Boas, Franz

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Franz Boas was an American anthropologist, studied the Eskimo and Northwest Coast Indians, and held positions at Columbia University and the American Museum of Natural History.

From the description of Field notebooks and physical anthropological data, 1889-1897, n.d. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 86138565

American anthropologist Franz Boas studied the Eskimo and Northwest Coast Indians and held positions at Columbia University and the American Museum of Natural History.

From the guide to the Franz Boas correspondence, 1885-1909, 1885-1909, (American Philosophical Society)

Docent of anthropology at Clark University.

From the description of Collected papers / F. Boas. (Clark University). WorldCat record id: 223450238

Franz Boas was an American anthropologist. He studied the Eskimo and Northwest Coast Indians and held positions at Columbia University and the American Museum of Natural History.

From the description of Correspondence, 1885-1909. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523673

Canadian geologist Robert Bell directed the Geological Survey of Canada from 1901-1906.

From the guide to the Robert Bell correspondence, 1874-1908, 1874-1908, (American Philosophical Society)

Franz Boas was an American anthropologist, studied the Eskimos and Northwest Coast Indians, and held positions at Columbia University and the American Museum of Natural History.

From the description of Papers, ca. 1860s-1942. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122380105

From the description of United States Federal Bureau of Investigation files, 1939-1950. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523430

From the description of Correspondence, 1862-1942. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122540737

From the guide to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation files, 1939-1950, 1939-1950, (American Philosophical Society)

Anthropologist.

Boaz was a Curator in the Dept. of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History.

From the description of Anthropometric data, 1891-1942. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 155511594

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Boas-Rukeyser Collection, 1869-1940, (American Philosophical Society)

Max Bergmann (February 12, 1886-November 7, 1944) was a biochemist, whose research proved key for the study of biochemical processes. His work on peptide synthesis and protein splitting provided a starting point for modern protein chemistry and the study of enzyme-substrate interactions. He is most noted for developing the carbobenzoxy protecting group, for the synthesis of oligopeptides, using any amino acid in any sequence. He co-authored with his colleague Joseph S. Fruton (1912-2007, APS 1967) several reviews in protein and enzyme chemistry, notably “Proteolytic Enzymes,” in the Annual Review of Biochemistry 10 (1941): 31-46 and “The Specificity of Proteinases,” in Advances in Enzymology 1 (1941): 63-98.

Bergmann was born in Fürth, Germany, the son of a coal merchant named Solomon Bergmann and his wife Rosalie Stettauer. He entered the University of Munich, initially interested in botany, but shifted to chemistry, after being convinced that biological questions could only be answered by the methods of organic chemistry. He received a bachelor’s degree in 1907, and afterward became a student of Emil Fischer (1838-1914, APS 1909), the foremost protein and carbohydrate chemist of the day at the University of Berlin. In 1911 Bergmann received a Ph.D. with a dissertation on acyl polysulfides and became Fischer’s research assistant. In 1912 Bergmann married Emmy Miriam Grunwald with whom he had two children. The marriage ended in divorce, and he remarried Martha Suter in 1926. During World War I Bergmann was exempted from military service because of his research work with Fischer. While working with Fischer, Bergmann made important contributions to carbohydrate, lipid, tannin and amino acid chemistry, developing new methods for the preparation of α-monoglycerides. In 1920 Bergmann was appointed Privatdozent at the University of Berlin and head of the chemistry department at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Textile Research.

Bergmann left the University of Berlin in 1921 to become the director of the new Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Leather Research and Professor of chemistry at the Dresden Technical University. At Dresden, Bergmann created one of the world’s leading laboratories for the study of protein chemistry. After Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, Bergmann, a Jew, emigrated to the United States. From 1934 until his death Bergmann was affiliated with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York.

