Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980

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Erich Fromm (1900-1980) was a psychoanalyst, author, educator, and social philosopher. He was born in Frankfurt, Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1934. In New York Fromm was associated (until 1939) with the International Institute for Social Research. Fromm authored numerous books including Escape from Freedom which won him acclaim as an author of great brilliance and originality.

From the guide to the Erich Fromm papers, 1929-1949, 1932-1949, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Psychoanalyst.

From the description of Erich Fromm correspondence, 1927. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70984302

Ernst Papanek (1900-1973) was an Austrian-born child psychologist and educator known for his work with refugee children during and after World War II and for his involvement in socialist parties in Europe and the United States.

From the guide to the Ernst Papanek papers, 1928-1976, 1940-1970, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Dr. Erich Fromm, psychologist and social philosopher, was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, March 23, 1900. Following the receipt of his Ph. D. from the University of Heidelberg, in 1922, Fromm studied psychoanalysis at the University of Munich and at the Psycho-Analytic Institute of Berlin. It was during this period that Fromm began developing his theories regarding the interplay between psychology and society, stressing that an individual was the result of culture as well as biology. Fromm migrated to America in 1933. He taught at Columbia University (1934-1941), Bennington College (1941), Michigan State University (1957- 1961), and at New York University (1962). In 1951, Fromm also held an appointment with The National Autonomous University in Mexico, which he held simultaneously with his appointments in the United States. Fromm was married three times: to Frieda Reichmann (1926-1942), Henn Gurland (1944- 1952), and Annis Freeman (1953-1980). Sometime in the late 1960s or early 1970s, Fromm "retired" to Maralto, Switzerland, where he died on March 18, 1980.

From the description of Erich Fromm Collection, 1967-1984. (Auburn University at Montgomery). WorldCat record id: 33977418

Erich Fromm (1900-1980) was a psychoanalyst, author, educator, and social philosopher.

He was born in Frankfurt, Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1934. In New York Fromm was associated (until 1939) with the International Institute for Social Research. Fromm authored numerous books including Escape from Freedom which won him acclaim as an author of great brilliance and originality.

From the description of Erich Fromm papers, 1929-1949, bulk (1932-1949). (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 122597612

Ashley Montagu, born Israel Ehrenberg on June 28, 1905, was a British-American anthropologist, specializing in the areas of race and gender issues, as well as a prolific speaker and author, publishing over 50 books in his lifetime. The son of Jewish tailor Charles Ehrenberg and his wife, Mary Plot Ehrenberg, Montagu was born and raised in London's working class East End neighborhood. Although the reasoning behind his name change was never revealed, it may have been due to anti-Semitic prejudice faced by many East End Jews during his childhood, and Montagu might have felt the need to distance himself from his parents’ Russian and Polish backgrounds.

Montagu earned his undergraduate degree from University College London in psychology and anthropology. After studying anthropology at the London School of Economics under Bronislaw Malinowski, Montagu left England for the United States. He arrived at New York City in 1927 and began taking graduate classes at Columbia University. Montagu then traveled to Italy in 1928, where he took classes in ethnography and anthropology at the University of Florence. Upon his return to the United States in 1931, while working as an assistant professor of anthropology at New York University, Montagu married Marjorie Peakes. The couple would have two daughters, Audrey and Barbara, as well as a son, Geoffrey. In 1934 Montagu returned to Columbia University, culminating his postgraduate work at Columbia in 1936 with his dissertation, Coming into being among the Australian Aborigines: A study of the procreative beliefs of the native tribes of Australia, produced under the direction of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. Based largely on his dissertation, Montagu’s first book, Coming into Being among the Australian Aborigines, was published in 1937. After he completed his education, Montagu taught anatomy at Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia in 1938 and became an American citizen in 1940. It was during his time at Hahnemann that he began to produce work relating to race, resulting in his seminal work, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race, published in 1942. The work controversially advanced the argument that race was a social construct imposed upon a complex biological substratum and demolished the arguments for inherent inequality between human populations. The influential nature of Man’s Most Dangerous Myth led to Montagu’s service on the 4th United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) task force, in 1949. The ten member UNESCO committee, composed of such world-renowned social scientists as Claude Levi-Strauss and E. Franklin Frazier, was created to collect information about the problem of race and to establish educational programs to disseminate its findings. The resultant document, authored by Montagu, the group’s rapporteur, was published as the “Statement on Race” in 1951. The Committee’s final statement on race asserted: 1)All mankind belong to the same species and that the differences between groups are few compared to all of the genetic similarities. 2)That Race designates a group with high frequency of physical characteristics or particular genetic trait and that these traits fluctuate or even disappear over time. 3)The way in which people are grouped does not reflect the capacity or character traits of a particular group. The differences between races are physical and have no correlation with other traits like intelligence.

