American Jewish congress

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The American Jewish Congress was founded originally in 1918 by a group of Jewish American leaders as an umbrella structure for Jewish organizations to represent the American Jewish interests at the Peace Conference following the end of World War I. It was seen as a national parliamentary assembly representing all American Jews. Representatives to the Congress were selected by all major national Jewish organizations and delegates representing local communities were elected by some 350,000 Jewish voters.

The main purpose at that time was to unite American Jewry in support of a program to be submitted at the Versailles Conference, which included winning international support for a Jewish national home in Palestine and guarantees for the rights of Jews in post-war European countries. 1 Among the organizers of the American Jewish Congress were Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Justice Louis D. Brandeis, Judge Julian W. Mack and Zionist leader Louis Lipsky. During the Congress sessions in Philadelphia, its 400 elected deputes included such prominent figures as Felix Frankfurter, Henry Morgenthau, Nathan Straus, Henrietta Szold, Horace Kallen, future founder of New York’s New School, and a young Zionist from Milwaukee Golda Myerson (future Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir).

It was supposed that the Congress would dissolve as soon as it fulfilled its task. But in 1920 some delegates reassembled after the last session of the American Jewish Congress in Philadelphia, and the next day under the chairmanship of Stephen S. Wise laid foundations for a new American Jewish Congress, which for more than 90 years represented the American Jewish community in many significant issues and challenges of the 20 th century United States and the world. 2 Stephen S. Wise (1974-1949), a Reform rabbi and charismatic orator, became a champion for social justice and civil rights and was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He later became a strong advocate and vocal supporter of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's “New Deal”. In 1938-1945 Wise was member of Roosevelt's Advisory Commission on Political Refugees, and advocated admission of a large number of Jewish refugees.

The need for a permanent representative organization led to the formal establishment of the Congress as a permanent active body in 1922. 3 It soon became one of the central organizations and one of the most influential agencies in defending the interests of the American Jewish community. Its main goal was one of advocacy of American Jewish interests through organizational channels rather than through individual connections as was the practice before World War I. Expanding its agenda internationally, the American Jewish Congress emerged in 1930s as a leading force in the anti-Nazi effort to stop Hitler and aid the victims of persecutions, rousing the American public to the Nazi threat at home and abroad. The American Jewish Congress staged a huge protest rally against Hitler and anti-Semitism in March 1933 at New York’s Madison Square Garden, in which about 80,000 people participated. 4 The American Jewish Congress spearheaded the effort to unite Jewish communities around the world against their common Nazi enemy. A million dollar defense fund was launched to rescue Jewish children orphaned by the Nazis. The formation in the mid-1930s of the World Jewish Congress was a part of these international efforts, as was the American Jewish Congress’ domestic effort to combat anti-Semitism and discrimination against Jews in the U.S., using laws and social activism as the effective means of struggle.

Since its earliest years, women played an important role in the work of the American Jewish Congress, enjoying the right to vote and to run as candidate there several years before the adoption of the 19th Amendment establishing women’s suffrage. In 1933, with the help of Louse Waterman Wise (1874-1947) the American Jewish Congress founded the Women’s Division, an effective vehicle for social and political action, aimed at mobilization of Jewish women for the cause of Jewish rights. In 1934 Women’s Division became the first among the American Jewish organizations to call for the boycott of Nazi goods, and played a pivotal role in day-to-day operation and local supervision of the boycott. 5 Later it actively participated in the relief effort for the European Jewry and for Israel.

Starting as a loose federation of national Jewish organizations, the American Jewish Congress reviewed its policy and in 1940 began to enroll individual members, becoming a membership organization, with tens of thousands of members, and dozens of regional and professional chapters across the country. It first depended upon the energetic efforts of Stephen S. Wise and his associates to procure funds for its work, but starting from late 1930s it began to build a professional staff and attracted lawyers and prominent public activists like David W. Petegorsky, Justine Wise Polier and John Slawson to meet the growing needs of an expanding organization.

