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During much of Doctor José Gaspar de Francia's dictatorship (1814-1840), Paraguay was without a bishop and the church was harrassed.

From the description of Libro de providencias, ordenes, y autos : por Dn. Juan Antonio Riveras, cura rector de la parrequial de la Villeta : manuscript, 1804-1857. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612746619

An antiphonary is a book containing sacred vocal music, both the antiphons of the breviary, and the musical notes. An antiphon itself is a musical response, as in alternate chanting.

From the description of Antiphonarium, [1529?]. (University of Arizona). WorldCat record id: 28743603

Catholics were present in Western Australia from the first days of settlement, with the Diocese of Perth being set up in 1845. The numbers were small, however, until the 1850s brought an influx of Irish immigrants, both convict and free. A number of churches were established at this time.

From the description of Records. 1844-1976. (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 222155913

The missal was commissioned by Giulio de' Medici shortly after he was consecrated Pope Clement VII in 1523. It was cut up by Luigi Celotti and dispersed in 1825.

From the description of Missal : manuscript, [ca. 1523]. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612857539

The Jesuits were very active in South America from 1609 until 1767, when they were expelled from the Americas by the Spanish crown.

From the description of Las oraciones del Padre Nuestro, y Ave Maria, y el Credo en las lenguas indígenas americanas : manuscript , [ca. 17--] (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612739200

In May 1890, a group of Catholic educators and members of clergy and religious orders met and decided that a Catholic Educational Exhibit at the 1892 World's Fair, also called the World's Columbian Exposition, would be a fabulous way to showcase advances in Catholic education as an important part of American Christianity. The exhibit would also be a way to favorably present American Catholicism to the general citizenry, and the Catholic Congress that met in Boston in July 1890 agreed. The Catholic Congress appointed a committee that in turn sent out an invitation for Catholic education institutional leaders and others interested in Catholic education to meet in Chicago on October 8, 1890. The twenty-one representatives that attended agreed an exhibit could potentially assist in eliminating or significantly decreasing animosity towards Catholics in general and their education system because there was simply not much known about it among non-Catholics. By December 1890, a pamphlet with information on compiling material for exhibits had been mailed to various education institutions, including grade schools and colleges. The board of directors met two more times, once at the Columbus Club in Chicago on July 1, 1891, and again at the Lindell Hall in St. Louis on November 30, 1891. At the final meeting, the board of directors recommended appointment of executive officers and how the CEE would be supported financially. Cardinal and archbishops agreed with the report and named J. L. Spalding, the Bishop of Peoria, the president and Brother Maurlein, president of Christian Brothers College (now University) in Memphis, the secretary and manager. Brother Maurlein's appointment may have been due to the strong presence of the Christian Brothers' educational exhibits at previous world's fairs. As a final sign of the exhibit's potential, Pope Leo XIII stated his support in a letter dated July 20, 1892.

From the description of The Catholic Educational Exhibit, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, photographs. 1892-1893. (Catholic University of America). WorldCat record id: 173849540

Formularies are models for the execution of documents, public or private, used in the Catholic Church. In each formulary, space is left for the insertion of names, dates, and circumstances peculiar to each case.

From the description of Formulario para dar la profesion a las religiosas concepcionistas expresando solo lo que ha de hacer y decir la profesante, 1760. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 145405907

In 1845, Bishop Brady recruited 3 French priests from the Missionary Society of the Holy Heart of Mary at Amiens (later this Congregation would be joined with the Congregation of the Holy Spirit) - Fr. Thevaux, Fr. Thierse, and Fr. Boucher (who died soon after arrival in WA) - to found a mission at King George Sound. They arrived in Albany at the beginning of 1846. By the end of that year, they attempted to set up a mission at Lake Mollyalup, near Mount Barker. The difficulties proved too great, and by the end of 1847 Fr. Thevaux and Fr. Thierse had left WA for Mauritius.