Bergmann represents the tradition of German organic chemistry applied to biological problems. Working with his mentor Fischer, who sought effective methods to separate and identify amino acids, and who identified the peptide bond as the structure that connects amino acids, Bergmann made many basic contributions to protein and amino acid chemistry. In Dresden he extended Fischer’s work of separating and identifying the amino acid constituents of proteins. In order to establish the conjecture of some protein chemists that proteins were, in fact, polypeptides, containing thousands of amino acids, Bergmann developed new methods of peptide synthesis. The most important discovery came in 1932, when he and his colleague Leonidas Zervas created the carbobenzoxy method allowing them to use any amino acid in any sequence to produce peptides and polypeptides that closely resembled naturally occurring proteins.

Bergmann continued this work in New York at the Rockefeller Institute, stressing two new lines of research: (1) expanding the carbobenzoxy method to form peptides that could serve as substrates for protein-splitting enzymes, and (2) unraveling the total structure of proteins. After becoming head of the chemistry laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute in 1937, Bergmann recruited several talented biochemists. Along with his colleague Joseph Fruton, he discovered the first synthetic peptide substrates for which several enzymes were catalysts. When they demonstrated that the enzyme pepsin was able to catalyze the hydrolysis of synthetic peptides, they implicated the peptide bond in protein structure, but also provided the first clear evidence that specific enzymes split peptides at exact linkages in the chain. Their discovery cleared the path for study of how enzymes act as catalysts for every biological function.

Bergmann’s methods of analysis and synthesis proved incapable of solving the riddle of protein structure. He applied methods for separation and quantitative analysis to every amino acid in a protein in an attempt to establish their sequence in the polypeptide chain. In 1938 he proposed a theory of the systematic recurrence in the location of every amino acid residue in the peptide chain of a protein. However, his hypothesis proved an oversimplification. Two biochemists in his working group, Standford Moore and William Stein, showed him that the analytical data did not support his “periodic theory,” and Bergmann was forced to abandon it. Moore and Stein later collaborated in developing novel methods for quantitative analysis of amino acids in protein hydrolysates, methods they perfected after World War II. By 1949 it was possible to determine the order of the links of each amino acid in a protein. The Englishman Frederick Sanger was the first to establish the complete amino acid sequence in a protein, the hormone insulin. Moore and Stein followed by identifying the sequence of a more complex protein, the enzyme ribonuclease.

Bergman died of cancer in New York City on November 7, 1944. His mastery of peptide synthesis and protein splitting constituted the beginnings of modern protein chemistry. Bringing to the United States a background in German organic chemistry, he laid the foundations for the work of others, who would fulfill Bergmann’s goal of understanding and mapping the molecular structure of proteins and enzymes. His research colleagues found him a supportive leader and collaborator. He coauthored a number of publications with other members of his research group.

From the guide to the Max Bergmann papers, [ca. 1930]-1945, 1930-1945, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Field notebooks and anthropometric data, ca. 1883-1912, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Franz Boas Papers, 1862-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Ashley Montagu, born Israel Ehrenberg on June 28, 1905, was a British-American anthropologist, specializing in the areas of race and gender issues, as well as a prolific speaker and author, publishing over 50 books in his lifetime. The son of Jewish tailor Charles Ehrenberg and his wife, Mary Plot Ehrenberg, Montagu was born and raised in London's working class East End neighborhood. Although the reasoning behind his name change was never revealed, it may have been due to anti-Semitic prejudice faced by many East End Jews during his childhood, and Montagu might have felt the need to distance himself from his parents’ Russian and Polish backgrounds.