During World War II, the American Jewish Congress with other Jewish organizations used a variety of means to influence the decisions of the American government to rescue and to help the Jews of Europe who were being exterminated in the Holocaust. This included meetings with President Roosevelt, petitions to the government officials, negotiations with foreign diplomats, mass rallies at the Madison Square Garden and New York Lewisohn Stadium. They combated anti-Semitism, isolationism and pro-Nazi sympathies in the U.S. Despite steady petitioning and informing the Roosevelt administration on the plight of Jews under the Nazi occupation, the American Jewish Congress and other Jewish defense organizations were not successful enough to make the administration undertake more determined and effective steps to save the Jews of Europe. 6 After the war the American Jewish Congress was instrumental in relief efforts for the Jewish survivors. When the enormity of Holocaust became public, the American Jewish Congress coordinated a vigorous effort to help create a Jewish state and played a central role in winning U.S recognition and support of Israel. Support for Israel and strengthening the U.S.-Israel relationship became key concerns of the American Jewish Congress’ work.

In May 1945, the Executive Committee of the American Jewish Congress decided “to survey the activities of the American Jewish Congress, with a view of developing the dynamic presentation of the Congress program to the Jewish public and mobilizing adequate resources in support of the Congress movement”. The goal for the Congress was announced: “full equality in a free society for all Americans”. 7 It was decided to merge the Commission on Law and Legislation and the Commission on Economic Discrimination and create a new structure, the Commission on Law and Social Action (CLSA). When Will Maslow joined the American Jewish Congress to head the newly-founded Commission, the struggle against discrimination and bigotry took a new direction and a new impetus. Maslow created a special team of lawyers, including Shad Polier, Alexander Pekelis, Leo Pfeffer, Joseph Robison, Phil Baum, Naomi Levine, Lois Waldman and Howard Squadron, to pursue legal challenges to discriminatory practices in employment, education and housing at the time when the Department of Justice did not have even a single full time civil rights lawyer.

The struggle was waged in legislative chambers and courts, often attracting a great deal of public attention and support. In 1949 a successful campaign by CLSA in New York State led to enactment there of laws ensuring fair housing and education practices, which were the first of their kind in the nation. Working together with organizations like the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), CLSA got involved in constitutional issues like separation of church and state, and was instrumental in helping to outlaw school prayer and other religious practices in public schools in the 1960s and to stop government support of sectarian schools in the 1970s.

In 1964 the American Jewish Congress called for the elimination of restrictive abortion laws, and its Women’s Division and CLSA legal team joined the movement for women’s equality. By this time women in the American Jewish Congress increasingly refused to be segregated by gender within the organization and demanded equal power and responsibility in Jewish communal life. Affirming its dedication to the principles of liberty and equality, the American Jewish Congress eliminated the Women’s Division in the mid-1970s. Women were integrated into the national organization and assumed major leadership positions. In 1972 Naomi Levine became National Executive Director of the American Jewish Congress and the first woman to serve as an Executive Director of a national Jewish organization. 8

In 1984 the American Jewish Congress established the Commission for Women’s Equality (CWE), which concentrated on women’s issues and was chaired by a number of prominent feminists like Betty Friedan and Ann Lewis and with noted members like Cynthia Ozick, Bella Abzug, Francine Klagsbrun and others. CWE became the most effective voice in the Jewish community in support of reproductive freedom, participating in major pro-choice marches and events, and influencing U.S. Congress and state legislatures on abortion decisions. CWE successfully supported legislation prohibiting gender discrimination, and educated Jewish women on issues related to hereditary genetic ailments and mutations. Through the work of CWE the American Jewish Congress was the address for Jewish feminism. It held the first International Jewish Feminist Conference in Israel in 1987.