From the description of Correspondence, 1845-1849 [microform]. [19--] (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 762865696

According to Kowalsky and Metzler, from 1622 to 1665 the congregazioni generali (general meetings) were often held in the presence of the pope, coram Sanctissimo. Beginning in 1666, this custom of holding general meetings ceased and the secretary was entrusted with the duty of referring to the pope on prearranged days the more important matters being discussed and of requesting the necessary faculties for matters that exceeded the jurisdiction of the cardinal prefect or the Congregation. The series thus begun is a collection of requests (brevi suppliche) to the pope.

From the description of Udienze di Nostro Signore, 1665-1900. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 145569611

An antiphonary is a book of sacred vocal music containing both the antiphons of the breviary and the musical notations. An antiphon itself is a musical response, as in alternate chanting.

From the description of Antiphonarium, [1606?]. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 56131462

The first full-page miniature (f. 13r), the main scene of which is John boiled in oil, is a painting from the workshop of Maître François, Paris's leading illuminator in the 1460s and 1470s. After the completion of this miniature, work on the manuscript was halted. A second campaign to finish the manuscript was begun by someone in the shop of the Master of Jacques de Besançon, who was Maître François's successor. The donor of the second campaign, a woman, appears the in final miniature in prayer next to St. Fiacre (f. 229r).

From the description of Book of hours : use of Rome : manuscript, ca. 1470. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612252652

Part B is the text or "emblem-poem" known as the Arma Christi.

From the description of Book of hours (Sarum use) : manuscript, [1400-1450], [ca. 1490]. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612867822

Missions of the Catholic Church were part of the earliest white settlement of Montana. Reverend Father DeSmet, who first preached Christianity in what would become Montana in 1840, established the first Catholic mission in Montana near the present-day location of Stevensville. The Catholic church was established in Helena in 1866. Hell Gate Town, west of present-day Missoula, was founded in 1860; within a year, residents petitioned Father Urban Grassi at St. Ignatius Mission for a church. In 1863 a church was completed one mile west of Hell Gate Town, near the confluence of the Bitterroot and Clark Fork rivers. This was known in the Catholic hierarchy as Missoula Mission until the Helena diocese was established in 1883, though it was constructed primarily to minister to whites, not Native Americans. Father Ravalli was in residence for several years, but the church was generally attended from St. Mary’s or St. Ignatius’ mission. It persisted in that location even after Hell Gate Town ceased to exist as the population shifted east to Missoula Mills until 1873, when the Sisters of Charity of Providence arrived in Missoula and when there was a dispute over the land on which the Hell Gate church was built. The building was moved to Missoula and placed near the Sisters’ house. Erection of a new church was delayed until 1881, when the first St. Francis Xavier Church was dedicated. The Frenchtown church was established in 1864 and served by the Jesuit brothers at St. Ingatius; like the Missoula church, it was known as a mission. In 1883, the Right Reverend John Baptist Brondel became bishop of Montana, and the first synod of the Catholic hierarchy was held in Helena in 1884.

From the guide to the Catholic Church Book of Baptisms / Functions, Helena, Hellgate, and Frenchtown, Montana, 1866-1907, (University of Montana--Missoula Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library Archives and Special Collections)

The Cistercian monastery of Melleray was founded in 1145 and continued until it was suppressed by Napoleon in 1791. It was purchased by the Cistercians of the Strict Observance (Trappist) from Lulworth, England in 1817 and quickly flourished to a foundation of 192 religious. Some members were sent out to found new communities, including 44 monks who left Melleray to found Gethsemani Abbey in Kentucky in 1848.

From the description of Antiphonale cisterciense : in quo continentur omnia quae tantum decantari solent ad vigilias in monasterio Beatae Mariae de Trappa, Mellearii. 1845. (University of Notre Dame). WorldCat record id: 25566441

The Cistercian monastery of Melleray was founded in 1145 and continued until it was suppressed by Napoleon in 1791. It was purchased by the Cistercians of the Strict Observance (Trappist) from Lulworth, England in 1817 and quickly flourished to a foundation of 192 religious. Some members were sent out to found new communities including 44 monks who left melleray to found Gethsemani Abbey in the diocese of Louisville, Kentucky in 1848.