Montagu earned his undergraduate degree from University College London in psychology and anthropology. After studying anthropology at the London School of Economics under Bronislaw Malinowski, Montagu left England for the United States. He arrived at New York City in 1927 and began taking graduate classes at Columbia University. Montagu then traveled to Italy in 1928, where he took classes in ethnography and anthropology at the University of Florence. Upon his return to the United States in 1931, while working as an assistant professor of anthropology at New York University, Montagu married Marjorie Peakes. The couple would have two daughters, Audrey and Barbara, as well as a son, Geoffrey. In 1934 Montagu returned to Columbia University, culminating his postgraduate work at Columbia in 1936 with his dissertation, Coming into being among the Australian Aborigines: A study of the procreative beliefs of the native tribes of Australia, produced under the direction of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. Based largely on his dissertation, Montagu’s first book, Coming into Being among the Australian Aborigines, was published in 1937. After he completed his education, Montagu taught anatomy at Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia in 1938 and became an American citizen in 1940. It was during his time at Hahnemann that he began to produce work relating to race, resulting in his seminal work, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race, published in 1942. The work controversially advanced the argument that race was a social construct imposed upon a complex biological substratum and demolished the arguments for inherent inequality between human populations. The influential nature of Man’s Most Dangerous Myth led to Montagu’s service on the 4th United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) task force, in 1949. The ten member UNESCO committee, composed of such world-renowned social scientists as Claude Levi-Strauss and E. Franklin Frazier, was created to collect information about the problem of race and to establish educational programs to disseminate its findings. The resultant document, authored by Montagu, the group’s rapporteur, was published as the “Statement on Race” in 1951. The Committee’s final statement on race asserted: 1)All mankind belong to the same species and that the differences between groups are few compared to all of the genetic similarities. 2)That Race designates a group with high frequency of physical characteristics or particular genetic trait and that these traits fluctuate or even disappear over time. 3)The way in which people are grouped does not reflect the capacity or character traits of a particular group. The differences between races are physical and have no correlation with other traits like intelligence.

Upon leaving Hahnemann Medical College in 1949, Montagu moved to Rutgers University, where he was a professor of anthropology and head of the department from 1949 to 1955. While at Rutgers, Montagu wrote perhaps his most famous work, The Natural Superiority of Women, published in 1953. Examining the differences between the sexes anthropologically, Montagu concluded that women were the superior sex because they possessed a better capability to survive both as individuals and in groups- talents necessary for an advancing society. Based on these conclusions, he suggested that women receive equal pay for equal work, a controversial stance at the time.

With his prolific writing skills to rely on financially, and facing strong backlash for his openly liberal views and anti-McCarthy public statements, Montagu accepted a forced retirement from Rutgers in 1955 at the age of 50. Though retired from academic life, he continued to lecture at such institutions as Harvard University, Princeton University, the University of Santa Barbara, and New York University. Settling in Princeton, New Jersey, Montagu’s work took up a more humanist element with Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, his effort to encourage parents to take a more physical role in raising their children and especially to encourage mothers to breastfeed their babies. Published during that same year, Montagu’s book The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity, a history of the life of disfigured Briton Joseph Merrick, inspired a Tony winning play and later a motion picture. He continued publishing through the 1980s, including The Nature of Human Aggression (1976) and Growing Young (1981), while making numerous and notable television appearances on Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show as well as the Phil Donahue Show.

In his lifetime, Montagu received many major awards, among them the American Association of Humanists’ 1995 Man of the Year award, the Darwin Award from the American Association of Physical Anthropologist in 1994, and the Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Anthropological Association in 1987. Montagu maintained an active schedule of lecturing and gardening around his Princeton, New Jersey, home until he was hospitalized in March 1999; he died on November 26, 1999 from heart disease, at the age of ninety-four. He was survived by his wife of sixty-eight years, Marjorie, as well as his son and two daughters.

