Hays, Arthur Garfield, 1881-1954

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Hays taught in Kuna, Bruneau, and Boise. After he retired he accepted the directorship of the prison educational program in Boise.

From the description of Papers, 1830-1958. (Idaho State Historical Society Library & Archives). WorldCat record id: 42927298

Active in civil liberties issues, Hays took part in a long list of important cases, including the Scopes trial in 1925, the Sacco and Vanzetti case, and the Scottsboro case. Hays also attended the Reichstag trial in Berlin on behalf of Georgi Dmitrov, a Bulgarian Communist tried by the Nazis in 1933 for burning the Reichstag, and had frequent tussles with the Dies committee, the House of Representatives Special Committee on Un-American Activities.

From the description of Arthur Garfield Hays papers, 1915-1955 (bulk 1920-1952) (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 79912906

Arthur Garfield Hays was born in Rochester, New York on December 12, 1881. His father and mother, both of German descent, belonged to prospering families in the clothing manufacturing industry. After graduating from City College of New York in 1902 and going on to receive his law degree from Columbia in 1905, Hays formed a law firm with two of his former classmates that gained prominence representing German interests in World War I.

Hays was active in civil liberties issues before becoming general counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920. From this point one can recognize the emergence of what many have called Hays's “dual personality,” in which he became a wealthy lawyer who represented the interests of power and fame (his more prominent clients ranged from Wall Street brokers and best-selling authors to notorious gamblers and the Dionne quintuplets)--while at the same time rigorously defending the individual liberty of victims of discriminatory laws.

The list of famous cases in which Hays took part is lengthy, including the Scopes trial (often called the “monkey trial”) in 1925 in which a school teacher in Tennessee was tried for teaching evolution; the Sacco and Vanzetti case in which two Italian anarchists in Boston were put to death in 1927 for a murder they denied committing; and the Scottsboro case where eight black men from Alabama were condemned to die in 1931 for allegedly attacking two white women. Hays also attended the Reichstag trial in Berlin on behalf of Georgi Dmitrov, a Bulgarian Communist tried by Nazis in 1933 for burning the Reichstag.

In addition to his work as a lawyer, Hays wrote an astounding number of books and articles. As a gifted writer and eloquent debater, he added his perspective to virtually every individual rights issue of his day. His autobiography, entitled City Lawyer: the Autobiography of a Law Practice (1942), provides a colorful account of his more noteworthy cases, and his articles and book reviews demonstrate his wide-ranging knowledge of a nation and a world experiencing dramatic change in the way individual rights were perceived.

Hays married Blanche Marks in 1908 and divorced her in 1924. They had one daughter, Mrs. Lora Spindell. He married Aline Davis Fleisher in 1924, who died in 1944. They also had a daughter, Mrs. Jane Butler. After more than four decades at the center of the individual rights debate, Hays died of a heart attack on December 14, 1954.