The American Jewish Congress viewed anti-Semitism, an historically unique form of discrimination, as a form of racism. That meant that Jewish people could not win their struggle for equality in isolation from other victims of discrimination and prejudice. The struggle demanded that Jews join with all other groups in confronting their common problems and involve themselves in common unified actions. The American Jewish Congress and especially CLSA cooperated closely and fruitfully with the NAACP and its Legal Defense Fund. CLSA started litigation to halt exclusion of Negroes from the Stuyvesant Town housing project in 1947 and brought housing discrimination in New York under state legal control in 1951. It was instrumental in ending racial discrimination in Levittown, New Jersey, in 1959. It submitted amicus curiae (friend of the court) briefs in virtually every racial segregation case before the U.S. Supreme Court, including the restrictive covenant cases in 1948 and the Brown v. Board of Education school desegregation decisions of 1954 and 1955. 9

In 1960s and 1970s the American Jewish Congress joined the active fight for civil rights, women’s equality and became an effective vehicle for social and political action. The civil rights campaign culminated in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in the nation’s capital on August 28, 1963. 10 The march was successful in pressuring the administration of John F. Kennedy to initiate a strong federal civil rights bill in Congress. President of the American Jewish Congress, Rabbi Joachim Prinz (1902-1988), was a founding chairman and one of the key organizers of the March. That day he walked to the podium immediately after a spiritual “I’m on my way” sung by the folk singer Odetta, and presented his address just before Martin Luther King delivered his famous "I have a dream” speech. In his address Dr. Prinz famously said that “America must not become a nation of onlookers. America must not remain silent. Not merely black America, but all of America. It must speak up and act, from the President down to the humblest of us…” 11

President Lyndon B. Johnson in his message on occasion of the 50 th anniversary of the American Jewish Congress wrote that the “eloquent voice of the American Jewish Congress has been heard not just on behalf of Jews but on behalf of the highest ideals of freedom and democracy we all share as Americans.” 12 The American Jewish Congress continued to be concerned with racial segregation even after the desegregation laws were adopted, and was involved in Ohio public schools’ segregation cases in late 1970s-early 1980s (Columbus Board v. Penick, Dayton Board v. Brinkman).

The American Jewish Congress became one of the nation’s most important agencies defending the interests and well-being of the Jewish people as well as defending the constitutional rights and freedoms of all Americans. In 1946 it launched a successful drive to bar the quota system in colleges and universities. It led the successful effort to liberalize Sunday Laws in New York and other states for the benefit of Saturday Sabbath observers. It remained actively involved in the legal issues related to racial segregation, free speech and religious liberty and church-state separation. At the same time it considered affirmative action to be an agonizing dilemma for the American Jewish Congress and for the Jewish community, recognizing, on one hand, the need to undo the effects of past massive injustice and discrimination against African-Americans, and on the other hand unable to accept sanctioning of admission to the legal system of race as a factor of making decisions in employment, education and other essentials of life (Bakke case). 13

In 1980, the American Jewish Congress filed amicus briefs in support of freedom of press in Unification Church v. Harper & Row and Sklar case. In Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, a free speech case the same year, the American Jewish Congress supported students who filed suit to vindicate their First Amendment rights.

The American Jewish Congress addressed injustice and inequality issues abroad, such as Arab discrimination against Jews in the Aramco company employment policy in Saudi Arabia. In 1964 a number of the American Jewish Congress officials were arrested at the Jordanian pavilion at the New York World Fair, protesting against the ant-Semitic mural there. The American Jewish Congress joined the struggle against the regime of apartheid in South Africa, campaigned to end persecution of Soviet Jews, to free the Jews of Syria, Ethiopia and Iran. It raised its voice protesting the atrocities in the Balkans in 1990s, the use of civilians as human shields by Hamas, and called for a stop to acts of genocide in Darfur and South Sudan. 14

Among its other activities, the American Jewish Congress organized a successful worldwide travel program (e.g. brought its 300,000 th tourist to Israel in 1991); established a unique program that brought mayors from cities around the world to Israel for better mutual understanding and cooperation (Jerusalem Mayors Conference); created a Hasbara Public Diplomacy project aimed at better information of American public about Israel and vice versa. The American Jewish Congress carried out significant publishing projects and produced a number of periodical publications, such as Congress Monthly and a scholarly journal Judaism.