From the guide to the Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Boas Family Papers, 1862-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Franz Boas Professional Papers, Circa 1860-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. Culin Archival Collection Series 9: Brinton memorial 1875-1902 1899-1902 (bulk). Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Franziska Boas Collection, 1920-1988 Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974. Papers, 1892-1981. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Papers, 1888-1964 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Max Bergmann papers, [ca. 1930]-1945, 1930-1945 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Dance and music in the life of the Northwest Coast Indians of North America, by Franz Boas. [19] p. New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
creatorOf Goldenweiser, Alexander, 1880-1940. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1907-1927 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn Donaldson, Henry Herbert, 1857-1938. Diaries and papers, 1869-1938. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (B), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Baffin Land; geographical results of an exploratory journey made in the years 1883 and 1884. National Geographic Society Library
referencedIn Van Veen, Stuyvesant. Oral history interview with Stuyvesant Van Veen, 1981 May 5-14. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Franz Boas diary, 1890, 1890 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence, 1885-1909. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Prints Collection, 1500-2000 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Council for Research in the Social Sciences. Council for Research in the Social Sciences records, 1922-1970 [Bulk dates: 1925-1968]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1931-1941. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978. Margaret Mead papers and South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996 (bulk 1911-1978). Library of Congress
referencedIn Papers, 1925-1960 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (I-K), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Fawcett, James Waldo. Correspondence of James Waldo Fawcett, 1925-1928. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Franz Boas correspondence, 1885-1909, 1885-1909 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Shoshone : based on a manuscript by Harry Hull St. Clair and on personal investigations / by Franz Boas. University of Kansas, KU Library
creatorOf Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, Inc. Records, bulk 1927-1934. Hampshire College, Harold F. Johnson Library
creatorOf Gregory, William K. (William King), 1876-1970. Papers, 1889-1948 (bulk 1906-1948). American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Phillips Fund for Native American Research Collection, 1960-present American Philosophical Society
creatorOf White, Leslie A., 1900-1975. Leslie A. White papers, 1921-1974. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Papers, 1903-1950. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Lotte Urbach Collection, 1901-1954 Leo Baeck Institute Archives
referencedIn Biography: Melvyn Douglas, 1972-1980 Indiana University Center for the Study of History and Memoryhttp://www.indiana.edu/~cshm
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Nootka ethnographic and linguistic materials, [ca. 1900-1920]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Frank G. Speck Papers, 1903-1950 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Correspondence and compositions, 1870-1963. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (C), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Papers. Matlazinca linguistics ... [microform], 1904-1940. Washington Library Network
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies. Correspondence, 1926-1927. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. East Asiatic Committee. Records, 1900-1912. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Immigration Restriction League (U.S.) records, 1893-1921. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Muriel Rukeyser Papers, 1844-1986, (bulk 1930-1979) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews, 1875-1941. Papers, 1835-1944. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Field notebooks and anthropometric data, ca. 1883-1912 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Department of Anthropology Records, 1930-1985. Columbia University. University Archives. Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948. Ruth Fulton Benedict papers, 1905-1948. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Adams, Inez (Dorothy Inez), 1904-1967. Inez Adams papers. 1914-1967. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
creatorOf Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1905-1934 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
creatorOf United States Federal Bureau of Investigation files, 1939-1950, 1939-1950 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence with Wanda Gág, 1941. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Tate, Henry W. American Indian tales [microform], [190-?] / written by a Tsimshian Indian ; assembled by Franz Boas. Washington Library Network
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society, 1882-1958 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miner, Roy Waldo, 1875-1955. Papers, 1895-1955, 1942-1955 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Dorfman, Joseph, 1904-1991. Papers, 1890-1983. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston), 1877-1954. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1907-1934 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Chinook grammar notebook [microform]. Oregon State University Libraries