From the description of Noted Cistercian breviary. [ca. 1845] (University of Notre Dame). WorldCat record id: 25566501

Zeeland, North Dakota.

From the description of Records, 1884-1975. (State Historical Society of North Dakota State Archives). WorldCat record id: 17732007

The institution of the conclave developed between the eleventh and the sixteenth century. In 1059, Nicholas II decreed that only the higher clergy of Rome had the right to elect a pope. In order to prevent a long interval between pontificates, Gregory X, in the bull Ubi Periculum, instituted the system of strict seclusion (the conclave) in 1274. In 1562, Pius IV brought further modifications to the procedure. The method has remained largely intact up to the present. The election is by secret ballot, and a two-thirds majority or greater is required for a valid election. Starting in the sixteenth century, conclaves generated a substantial literature around a branch of politics known as conclavistica. While insisting on the inscrutable role of the Holy Spirit in guiding papal elections, the authors were more interested in such mundane factors as the character, vices, virtues, interests, connections, and rivalries of the cardinals; the money spent by ambassadors to buy votes; and the machinations of the various factions in the College. The literature of conclavistica flourished in the middle of the seventeenth century, with a growing number of manuscripts and, to a lesser extent (for prudential reasons) printed works. Various crises of succession, along with polemics regarding specific candidates and the role of secular rulers in papal elections, led to this flowering. Conclave writings can be divided into three broad categories: conclave reports; predictions, along with lists of cardinals (called statere/stadere or papeide), and theoretical treatises. In addition, there are polemical, propagandistic, and satirical writings; authors include Vittorino Siri, Giulio Cesare Braccini, and Cesare Magalotti. Theoretical works held pride of place, and were often inserted into historical works; the principal authors included Gio[vanni] Francesco Lottini (Discorso sopra l'attioni del conclave di M. Gio Francesco Lottino; the variation in the surname is in Costantini, and probably goes back to Lottini) and Felice Gualtieri; others include Braccini and Magalotti. The leading author of historical accounts and reports was Alberto Macchiavelli (1583), who also translated conclave reports from Latin. Macchiavelli collected and translated conclave reports concerning Nicholas V, Callistus III, Pius II, Leo X, Adrian VI, Clement VII, and Julius III (author unknown); Innocent VIII, Pius III, and Julius II (by Giovanni Brocardo); Alexander VI (by Michele Ferro); Pius IV (by Antonio Guido); Marcellus II, Paul IV, and Pius V (Lottini); and Gregory XIII (author unknown). Conclave reports are further divided into histories, diaries, and avvisi (notices, news). Histories, called as a rule simply conclavi or conclaves, have higher literary ambitions and are more analytical; diaries are more concerned with ceremonies and minutiae. Authors of history include Alberto Macchiavelli and Agostino Mascardi (Gregory XV); diarists include Bastiano Casini. Avvisi were technically illegal, as no member in the conclave was supposed to send or receive any written matter; but this prohibition was ineffective. Examples include the dispatches of Giminiano Poggi (1644), Rinaldo e'Este, and Federico Cornaro. Secular rulers had regular access to information on events. Lists of cardinals considered "papabili" (singular "papabile"; literally, "popeable") became detached from predictions around the middle of the seventeenth century, and became a popular and often scurrilous genre, tinged with anti-curial polemic (Ferrante Pallavicino) and journalistic opportunism (Gregorio Leti, according to Costantini). These writings, besides containing juicy gossip, discussed such factors as age (the older, the better), culture and literacy, relations or entourage, etc. Among cardinals deemed "papabili," only a tiny minority were true candidates. However, these lists tended to extend to all the cardinals, since all cardinals participated in the election, and tended to move from prediction to personal description or caricature. They circulated anonymously, although some authors are known.