In the late 2000s, the American Jewish Congress scaled back its activities, when donors gradually became more interested in direct support of particular cases and causes rather than of general Jewish non-profit organizations. On July 13, 2010 American Jewish Congress suspended its activities and laid off much of its staff.

Endnotes: 1. Jonathan Frankel, “The Jewish Socialists and the American Jewish Congress Movement,” YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science 16 (1976): 202-341. 2. Proceedings of Adjourned Session of American Jewish Congress Including Report of Commission to Peace Conference and of Provisional Organization for Formation of American Jewish Congress. Philadelphia, May 30-31 1920, pp. 32-81, American Jewish Historical Society, I-77, Box 8, Folder 5. Maurice J. Karpf. Jewish Community Organization in the United States (New York: Bloch Publishing Co., 1938), 63-64. 3. Minutes of Executive Committee meeting held in Philadelphia. May 22, 1922; June 4, 1922, American Jewish Historical Society, I-77, Box 5, Folder 4. Henry Feingold, A Time for Searching: Entering the Mainstream, 1920-1945 [The Jewish People in America, Volume 4] (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 158-159. 4. 35,000 in Streets Outside Garden. The New York Times, March 28, 1933. Blessings of Freedom: Chapters in American Jewish History, ed. Michael Feldberg (Hoboken, N.J.: Ktav Publishing House, 2002), 79. 5. Rona Sheramy, “"There are Times When Silence is a Sin": The Women's Division of the American Jewish Congress and the Anti-Nazi Boycott Movement,” in American Jewish History 89, no. 1 (March 2001): 105-121. 6. Hasia R. Diner, The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 217-221. 7. “The Two Commissions and Their Role in the Congress”. A Memorandum Submitted to Irving Miller, Chairman, Executive Committee, p. 3. American Jewish Historical Society, I-77, Box 594, Folder 9. 8. The AJCongress Women’s Division: A History (New York: American Jewish Congress, 2009), 5. Paula E. Hyman, “Feminism and the American Jewish Community”, in Imagining the American Jewish Community, ed. Jack Wertheimer (Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University Press, 2007), 245. 9. 35 Years of CLSA (New York: American Jewish Congress, 1980), 5-7. 10. Stuart Svonkin. Jews Against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), 87-88. 11. “Rabbi Joachim Prinz’ Speech,” Congress Monthly 70, no. 4 (July/August 2003): 15. 12. “A.J.C. Celebrates 50th Anniversary,” The New York Times, April 22, 1968. 13. 35 Years of CLSA, 8. Marc Dollinger, “A Different Kind of Freedom Ride: American Jews and Struggle for Racial Equality,” in An Inventory of Promises: Essays on American Jewish History in Honor of Moses Rischin, ed. Jeffrey S. Gurock and Marc Lee Raphael (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson Publishing, 1995), 63-87. 14. See, for example: “Soviet Jewry Update” [various materials], Congress Monthly 55, no. 2, (February 1988); Henry Siegman, “Bosnia and the Lesson of Memory”, Congress Monthly 60, no. 1 (January 1993); Patrick Clawson, “What Fate for Iran’s Jews?” Congress Monthly 66, no. 5 (September/October 1999); Gerhard L. Winberg, “Kosovo and the Holocaust”, Congress Monthly 67, no. 1, (January/February 2000); “American Jewish Congress’ resolution on Terrorism,” Congress Monthly 68, no. 5 (September/October 2001); “Resolution of the American Jewish Congress 2008 Annual Meeting “Acting to Stop Genocide in Darfur,” Congress Monthly 75, no. 3 (May/June 2008): 7.

For further literature on the history of the American Jewish Congress, see also:

Chanes, Jerome. “American Jewish Congress,” in Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 2, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA in association with the Keter Publishing House, 2006).