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Elsie Clews Parsons Papers, 1880-1980 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Correspondence, 1860-1979. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, Inc. Records MG2., 1927-1934 Hampshire College Archives
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers, 1878-1943 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn John Alden Mason Papers, 1904-1967 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Pamphlets collection, 1919-1983 (bulk 1938-1946). Holocaust Center of Northern California, Holocaust Library and Research Center
referencedIn Margaret Mead Papers and the South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996, (bulk 1911-1978) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Manny, Frank Addison, 1868-1954. Frank Addison Manny papers, 1890-1955. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Edwin Berry Burgum academic freedom case records, 1934-1961. Churchill County Museum
creatorOf Jochelson, Waldemar, 1855-1937. Collection, 1899-1979 (bulk 1899-1942). American Museum of Natural History
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence with Van Wyck Brooks, 1938-1940. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson), 1904-1971. Ralph Bunche papers, 1922-1988. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Papers, ca. 1860s-1942. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Center, Ellen, d. 1959. Tillamook Indians / Ellen Center correspondence file, 1930-1955 Boise State University, Albertsons Library
referencedIn Rukeyser, Muriel, 1913-1980. Muriel Rukeyser papers, 1844-1986 (bulk 1930-1979). Library of Congress
referencedIn Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Arthur Twining Hadley, president of Yale University, records, 1899-1921 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Cora Alice Du Bois papers, 1869-1988 (inclusive), 1912-1985 (bulk) Tozzer Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Alfred Vincent Kidder Papers, 1920-1962 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Alice Henson Ernst papers, 1900-1976 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries
creatorOf Boas Family Papers, 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (W-Z), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Comer, George, 1858-1937. [Journals and notebooks] [microform]. American Museum of Natural History
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence, 1862-1942. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Nootka ethnographic and linguistic materials, [ca. 1900-1920], Circa 1900-1920 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIh, 1892-1896 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Frans M. Olbrechts papers, ca. 1910-1930, on the Iroquois Indians, Circa 1910-1930 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Harvey Pitkin Papers, 1884-1968 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Smith, Erminnie Adele Platt, 1836-1886. [Peabody Museum director records, Frederic W. Putnam (1839-1915), 1870-1923]. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn W J McGee Papers, 1880-1916, (bulk 1885-1905) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Field notebooks and physical anthropological data, 1889-1897, n.d. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews, 1874-1941. Papers, [ca. 1882]-1978. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. Culin Archival Collection Series 7: Games 1871-1927. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Vertebrate Paleontology. General correspondence files, [ca. 1887]-1966. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Leslie A. White Papers, 1921-1974 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Lexicon of Alaska native languages [microform], 1894-1954. Washington Library Network
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. East Asiatic Research Fund. Correspondence, 1900-1904. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Bell, Robert, 1841-1917. Correspondence, 1874-1908. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (N-Q), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Van Veen, Stuyvesant. Stuyvesant Van Veen interviews, 1981 May 5 - May 14. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn An Anthropologist at work: writings of Ruth Benedict / by Margaret Mead, n.d. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Starr, Frederick, 1858-1933. Papers, 1868-1935 (inclusive), 1892-1923 (bulk). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Library. Biography file--general, 1876-1984, 1930-1984 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Boas-Rukeyser Collection, 1869-1940. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers, 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (S), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948. Papers, 1905-1948. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Boas-Rukeyser Collection, 1869-1940 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1902-1934 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn Kirchwey, Freda. Papers, 1871-1972 (inclusive), 1937-1971 (bulk) [microform]. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (L), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Bray, William C. (William Crowell), 1879-1946. William C. Bray papers, 1890-1945. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf American Museum of Natural History. Expedition to China (1901-1904). Correspondence, 1900-1904, (bulk 1901-1904). American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Dunn, L. C. (Leslie Clarence), 1893-1974. Papers, [ca. 1920]-1974. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Starr, Frederick. Papers, 1868-1935 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967. Papers, ca. 1915-1967. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Jewish Theological Seminary of America. General Files. Records, 1902-1972. 1940-1972 (bulk). Ocean County College Library, OCC Library
