka (now Bereslavka), Trotsky embraced Marxism after moving to Nikolayev in 1896. In 1898, he was arrested for revolutionary activities and subsequently exiled to Siberia. He escaped from Siberia in 1902 and moved to London, where he befriended Vladimir Lenin. During the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party ideological split, he sided with Julius Martov's Mensheviks against Lenin's Bolsheviks. Trotsky helped organize the failed Russian Revolution of 1905, after which he was again arrested and exiled to Siberia. He once again escaped and spent the following years working in Austria, Switzerland, France, Spain and the United States. After the 1917 February Revolution brought an end to the Tsarist monarchy, Trotsky returned to Russia and became a leader of the Bolshevik faction. As chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, he played a key role in the October Revolution which overthrew the new Provisional Government.

Once in government, Trotsky initially held the post of the Commissar for Foreign Affairs and was involved in the Brest-Litovsk negotiations with Germany as Russia pulled out of the First World War. From March 1918 to January 1925, Trotsky was the head of the Red Army and played a vital role in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. He was one of the seven members of the first Politburo.

After the death of Lenin and the rise of Joseph Stalin, Trotsky was removed from his positions and eventually expelled from the Soviet Union in February 1929. He spent the rest of his life in exile, writing prolifically and engaging in open critique of Stalinism. In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International in opposition to Stalin's Comintern. After surviving multiple attempts on his life, Trotsky was assassinated in August 1940 in Mexico City by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet NKVD agent. Written out of the history books under Stalin, Trotsky was one of the few Soviet political personalities who was not rehabilitated by the Soviet administration under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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creatorOf Shachtman, Max, 1903-1972. Max Shachtman correspondence with Leon Trotsky, 1930-1940. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
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referencedIn Trotsky Collection, 1917-1980 Hoover Institution Archives
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referencedIn Alexander H. Buchman photographs of Leon Trotsky and others, 1982. Houghton Library
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referencedIn Trotsky : revelador politico del Mexico cardenista, 1937-1987 (Colloquium, 1987 : Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico) proceedings, 1987 Hoover Institution Archives
creatorOf Jose Sourillan Collection. 1930 - 1972. Historic Sound Recordings. 1930 - 1972. Leon Trotsky Speech Sent to the New York Meeting of the Founding of the Fourth International
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creatorOf Letters to Sarah Weber, 1933-1940. Houghton Library
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creatorOf Letter from Leon Trotsky to the students of Edinburgh University, 7 June 1935, 1935 Edinburgh University Library
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creatorOf Dewey Commission Exhibits, 1904-1938 and undated. Houghton Library
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referencedIn Prominent Personalities: Trotsky, Leon United States. National Archives and Records Administration
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Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn RUSSIAN SCENES United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Special Edition 1972: 17-29-2: Leon Trotsky, Dupe of the NKVD (How the Soviets Destroyed the Fourth International), by Rita T. Kronenbitter United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Special Issue 1972: 6-56-2: Leon Trotsky, Dupe of the NKVD (How the Soviets Destroyed the Fourth International), by Rita T. Kronenbitter United States. National Archives and Records Administration
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