Frommer, Morris. “The American Jewish Congress: A History, 1914–1950.” Ph. D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1978.

--------. “American Jewish Congress,” in Jewish American Voluntary Organizations, ed. Michael Dobkowski. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Gottlieb, Moshe. American Anti-Nazi Resistance, 1933-1941: An Historical Analysis . New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1982.

Rosenbaum, Gerald. “The educational efforts of the American Jewish Congress to combat anti-Semitism in the United States, 1946-1980.” Ph. D. dissertation, Loyola University, 1992.

Svonkin, Stuart. Jews Against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties . New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1997.

From the guide to the American Jewish Congress, records, undated, 1916-2006 (bulk 1949-2003), (American Jewish Historical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn General Jewish Council Records, 1934-1947 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council Records, undated, 1940-1994 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Brandeis, Louis Dembitz, 1856-1941. Louis Brandeis letter, 1916 Mar. 29. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Edelstein, Julius C. C. (Julius Caius Caesar), 1912-2005. Julius Edelstein papers, 1917-1961 [Bulk Dates: 1948-1958]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Charles Abrams papers, 1923-1970. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Ronya Schwaab Papers, undated, 1877-2001, 1958-2001 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Richards, Bernard G. (Bernard Gerson), 1877-1971. Bernard G. Richards papers, 1897-1967 Jewish Theological Seminary of America
referencedIn Baron, Salo W. Papers, 1900-1980 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Philipson, David, 1862-1949. Papers, 1883-1949. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Boston Records Wyner Family Jewish Heritage Center at New England Historic Genealogical Society
referencedIn Arthur E. Sutherland papers Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
referencedIn Polier, Justine Wise, 1903-1987. Papers, 1892-1990 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf American Jewish Congress, records, undated, 1916-2006 (bulk 1949-2003) American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Alan Barth papers, 1937-1981 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Goldstein, Abraham, 1893-1953. Papers, 1929-1946. Yeshiva University
referencedIn Hans J. Morgenthau Papers, 1858-1981, (bulk 1925-1981) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Papers of the Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1913-1991 University of Southampton Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Wise, Stephen S. (Stephen Samuel), 1874-1949. Family papers, 1899-1951. Brandeis University Library
referencedIn International Ladies Garment Workers Union. Charles S. Zimmerman papers, 1919-1958 [bulk 1920-1945]. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Greenberg, Blu, 1936-. Papers of Blu Greenberg, 1936-2006 (inclusive), 1972-2003 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn World Jewish Congress Records, 1918-1982 (bulk 1940-1980) The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Marvin Lowenthal, papers, undated, 1871-1959 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Freund, Paul A. Paul A. Freund papers. 1918-1993. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Hand, Learned, 1872-1961. Papers, 1840-1961 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Papers, 1892-1990 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Floyd B. McKissick Papers, 1940s-1980s University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection
referencedIn Andreĭ Sakharov papers, 1852-2002 (inclusive), 1960-1990 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Julius Edelstein Papers, 1917-1963, [Bulk Dates: 1948-1958] Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Papers of Beatrice Sobel Burstein, (inclusive), (bulk), 1928-2001, 1954-1991 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection Records relating to the career of Joseph Tenenbaum correspondence articles essays speeches. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
creatorOf American Jewish Congress. Correspondence with Chaim Potok, 1973-1979. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Lloyd K. (Lloyd Kirkham) Garrison papers, 1893-1990 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. General Secretary-Treasurer. Joseph Schlossberg correspondence, 1930-1940. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Simon Ernest Sobeloff Papers, 1882-1973, (bulk 1950-1973) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Louis E. Shecter Papers, 1933-1972 Syracuse University. Library. Special Collections Research Center