From the description of Italian episcopal and papal conclave letters, and Pius IX- Risorgimento collection. [1305?]-1870. (Catholic University of America). WorldCat record id: 74908080

In the Catholic Church, a diocesan synod is a convocation of vicars, abbots, canons, religious superiors, seminary rectors, and prominent priests of a diocese brought together by the bishop to discuss problems and policies, formulate regulations, and propose legislation. Lay people may also be invited. Members of a synod vote on measures proposed, but the synod has only consultative power; the bishop must ratify whatever the synod recommends before it becomes law.

From the description of Synods, 1829-1963. (University of Notre Dame). WorldCat record id: 25560484

The Roman Catholic Church established the archbishopric of Mexico in 1546. It encompassed the dioceses of Tlaxcala-Puebla, Oaxaca, Michoacán, Chiapas, and Guadalajara in the present Republic of Mexico, and those of Nicaragua, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Until the creation of the archibishopric of Guatemala in 1743, all dioceses in continental Spanish America north of Costa Rica were subordinate to Mexico. The following additional dioceses were created in the archbishopric of Mexico: Yucatán (1561), Guadiana-Durango (1620), Linares-Monterrey (1777), and Sonora (1779). The Church exerted influence on Mexico through the establishment of convents, churches, and hospitals, and by the issuance of decrees, bulls, etc. prescribing behavior and activities.

From the guide to the Catholic Church in Mexico Collection 29743374., 1580-1890, (Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin)

Probably Spanish; index page titled in Spanish.

From the description of Antiphonary, 1719. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122500187

Probably Spanish; inscription, "es de la yglesia catedral canaria, " however, might possibly be from Canaria, Peru.

From the description of Antiphonary, 1652. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84037295

From the guide to the [Proclamation requesting information on the theft of a mule], Lima, Peru Ms 0028., 14 Mar. 1657., (Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections)

This is an old and well-known miscellany of material in the ASV. In total it constitutes 120.7 linear meters and covers the dates 1330-1851. This miscellany originally consisted of fifteen series comprising twenty-five hundred volumes titled Miscellaneorum armarium I (etc.). Now series IV and V are combined. Many volumes from this series have been transferred to the Vatican Library. The series includes a wide array of records from many offices and individuals.

For the most part this series contains documents pertaining to political and ecclesiastical history of the sixteenth to nineteenth century, including: correspondence, documentation of practice or norms of procedure, regulations of congregations or other curial offices, records concerning the oversight of religious orders, instructions, reports, literary works, historical, political and theological writings, diaries, bulls, and edicts. (Most of the literary works have been transferred to the Vatican Library; see Index 315 [5-6] in the index room adjacent to the Sala dei manoscritti in the Vatican Library.) Much of the material originated in departments or offices of the Curia, notably the Secretariatus Status, the Congregatio super Statu Regularium, the Congregatio Negotiis et Consultationibus Episcoporum et Regularium Praeposita, the Congregatio Iurisdictionis et Immunitatis Ecclesiasticae, the Congregazione dei confini, the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, and the offices of the vice-chancellor and chamberlain of the Cancellaria Apostolica, who handled consistorial business. Some material also came from private archives or holdings, most of which concerns the activities of curial departments, such as the papers of Cardinal Ceva in Misc. Arm. III, 31-50 or the correspondence with nunzios in Misc. Arm. II, 131.

From the description of Miscellaneorum armaria, ca. 1330-1851 (scattered dates). (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 145568929

The Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith had control over all Roman Catholic missionary activity from the time of its foundation by Gregory XV in 1622. It had authority over the Catholic Church in the United States until 1908.

It consisted of a Cardinal Prefect and other cardinals appointed by the pope. They held a regular monthly meeting and formed commissions to deal with particular problems. In weekly meetings the Cardinal Prefect and the secretary of the Congregation dealt with routine matters. Every two months the pope met with members of the congregation to answer questions that required his authority.