Upon leaving Hahnemann Medical College in 1949, Montagu moved to Rutgers University, where he was a professor of anthropology and head of the department from 1949 to 1955. While at Rutgers, Montagu wrote perhaps his most famous work, The Natural Superiority of Women, published in 1953. Examining the differences between the sexes anthropologically, Montagu concluded that women were the superior sex because they possessed a better capability to survive both as individuals and in groups- talents necessary for an advancing society. Based on these conclusions, he suggested that women receive equal pay for equal work, a controversial stance at the time.

With his prolific writing skills to rely on financially, and facing strong backlash for his openly liberal views and anti-McCarthy public statements, Montagu accepted a forced retirement from Rutgers in 1955 at the age of 50. Though retired from academic life, he continued to lecture at such institutions as Harvard University, Princeton University, the University of Santa Barbara, and New York University. Settling in Princeton, New Jersey, Montagu’s work took up a more humanist element with Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, his effort to encourage parents to take a more physical role in raising their children and especially to encourage mothers to breastfeed their babies. Published during that same year, Montagu’s book The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity, a history of the life of disfigured Briton Joseph Merrick, inspired a Tony winning play and later a motion picture. He continued publishing through the 1980s, including The Nature of Human Aggression (1976) and Growing Young (1981), while making numerous and notable television appearances on Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show as well as the Phil Donahue Show.

In his lifetime, Montagu received many major awards, among them the American Association of Humanists’ 1995 Man of the Year award, the Darwin Award from the American Association of Physical Anthropologist in 1994, and the Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Anthropological Association in 1987. Montagu maintained an active schedule of lecturing and gardening around his Princeton, New Jersey, home until he was hospitalized in March 1999; he died on November 26, 1999 from heart disease, at the age of ninety-four. He was survived by his wife of sixty-eight years, Marjorie, as well as his son and two daughters.