referencedIn Fine, Alvin I., 1916-. Alvin I. Fine papers, 1848-1962. Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, Rabbi Morris Goldstein Library
referencedIn Marshall, Louis, 1856-1929. Papers, 1891-1930. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Paul Blanshard Papers, 1912-1979 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Sophia Fund (Chicago, Ill.). The Sophia Fund records, 1983-1991. Chicago History Museum
referencedIn Barondess, Joseph, 1867-1928. Papers, 1912-1928. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Garrison, Lloyd K. (Lloyd Kirkham), b. 1897. Papers, 1893-1990. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
creatorOf Joint Boycott Council of the American Jewish Congress and Jewish Labor Committee. Joint Boycott Council of the American Jewish Congress and Jewish Labor Committee records, 1933-1959. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Lewin, Kurt, 1890-1947. Kurt Lewin papers, 1890-1978. University of Akron, Bierce Library
referencedIn Bernard G. Richards papers, undated, 1820, 1868, 1895-1996, 1999 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Friedan, Betty. Papers of Betty Friedan, 1941-2006 (inclusive), 1980-2000 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Bureau on Jewish Employment Problems (Chicago, Ill.), records, undated, 1940-1962 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection papers. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Glueck, Sheldon, 1896-1990. Papers, 1916-1972 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Levin, Jack L., 1912-2001. Papers, 1910-2000. Jewish Historical Society of Maryland Library
referencedIn Barondess, Joseph, 1867-1928. Correspondence, 1912-1928 [microform]. Brandeis University Library
referencedIn Smullens, SaraKay Cohen 1940-. Papers, 1904-2008 University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn Sadowsky, Beatrice, 1900-. Papers, 1928-1984 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn American Jewish Congress, Northern California Division records, 1957-1988 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Papers of Blu Greenberg, (inclusive), (bulk), 1936-2006, 1972-2003 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Morris, Jacob M. (Jacob Morris), b. 1888. Papers, 1912-1959. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn New York Times Company records. A.M. Rosenthal papers, 1955-1994, 1967-1986 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Baron, Salo W. (Salo Wittmayer), 1895-1989. Salo Wittmayer Baron papers, ca. 1900-1980. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Posner, Seymour, 1925-1988. Papers, 1964-1988. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn United Citizens' Committee for Freedom of Residence in Illinois. Records, 1951-1966. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Seder Ritual Committee Records, undated, 1952-1969 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Warburg, Felix M. (Felix Moritz), 1871-1937. Papers, 1895-1937. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Morris, Jacob M. (Jacob Morris), b. 1888. Papers, 1912-1959. American Jewish Archives
creatorOf American Jewish Congress. Records of the American Jewish Congress, the Canadian Jewish Congress, and the World Jewish Congress, 1942-1945. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn J. B. Matthews Papers, 1862-1986 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Lelyveld, Arthur J., 1913-1996. Arthur J. Lelyveld papers, 1901-1993 (1950-1987). Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
referencedIn Joint Boycott Council of the American Jewish Congress and Jewish Labor Committee records, 1933-1959 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Sobeloff, Simon Ernest, 1894-1973. Papers, 1882-1973 (bulk 1950-1973). Library of Congress
referencedIn Wise, Stephen S. (Stephen Samuel), 1874-1949. Collection, 1896-1949. Brandeis University Library
referencedIn Florence Mendheim Collection of Anti-Semitic Propaganda, 1917-1994, bulk 1922-1948 Leo Baeck Institute.
referencedIn Jacob Xenab Cohen, papers, undated, 1913-1978 American Jewish Historical Society
creatorOf Paul Blanshard Papers, 1912-1979 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing. Archives. 1945-198? Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn Morgenthau, Hans J. (Hans Joachim), 1904-1980. Hans J. Morgenthau papers, 1858-1981 (bulk 1925-1981). Library of Congress
referencedIn Papers, 1928-1984 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Local 22 (New York, N.Y.). ILGWU. Local 22. Charles Zimmerman. Photographs, 1910-1958. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Virginia Levitt Snitow Papers, undated, 1909-2001 American Jewish Historical Society