From the description of Records, 1622-1903. (University of Notre Dame). WorldCat record id: 23808777

The "Propaganda," as it is generally known, serves what the Holy See considers its mission territories. The idea of a special congregation for missionary affairs seems to have originated with Ramon Lull, a Franciscan tertiary, who in the thirteenth century petitioned Celestine V (1294) and later Boniface VIII (1294-1303) to establish such a body. In 1567 Jean Vendville (later a bishop) revived the idea proposing that the pope institute a congregation for the conversion of the Greeks, another for alleviating the conditions of Christian captives among the Muslims, and a third for the Christian apostolate.

In 1568 at the urging of the Jesuit General, Francis Borgia, Pius V did establish two temporary commissions for the propagation of the faith: one for countries inhabited by Protestants, the other for non-Christian lands. The second commission began to meet immediately but ceased to function in 1569. There is no record of any activity on the part of the first.

In 1573 Gregory XIII instituted a provisional Congregatio de Rebus Graecorum (ID VATV139-A) and assigned to it the duty of maintaining and propagating the Catholic faith among the Christians of the East. Clement VIII (1592-1605), who had in 1594 set up a special congregation for the missions in Abyssinia and a year later one for the Italo-Greeks, on 11 Aug 1599 created a new congregation which he explicitly called Congregatio de Propaganda Fide but almost immediately changed to Congregatio super Negotiis Sanctae Fidei et Religionis Catholicae (ID VATV140-A). This, in fact, restored the original commission of Pius V and became a central authority for the missions, having a function corresponding to that of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith to be founded later.

During the pontificate of Clement VIII four proposals were being considered: 1) a congregation of cardinals for the propagation of the faith; 2) an organization to solicit financial support for the missions; 3) a publishing house to print Christian literature; and 4) a seminary for the training of missionaries.

In 1599 Clement VIII established a so-called synodal congregation for handling missionary affairs, but after some years it ceased to exist. It was not until 6 Jan 1622 that a central missionary organization of permanent status was erected. This formal erection was confirmed by Gregory XV's bull Inscrutabili divinae (22 Jun 1622). The creation of the Congregation de Propaganda Fide marked a new era in mission history and was an important step in wresting control of the missions from Spain and Portugal.

In 1627 Urban VIII founded the Urban College to be under the juristiction of the Propaganda (bull Immortalis Dei Filius, Aug. 1, 1627). The college was originally proposed by Bishop Vendville in 1578. In 1632 under the pontificate of Urban VIII, there emerged a collateral Congregazione dell'Economia to supervise the temporal affairs of the Congregation. This continued in existence until it was suppressed by Pius X's Sapienti consilio (Jun. 29, 1908).

The congregation remained practically unchanged for almost two centuries, but in 1862 Pius IX divided it into two sections, establishing within the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith a Congregatio de Propaganda Fide pro Negotiis Ritus Orientalis. That latter congregation was made autonomous in 1917 by Benedict XV and renamed the Congregatio pro Ecclesia Orientalis.

Pius X's apostolic constitution Sapienti consilio (29 Jun 1908) substantially restricted the territory of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith and changed the juridical position of the mission countries with regard to the Roman Curia as a whole. It also attached to the congregation the Commission for the Union of Dissident Churches (ID VATV460-A) erected by Leo XIII's motu proprio Optatissime (19 Mar 1895).

Benedict XV in his motu proprio Dei providentis (May 1, 1917) separated the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide pro Negotiis Ritus Orientalis from the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide and set it up as a new congregation of the Roman Curia under the name Congregatio pro Ecclesia Orientali, with complete autonomy for Oriental affairs. Paul VI's apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae (Aug. 15, 1967) changed the name to Congregatio pro Ecclesiis Orientalibus and decreed that there be a separate office for each rite of the Eastern church in communion with the Apostolic See.

Subject to the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith are the four principal missionary associations: the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, the Society of St. Peter for the Training of a Native Clergy, the Missionary Union of the Clergy, and the Association of the Holy Childhood. The International Fides News Service, an agency for the dissemination of mission news, is also under its direction.