referencedIn Ojibwa ethnographic and linguistic field notes, 1903-1905, 1903-1905 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers, 1892-1981 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf New York World's Fair (1939-1940). New York World's Fair 1939-1940 records, 1935-1945, bulk (1939-1940). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Olbrechts, Frans M., 1899-1958. Papers, ca. 1910-1930, on the Iroquois Indians. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (H), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Reminiscences of Franziska Boas : oral history, 1972, 1972 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Papers, 1840-1961. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Robert Bell correspondence, 1874-1908, 1874-1908 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1939. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Professional Papers, Circa 1860-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn McGee, W. J., 1853-1912. Papers of W. J. McGee, 1822-1916. Library of Congress
creatorOf Conference on Science, Philosophy, and Religion. Records. 1939-1977. 1940-1968. Ocean County College Library, OCC Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (T-V), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Pearl, Raymond, 1879-1940. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1917-1935 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn IU Folklore Institute, 1987 Indiana University Center for the Study of History and Memoryhttp://www.indiana.edu/~cshm
referencedIn Boas, Franziska. Reminiscences of Franziska Boas : oral history, 1972. Nolan, Norton & Company, Incorporated
referencedIn Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957. George G. Heye autograph collection, 1886-1928. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. United States Federal Bureau of Investigation files, 1939-1950. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (E-G), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963. Melville Herskovits Papers, 1906-1963. Northwestern University
referencedIn Sadie P. Delaney papers, 1921-1958 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
creatorOf Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975. Linguistic material for Nass River Tsimshian [microform], 1893-1940. Washington Library Network
referencedIn World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago). United States anthropological photograph, 1893. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Columbia University. University Archives. Columbiana Manuscripts, 1572-1986 [Bulk Dates: 1850-1920]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Viola Edmundson Garfield papers, 1927-1978, 1935-1978 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Boas, Franziska, 1902-1988. Reminiscences of Franziska Boas : oral history, 1972. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Jones, William, 1871-1909. Ojibwa ethnographic and linguistic field notes, 1903-1905. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Radin, Paul, 1883-1959. Papers, 1727, 1824-1825, 1827-1991, undated bulk 1835-1903. Marquette University Raynor Memorial Library, John P. Raynor Library
referencedIn Alfred Vincent Kidder Papers, 1926-1935 School for Advanced Research
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Henry Herbert Donaldson diaries and papers, 1869-1938, 1869-1938 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (A), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn James McKeen Cattell Papers, 1835-1948, (bulk 1896-1948) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Marshall, George, 1904-2000. George Marshall papers, 1933-1955. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Papers, 1916-1972 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Anthropology. Correspondence files, [ca. 1895]-1980. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Ralph Bunche papers, 1922-1988 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn J. B. Matthews Papers, 1862-1986 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Boas, Ernst Philip, Dr. 1891-1955. Reprints of Ernst Boas articles, 1900-1951. New York Academy of Medicine
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Delaney, Sadie P., 1889-1958. Sadie P. Delaney papers, 1921-1958. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
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creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (M), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Fawcett, James Waldo, b. 1893. Correspondence of James Waldo Fawcett [manuscript], 1925-1928. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1939-1941. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Records of the Edwin Berry Burgum Academic Freedom Case., 1934-1961 New York University. Archives.
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence to Daniel Garrison Brinton, 1894-1898. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Anshen, Ruth Nanda. Ruth Nanda Anshen papers, 1938-1986. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Moe, Henry Allen, 1894-1975. Papers, [ca. 1920]-1975. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs. Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs records, 1914-1996. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