From the guide to the Arthur Garfield Hays Papers, 1915-1955, (Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Burlingham, Charles Culp, 1858-1959. Papers, 1876-1960 Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
creatorOf Hays, Arthur Garfield, 1881-1954. Railroad rate regulation. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn John Haynes Holmes Papers, 1899-1983, (bulk 1935-1964) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Papers of Doris Stevens, 1884-1983 (inclusive), 1920-1960 (bulk) Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Paul Blanshard Papers, 1912-1979 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Eastman, Max Forrester, 1883-1969. Eastman mss. 1892-1968 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Rice, Elmer, 1892-1967,. Elmer Rice letters from various correspondents, 1915-1967. Houghton Library
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Subject Files Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn John Reed papers, 1903-1967. Houghton Library
creatorOf Hays, Arthur H. (Homer), 1881-1958. Papers, 1830-1958. Idaho State Archives, Idaho State Historical Society
referencedIn Ruth Fischer papers, 1925-1961 (inclusive) 1940-1961 (bulk) Houghton Library
referencedIn Corliss Lamont papers concerning John Reed, 1910-1967. Houghton Library
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Legal Case Files Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Leon Trotsky exile papers, 1929-1940. Houghton Library
referencedIn Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Papers: Series III, 1909-1942 (inclusive) [microform]. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972 (inclusive), 1929-1957 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Pollock, Channing, 1880-1946. Letters, 1942-1945. Ohio State University Libraries
referencedIn Murphy, Frank, 1890-1949. Papers, 1908-1949 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn John Mason Brown papers, 1922-1967. Houghton Library
referencedIn Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964. John Haynes Holmes papers, 1899-1983 (bulk 1935-1964). Library of Congress
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Organizational Matters Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Fraenkel, Osmond K. (Osmond Kessler), 1888-1983. Osmond K. Fraenkel diaries, 1933-1968. Princeton University Library
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
creatorOf Boni & Liveright. Correspondence : with Theodore Dreiser, 1917-1938. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Friedman, Philip Allan. Correspondence to Philip Allan Friedman, 1952-1953. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Project Files Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972 (bulk 1929-1957) Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Ehrmann, Herbert Brutus, 1891-1970. Papers of Herbert Brutus Ehrmann, 1906-1970 (inclusive), 1926-1968 (bulk). Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Printed Materials Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Sweet, Ossian Haven, 1895-1960. Ossian H. Sweet papers, 1925-1987 (bulk 1925-1926). Detroit Public Library, Detroit Main Library
referencedIn Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Papers, 1874-1945 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn J. B. Matthews Papers, 1862-1986 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
creatorOf Horace Liveright Theatrical Productions. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1926-1932. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Ehrmann, Herbert B. (Herbert Brutus), 1891-1970. Papers, 1906-1970 Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
creatorOf Hays, Arthur Garfield, 1881-1954. Correspondence : with Theodore Dreiser, 1926-1936. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Ruth Fischer papers, 1925-1961 (inclusive) 1940-1961 (bulk) Houghton Library
referencedIn Theodore Dreiser collection, 1897-1983. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Dreiser, Theodore, 1871-1945. Theodore Dreiser collection, 1897-1983. Cornell University Library
referencedIn William S. Paley Letters, 1936 Syracuse University. Library. Special Collections Research Center
referencedIn Corliss Lamont papers concerning John Reed, 1910-1967. Houghton Library
referencedIn Elmer Rice letters from various correspondents, 1915-1967. Harvard Theater Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Mok, Michel, 1889?-1961. Michel Mok papers, ca. 1947-ca. 1959, bulk (1953-1955). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Hays, Arthur Garfield, 1881-1954. Arthur Garfield Hays papers, 1915-1955 (bulk 1920-1952) Princeton University Library
referencedIn Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972 (bulk 1929-1957) Yale University Library
referencedIn Michel Mok papers, ca. 1947-ca. 1959, 1953-1955 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Papers, 1899-1983 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Rebecca Shelley Papers, 1890-1984 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Hand, Learned, 1872-1961. Papers, 1840-1961 Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
creatorOf Hays, Arthur Garfield, 1881-1954. Correspondence file, 1926-1930, from Boni & Liveright and Horace Liveright, Inc. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Edmund B. Chaffee Papers, 1902-1937 Syracuse University. Library. Special Collections Research Center
referencedIn Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966. Papers, 1681-1966 (bulk 1900-1960) Houghton Library
referencedIn Harvard Law School Forums Records Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