Paul VI's apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae (Aug. 15, 1967) changed the name of the congregation to Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione, seu de Propaganda Fide. It also stated that the congregation was to have authority "in matters regarding all missions established to spread Christ's kingdom everywhere and, therefore, in the appointment and transfer of the required ministers, and the ecclesiastical boundaries; in proposing those who are to govern these areas; in making more effective provision for a native clergy, who should gradually assume a greater role and authority; and in directing and coordinating all missionary activity around the world, with regard to the missionaries themselves and the missionary contribution of the faithful." It also set up a supreme commission for the direction of the Pontifical Mission Aid Societies. John Paul II's apostolic constitution Pastor bonus (Jun. 28, 1988) redefined the functions of the congregation.

At first the authority of the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide was very broad, embracing all matters related to missionary activity. The word "missions" in this case encompasses a variety of responsibilities including conversion of non-Christian peoples, ministry to Catholics living in a predominantly Protestant or Orthodox areas, and dialogue among Christian denominations. This authority was exclusive for each and every mission territory, and it included all persons and cases, even those of the internal forum. In terms of ecclesiastical authority, it had not only administrative and legislative power but also judicial within its territory. As a result, the jurisdiction of the Propaganda from its earliest days was extensive. Its geographical domain included all of the Americas, Asia, Africa, Australia, the Protestant areas of northern Europe, and the Orthodox areas of eastern Europe. These extensive powers were modified by Pius X's apostolic constitution Sapienti consilio (Jun. 29, 1908). This restricted the congregation in regard to territory, matters of faith, matrimonial cases, the discipline of the sacred rites, and religious as missionaries.

In general, the congregation has charge of the Catholic missions for the spread of the faith, and whatever is connected with and necessary for their management. It has ordinary administrative and executive but no longer judicial power.

Within the territories subject to it, the congregation takes the place, in most matters, of the various congregations of the Roman Curia. However, it may not handle matters pertaining to the Holy Office (in cases concerning faith), the Ceremonial Congregation, the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, the Congregation for the Oriental Church, and the Penitentiary (in the internal forum). Its jurisdiction is also limited by that of the Congregation of Religious in matters concerning religious as such. Today the jurisdiction of the congregation reaches into practically all those portions of the world where the hierarchy has not been regularly established. (See Annuario Pontificio under the following headings: Vicariati Apostolici, Prefetture Apostoliche, Missioni Sui Iuris, Amministrazioni Apostoliche.)

To see a general agency history for the Curia Romana, enter "FIN ID VATV214-A"

From the description of Agency history record. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 145567100

As New Spain expanded northward from the Valley of Mexico, new dioceses of the Catholic Church were established to administer the spiritual conquests of the missionary padres; the Diocese of Guadalajara in 1548, the Diocese of Durango in 1620. As the frontier became consolidated, the old dioceses were subdivided. In 1779, southern Arizona and parts of southern New Mexico became part of the newly created Diocese of Sonora, under Bishop Antonio Reyes, who had been one of the earliest Franciscan missionaries in Pimería Alta.

Following the Mexican War of 1848 and the Gadsden Purchase of 1854, new ecclesiastical administration problems arose. A large number of Mexican and Native Americans had been added to the Catholic population of the United States. At the request of American Bishops, Pope Pius IX created the Vicariate Apostolic of New Mexico on July 19, 1850 and appointed Fr. John B. Lamy, as Vicar Apostolic with the title of Bishop of Agathonica.

In January of 1866, Bishop Lamy sent Fathers John B. Salpointe, Francis Boucard, Patrick Birmingham and a seminarian, Mr. Vincent from Santa Fe to Tucson. Father Birmingham became the first pastor of Gila City, near present day Yuma. Fathers Salpointe and Boucard established the parish of Saint Augustine in Tucson with San Xavier del Bac as their largest mission. Mr. Vincent opened a school at San Xavier and later in Tucson. Two years later, the Vicariate Apostolic of Arizona was formed with Father Salpointe as Vicar Apostolic. His Vicariate extended from Utah to Mexico, from El Paso County in Texas to Yuma. In 1897, the Diocese of Tucson was formed.