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referencedIn William Shedrick Willis papers, [ca. 1940-1983], Circa 1940-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983. Viola Edmundson Garfield papers, 1927-1978 (bulk 1935-1978). University of Washington Libraries
creatorOf Emergency Society for German & Austrian Science and Art. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1925. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. [Wabanaki Indians : material from collections at the American Philosophical Society] Raymond H. Fogler Library
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf American Council of Learned Societies correspondence, 1926-1927, 1926-1927 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Willis, William Shedrick, 1921-1983. Papers, [ca. 1940-1983]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Henry Allen Moe Papers, 1920-1975 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (D), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Council for Research in the Humanities. Council for Research in the Humanities Records, 1926-1968 [Bulk dates: 1926-1936; 1966-1968]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Collected papers / F. Boas. Clark University, Robert Hutchings Goddard Library
referencedIn George G. Heye autograph collection, 1886-1928. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1903-1931 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1903). Records, 1897-1905. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Frank Manny papers, 1890-1955 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Bergmann, M. (Max), 1886-1944. Papers, [ca. 1930]-1945. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn William Beynon Papers, Bulk, 1933-1937, 1933-1969 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Indian myths and legends from the North Pacific Coast of America, n.d. American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franziska, 1902-1988. Franziska Boas collection, 1920-1988. Library of Congress
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies. Committee on Native American Languages. Franz Boas Collection of Materials for American Linguistics, 1927-1942. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn E. Adamson Hoebel Papers, 1925-1993 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Columbiana Manuscripts, 1572-1986, [Bulk Dates: 1850-1920]. Columbia University. Columbia University Archives Rare Book and Manuscript Library.
referencedIn Hoebel, E. Adamson (Edward Adamson), 1906-. Papers, 1925-1993. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1925-1934 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn Cattell, James McKeen, 1860-1944. James McKeen Cattell papers, 1835-1948 (bulk 1896-1948). Library of Congress
referencedIn Putnam, Frederic Ward (1839-1915), Papers, bulk 1855-1935 Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Papers, 1871-1972 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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referencedIn Open Court Publishing Company. Open Court Publishing Company records, 1886-1998, (bulk 1887-1920). Southern Illinois University, Morris Library
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referencedIn Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Franziska Boas Collection, 1920-1988 Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Ruth Nanda Anshen Papers, 1938-1986. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn L. C. Dunn Papers, ca. 1920-1974 American Philosophical Society
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associatedWith Abbie, Andrew Arthur, 1905-1976 person
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associatedWith Council for Research in the Humanities. corporateBody
associatedWith Council for Research in the Social Sciences. corporateBody
associatedWith Crane, M. E. person
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associatedWith Dakin, H. D., (Henry Drysdale), 1880-1952 person
associatedWith Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882 person
associatedWith Delaney, Sadie P., 1889-1958. person
correspondedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith Deloria, Ella Cara. person
associatedWith Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934. person
associatedWith Dobzhansky, Theodosius Grigorievich, 1900-1975 person
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associatedWith Eastman, Seth, 1808-1875 person
associatedWith Efron, David person
associatedWith Efron, David. person
associatedWith Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955 person
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associatedWith Elkin, A. P. (Adolphus Peter), 1891-1979 person
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correspondedWith Ernst, Alice Henson, 1880-1980 person
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associatedWith Franchtenberg, Leo Joachim, 1883-1930 person
associatedWith FREDA KIRCHWEY, 1893-1976 person
correspondedWith Frederic Ward Putnam, 1813-1915 person
associatedWith Freeman, Derek person
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correspondedWith Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983. person
associatedWith Geological Survey of Canada. corporateBody
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associatedWith Glueck, Sheldon, 1896- person
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associatedWith Goldenweiser, Alexander, 1880-1940. person
associatedWith Goldstein, Emma person
associatedWith Goldstein, Marcus Solomon person
associatedWith Gordon, George Byron, 1911- person
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associatedWith Gunther, Carl person
associatedWith György, Paul, b. 1893 person
associatedWith Haack, Friedrich person