creatorOf Arthur Garfield Hays Papers, 1915-1955 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
creatorOf Piscator, Erwin, 1893-1966. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1929-1937. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949. Papers, 1872-1949 Houghton Library
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Audiovisual Materials Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union. corporateBody
associatedWith American National Committee on International Intellectual Cooperation. corporateBody
associatedWith Beach, Rex, 1877-1949. person
associatedWith Blanshard, Paul, 1892- person
associatedWith Boni & Liveright. corporateBody
associatedWith Bromley, Bruce. person
associatedWith Brown, John Mason, 1900-1969 person
associatedWith Burlingham, Charles Culp, 1858-1959 person
associatedWith Chaffee, Edmund Bigelow, 1887-1936 person
associatedWith Clark, Barrett H. (Barrett Harper), 1890-1953. person
associatedWith Davis, Frances, 1908-1982 person
associatedWith Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. person
associatedWith Dennis, Frank Landt, 1907- person
associatedWith Doris Stevens person
associatedWith Dreiser, Theodore, 1871-1945. person
associatedWith Eastman, Max, 1883-1969 person
associatedWith Ehrmann, Herbert Brutus, 1891-1970. person
associatedWith Eisenstein, Sergei, 1898-1948. person
associatedWith Faithful, Stanley E. person
associatedWith Faithful, Stanley E. person
correspondedWith Fischer, Ruth, 1895- person
associatedWith Fort, John Porter, 1888- person
associatedWith Fraenkel, Osmond K. (Osmond Kessler), 1888-1983. person
associatedWith Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. person
associatedWith Friedman, Philip Allan. person
associatedWith Gaines, William. person
correspondedWith Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966 person
associatedWith Hague, Frank, 1876-1956 person
correspondedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
correspondedWith Harvard Law School Forum corporateBody
associatedWith Hays, Alan S. person
associatedWith Hays, Alan S. person
associatedWith Herts, B. Russell (Benjamin Russell), b. 1888. person
correspondedWith Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Horace Liveright Theatrical Productions. corporateBody
associatedWith Hume, Arthur Carter. person
associatedWith Jennings, Emerson person
associatedWith Jennings, Emerson person
associatedWith Johnstone, Will B. person
associatedWith Kraft, H. S. (Hyman Soloman), 1899-1975. person
associatedWith Lamont, Corliss, 1902- person
associatedWith Lasky, Jesse L., 1880-1958. person
associatedWith Lubetkin, Herman. person
associatedWith Lynch, Humphrey J. person
associatedWith MARY (WARE) DENNETT person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
associatedWith Mayor's Commission on Conditions in Harlem (N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Mok, Michel, 1889?-1961. person
associatedWith Montagu, Ivor Goldsmid Samuel, 1904-1984. person
associatedWith Murphy, Frank, 1890-1949 person
associatedWith National Association of Book Publishers. corporateBody
associatedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
associatedWith Paley, William S. (William Samuel), 1901- person
associatedWith Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Pease, Frank. person
associatedWith Piscator, Erwin, 1893-1966. person
associatedWith Pollock, Channing, 1880-1946. person
associatedWith Powers, William T. person
associatedWith Rascoe, Burton, 1892-1957. person
correspondedWith Reed, John, 1887-1920 person
associatedWith Rice, Elmer, 1892-1967, person
associatedWith Richman, Arthur, 1886-1944. person
associatedWith Scopes, John Thomas, 1900-1970 person
associatedWith Scott, Irene F. person
associatedWith Shelley, Rebecca, 1887-1984 person
associatedWith Strachey, John, 1901-1963 person
associatedWith Swarts, Louis E. person
associatedWith Sweet, Ossian Haven, 1895-1960. person
associatedWith Theodore, Dreiser 1871-1945. person
associatedWith Tonge, R. B. person
correspondedWith Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940 person
associatedWith United States. Congress. House. Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938-1944) corporateBody
correspondedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949 person
associatedWith Von Sternberg, Josef, 1894-1969. person
associatedWith Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Idaho--Bruneau
Idaho--Boise
Puerto Rico
Pennsylvania
Bruneau (Idaho)
New York (State)--New York
West Virginia
United States
Subject
Communist trials--United States--20th century
Lawyers--New York (State)--New York--20th century
Labor disputes--20th century
American politics and government
Trials (Sedition)--20th century
Labor union meetings--20th century
Lawyers--20th century
Legal history
Trials (Libel)--20th century
Coal mines and mining--20th century
Trials--20th century
Teachers--History--Sources
Anthracite Coal Strike, Pa., 1922
Trials (Sedition)--United States--20th century
Trials--United States--20th century
Civil rights--Puerto Rico--20th century
Communist trials--20th century
Coal mines and mining--Pennsylvania--20th century
Trials (Libel)--New York (State)--New York--20th century
Civil rights--United States--20th century
American history/20th century
Labor disputes--Pennsylvania--20th century
Civil rights--20th century
Sacco--Vanzetti Trial, Dedham, Mass., 1921
Labor union meetings--Pennsylvania--20th century
Coal mines and mining--West Virginia--20th century
Labor union meetings--West Virginia--20th century
Labor disputes--West Virginia--20th century
Occupation
Activity

Person

Birth 1881-12-12

Death 1954-12-14

English,

French

Information

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