From the guide to the Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
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creatorOf Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968. Norman Thomas papers, 1904-1967, bulk (1933-1967). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Marshall, Lenore, 1897-1971. Papers, 1887-1980. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Angell, Norman, 1874-1967. Gilbert F. White papers, 1942-1957. Haverford College Library
referencedIn Society for Art, Religion and Contemporary Culture. Records, 1961-1990. Harvard University, Divinity School Library
referencedIn Weitz, Martin M. (Martin Mishli), 1907-. Papers, 1925-1978. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Mental health lecture series sound recordings, 1949 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Papers of Betty Friedan, 1933-1985 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Town Hall, Inc. Mental health lecture series sound recordings, 1949. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Guide to the Otto Rank Association Records, 1934-1993 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Belfrage, Cedric, 1904-. Papers, 1922-1990 (bulk 1945-1985). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. Joseph Barnes papers, 1907-1970, 1923-1970. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. El arte de amar [recurso electrónico] / Erich Fromm. Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico
referencedIn Hall, Edward T. (Edward Twitchell), 1914-2009. Papers, 1930-1979. University of Arizona Libraries
referencedIn Rollin, Betty. Papers, 1958-1987. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. Erich Fromm papers, 1929-1949, bulk (1932-1949). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Mary Lasker Papers, 1940-1993. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn New York Psychoanalytic Society. New York Psychoanalytic Society/New York Psychoanalytic Institute records of joint activities, 1933-1973. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Records, 1946-2000 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. Letters, 1955-1977, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Rosenshine, Annette, 1880-1971. Annette Rosenshine papers, 1885-1998 (bulk 1907-1971). UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Peplau, Hildegard E. Papers, 1923-1984 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Jack, Homer Alexander. Papers, 1930-[ongoing]. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Ruth Nanda Anshen Papers, 1938-1986. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam (1965 : University of Michigan). International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam papers, 1965-1966. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Kahler, Erich, 1885-1970. Erich (Von) Kahler papers, 1906-1968. University at Albany, University Libraries
referencedIn Shachtman, Max, 1903-1972. Papers, 1917-1969. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Lerner, Max, 1902-2001. Max Lerner papers, 1927-1992 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Papanek, Ernst, 1900-1973. Ernst Papanek papers, 1928-1976, bulk (1940-1970). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Norman Thomas papers, 1904-1967, 1933-1967 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Arendt, Hannah. Alternative perspectives on Vietnam papers, 1965-1966. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Merton, Thomas, 1915-1968. Thomas Merton collection, 1947-1968. University of Kentucky Libraries
creatorOf Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Records. : Series I., General Correspondence, 1922-1977 (bulk 1946-1966). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Letters and documents. Hollins University, Wyndham Robertson Library
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. Erich Fromm Collection, 1967-1984. Auburn University at Montgomery, Auburn Montgomery
creatorOf Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell records, 1946-1969. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Lasker, Mary. Mary Lasker papers, 1940-1993. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Max Shachtman Papers, 1917-1969 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Anshen, Ruth Nanda. Ruth Nanda Anshen papers, 1938-1986. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Records. Series V., Editor Files, 1873-1984 (bulk 1960-1980). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars records, 1927-1949, 1933-1945 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Maslow, Abraham H. (Abraham Harold). Abraham Maslow papers, 1929-1972. University of Akron, Bierce Library
referencedIn Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972 (inclusive), 1929-1957 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. Erich Fromm correspondence, 1927. Library of Congress
referencedIn Ehrlich, Paul R. Paul R. Ehrlich papers, 1954-2001. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972 (inclusive), 1929-1957 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Erich Fromm papers, 1929-1949, 1932-1949 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Beck, Patricia, 1924-1978. Patrica Beck Papers, 1936-1986 (bulk 1940-1978). Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. Correspondence, 1956-1970, from Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn ARS Audiotape Collection, 1900-1991 Archive of Recorded Sound
referencedIn Socialist Party (U.S.). Records of the Socialist Party (U.S.), 1897-1976. Library of Congress
referencedIn Dell H. Hymes Papers, 1947-1992 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Ernst Papanek papers, 1928-1976, 1940-1970 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Morris S. Lazaron Papers., 1851-1979, 1930-1950 The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Ungar, Frederick. Frederick Ungar papers, 1940-1988. University at Albany, University Libraries
referencedIn Cedric Belfrage Papers, Bulk, 1945-1985, 1922-1990, (Bulk 1945-1985) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Otto Rank Association. Papers, 1934-1993. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. Correspondence : with Margaret Naumburg, 1949. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Papers of George Wald, 1927-1996 Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn Papers, 1840-1961. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Joseph Barnes Papers, 1923-1970 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Jung, Leo, 1892-1987. Leo Jung Papers, 1878-1992, 1970-1979. Yeshiva University
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
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correspondedWith Rado, Sandor, 1890-1972 person
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associatedWith Wittfogel, Carl August person
associatedWith Wittfogel, Carl August. person
associatedWith Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Austria
Europe
United States
Subject
Refugees
Church work with children--Unitarian Universalist churches
Educators--United States
Anthropology
Children--Europe
Education--Austria
Jews
Juvenile delinquency--United States
Socialism--Austria
Ciegos--Libros y lectura
Research institutes
Social inequality
Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform
Social work with children--United States
Psychoanalysis
World War, 1939-1945--Children--Europe
Social psychology
Psychology
Biology, genetics, eugenics
Gender
Race
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees
Psychoanalysis--Congresses
Sociology
Social work with children--Europe
Children--United States
Research institutes--United States
Race, race relations, racism
Psychoanalysts as authors
Jews--United States
Anthropology, ethnography, fieldwork
Educators
Occupation
Psychoanalysts
Educators
Psychologists
Function

Person

Birth 1900-03-23

Death 1980-03-18

Americans

English,

German,

French,

Italian

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