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associatedWith Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896 person
associatedWith Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974. person
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associatedWith Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. person
associatedWith Haskins, Charles Homer, 1870-1937 person
associatedWith Heliotype Co. person
associatedWith Hering, Ernst person
associatedWith Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963. person
associatedWith Hewitt, Joseph William, 1875-1938 person
associatedWith Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957. person
correspondedWith Hocking, William Ernest, 1873-1966 person
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associatedWith Hoebel, E. Adamson (Edward Adamson), 1906- person
associatedWith Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933. person
associatedWith Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943. person
associatedWith Hulsenbeck, J. person
associatedWith Hunt, George person
associatedWith Hunt, George. person
correspondedWith Immigration Restriction League (U.S.). corporateBody
associatedWith Indiana University Center for the Study of History and Memory corporateBody
associatedWith International Congress of Americanists. corporateBody
associatedWith Isbister, William person
associatedWith Jacobs, Melville, 1902-1971 person
associatedWith James, William person
associatedWith Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1903) corporateBody
associatedWith Jewish Theological Seminary of America. General Files. corporateBody
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associatedWith Jones, William, 1871-1909. person
associatedWith Keat, Roland G. person
associatedWith Keith, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955 person
associatedWith Keppel, Frederick P. (Frederick Paul), 1875-1943. person
associatedWith Kidder, Alfred Vincent, 1885-1963 person
associatedWith Kirchwey, Freda. person
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associatedWith La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996 person
associatedWith Landsteiner, Karl, 1868-1943 person
associatedWith Langmuir, Irving, 1881-1957 person
associatedWith Laufer, Berthold, 1874-1934. person
associatedWith Laufs, Toni person
associatedWith Leland, Waldo Gifford, 1879-1966 person
associatedWith Le Moine, J. M., Sir, (James MacPherson), 1825-1912 person
associatedWith Lester, Robert M., (Robert MacDonald), 1889-1969 person
associatedWith Li, Fang-kuei, 1902- person
associatedWith Loewi, Otto, 1873-1961 person
associatedWith Lowie, Robert Harry, 1883-1957. person
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correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
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associatedWith West, Benjamin, 1730-1813 person
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Place Name Admin Code Country
Northwest Territories
Baffin Island (N.W.T.)
United States
Arctic regions
Baffin Island (N.W.T.)
United States
United States
Baffin Island (Nunavut)
Baffin Island (Nunavut)
United States
British Columbia
Baffin Island (N.W.T.)
United States
North America
Baffin Island (Nunavut)
Arctic regions
Subject
Jewish scientists
Language
Race
Linguistics
Science--Societies, etc
Eskimos--Canada
Linguistics--United States
Anthropology--Research
Native American lore & legends
Communists--United States
Linguistics--Study and teaching
Physical anthropology--Field work
Chinook language--Grammar
Political refugees
Refugees, Political
Indians of North America--British Columbia
Socialists--United States
Arctic Indians
Kwakiutl Indians
Kwakiutl language
Race relations
Academic freedom
Geography--Canada
African Americans--Anthropometry
Eskimos
Anthropology, ethnography, fieldwork
Indians of North America--Northwest Coast
Ethnology--North America
Shoshoni language--Glossaries, vocabularies, etc
Anthropology--Study and teaching
Eskimos--Baffin Island (N.W.T.)
Geology--Canada
Indians of North America--Ethnology
Science
Anthropology--United States--History
Jewish children--Anthropometry
Indians of North America--Nunavut
Physical anthropology--Research
Myth
Indigenous peoples--Nunavut--Baffin Island
Anthropology--Latin America
Social sciences
Tlingit Indians
Anthropology
Scientific expeditions
Communism and social sciences
Socialists
Scientific expeditions--Arctic regions
Scientists, Refugee
Japanese--Anthropometry
Indians of Mexico--Languages
Indigenous peoples--British Columbia
Anthropometry--Research
Social inequality
Chemistry--United States
Authors and publishers
Communist parties--United States
Anthropology--Research--United States
Northwest Coast Indians
Gender
Anthropological linguistics--America
Indians of North America--Northwest Territories--Languages
Indians of North America--Languages
Italians--Anthropometry
Czechs--Anthropometry
Indians of North America--Anthropometry
Scientists--United States
Biochemistry--United States
Anthropology--United States
Ethnology
German Americans
Inuit
Indians of North America--Northwest, Pacific--Folklore
Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform
Anthropometry--Field work
Communism and social sciences--United States
Communist parties
Biology, genetics, eugenics
Race, race relations, racism
Occupation
Museum curators
Biochemists--United States
Linguists
Ethnologists
Indians of North America
Anthropologists
Anthropologists--United States
Educators
Curators
Function

Person

Birth 1858-07-09

Death 1942-12-21

Americans

English,

German,

North American Indian languages,

Spanish; Castilian

Information

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Ark ID: w6pv6hhv

SNAC ID: 63152579