From the guide to the Records of the Catholic Church, Diocese of Tucson, 1721-1957, (University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections)

Books of hours were among the most common devotional texts of the Middle Ages. Produced throughout western Europe until the early 16th century, books of hours were important status items, often elaborately illuminated, that might be tailored to the specific tastes of well-heeled clients to reflect interests in particular saints or to incorporate other elements of their personal lives and religious, political, or social commitments.

The several texts comprising books of hours descend from the texts that comprised the liturgical service book known as a breviary, including the Divine Office and the Hours of the Virgin. Typical books of hours almost invariably included a calendar of feast days and holy days, the Hours of the Virgin (with devotional readings for each of the eight canonical hours), the penitential psalms and litany of petitions to the saints, the Office of the Dead, and various suffrages of the Saints. To these could be added a variety of other texts, depending on the wishes of the patron, including selections from the four gospels, the stations of the cross, prayers to the Virgin Mary (the Obsecro te and O intemerata), and short Offices such as the Hours of the Cross. Books of hours increased enormously in popularity during the 13th and 14th centuries and were wide spread in western Europe until the time of the Reformation. Although always an expensive item, less elaborately illustrated (and therefore more affordable) books were available to families of lesser means.

From the guide to the Timothy Matlack Book of Hours, ca. 1475?, (American Philosophical Society)

Books of hours were among the most common devotional texts of the Middle Ages. Produced throughout western Europe until the early 16th century, books of hours were important status items, often elaborately illuminated, that might be tailored to the specific tastes of well-heeled clients to reflect interests in particular saints or to incorporate other elements of their personal lives and religious, political, or social commitments.

The several texts comprising books of hours descend from the texts that comprised the liturgical service book known as a breviary, including the Divine Office and the Hours of the Virgin. Typical books of hours almost invariably included a calendar of feast days and holy days, the Hours of the Virgin (with devotional readings for each of the eight canonical hours), the penitential psalms and litany of petitions to the saints, the Office of the Dead, and various suffrages of the Saints. To these could be added a variety of other texts, depending on the wishes of the patron, including selections from the four gospels, the stations of the cross, prayers to the Virgin Mary (the Obsecro te and O intemerata), and short Offices such as the Hours of the Cross. Books of hours increased enormously in popularity during the 13th and 14th centuries and were wide spread in western Europe until the time of the Reformation. Although always an expensive item, less elaborately illustrated (and therefore more affordable) books were available to families of lesser means.

The self-described "farmer of Zelienople," Detmar Basse Müller, was originally a textile merchant from Frankfurt am Main, Germany, but before the age of forty, he had transformed himself into an accomplished cosmopolite. Having established commercial ties in France and the Low Countries, he filled minor diplomatic posts representing Frankfurt to the French Republic during the latter stages of the French Revolution, and in those turbulent markets, he made and lost a minor fortune. It was while recovering from a bankruptcy in Paris in 1802, that he conceived of emigrating to the United States, and purchasing almost 10,000 acres near Pittsburgh, he established two "colonies": Bassenheim and Zelienople, the latter named for his eldest daughter, Zelie.

In Zelienople, Basse hoped to create a medieval barony with himself as Baron. He built an iron foundry and grist mill to support himself and began raising merino sheep, which at the time were considered particularly lucrative. Whatever his religious inclinations may have been, he entered into an agreement in 1804 to sell 4,000 acres to the Harmonialist commune led by the German pietist prophet, Johann Georg Rapp. The Rappites lived a truly communistic existence, sharing life and labor, worldly goods, and religion, and like several other sects of the time, they eventually adopted the vow of celibacy. Basse's stay in America, however, was fairly short lived. He returned to Europe in 1818 and spent the remainder of his life near Mannheim, Germany.

From the guide to the Detmar Basse Müller Book of Hours, Circa 1475, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
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