creatorOf American Jewish Congress. [Materials from the American Jewish Congress submitted to the Commission on Government Security. [microform]. Princeton University Library
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Gore Vidal papers, 1850-2020 (inclusive), 1936-2008 (bulk) Houghton Library
referencedIn Asher, Joseph, 1921-1990. Joseph Asher papers, 1949-1992. Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, Rabbi Morris Goldstein Library
referencedIn Pilpel, Harriet F. Papers, 1967-1980 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection Records relating to the career of Joseph Tenenbaum Scrapbooks and photographs scrapbooks photographs. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Kaplan, Harry. Harry Kaplan papers, 1924-1970. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Records, 1873-1985. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Papers, 1967-1980 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Glicksberg, Charles Irving, 1901-. The Papers of Charles I. Glicksberg ; 1923-1998 1930-1979. Brooklyn College
referencedIn Mack, Julian W. (Julian William), 1866-1943. Papers, 1854-1975. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Seymour Posner Papers, 1940-1989 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Jewish Labor Committee collection, undated, 1933-1969 American Jewish Historical Society
creatorOf Wise, Stephen S. (Stephen Samuel), 1874-1949. Correspondence with Alma Mahler and Franz Werfel, 1940-1944. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Henry Wise Papers Wyner Family Jewish Heritage Center at New England Historic Genealogical Society
referencedIn Sobeloff, Simon Ernest, 1894-1973. Simon Ernest Sobeloff papers, 1882-1973 (bulk 1950-1973). Library of Congress
referencedIn Louis E. Shecter, papers, undated, 1921-1989 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Barth, Alan. Alan Barth papers, 1937-1981 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Abrams, Charles, 1902-1970. Charles Abrams papers, 1923-1970. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Levine, Louis. Papers, 1932-1953. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Sanford, Terry, 1917-1998. Terry Sanford Papers, 1926-1996 (bulk 1986-1992) David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection Records relating to the career of Joseph Tenenbaum Correspondence correspondence. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn The records of the Catholic Interracial Council of New York. Catholic University of America
referencedIn Norman Dorsen Papers, 1953-2006 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
creatorOf Ellenbogen, Henry. Henry Ellenbogen papers 1918-1985 [papers]. Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Heinz History Center Detre Library and Archives
referencedIn Rogers, Florence, 1907-2000. Florence and Solomon Rogers papers, 1941-1985. Jewish Historical Society of Maryland Library
referencedIn Shad Polier Papers, 1916-1976 (bulk 1940-1970) American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Benjamin Rabalsky papers, 1913-1932 Wyner Family Jewish Heritage Center at New England Historic Genealogical Society
referencedIn Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Boston MacIver Report Records Wyner Family Jewish Heritage Center at New England Historic Genealogical Society
referencedIn Jewish Labor Committee Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Records, 1957-1985. Temple University Libraries, Paley Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Abrams, Charles, 1902-1970. person
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. General Secretary-Treasurer. corporateBody
associatedWith American Jewish Congress. Commission on Law and Social Action corporateBody
associatedWith American Jewish Congress. Commission on National Affairs corporateBody
associatedWith American Jewish Congress. Northern California Division corporateBody
associatedWith American Jewish Congress. Office of Jewish Information corporateBody
associatedWith American Jewish Congress. Public Relations Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith American Jewish Congress. Women's Division corporateBody
associatedWith Asher, Joseph, 1921-1990. person
associatedWith Barondess, Joseph, 1867-1928. person
associatedWith Baron, Salo W. (Salo Wittmayer), 1895-1989. person
associatedWith Barth, Alan. person
associatedWith Baum, Phil person
associatedWith Beatrice Sadowsky, 1900- person
associatedWith Beatrice Sobel Burstein, 1915-2001 person
associatedWith Bikel, Theodore person
associatedWith Blanshard, Paul, 1892-1980. person
correspondedWith Blu Greenberg, 1936- person
associatedWith Boston Jewish Community Relations Council person
associatedWith Brandeis, Louis Dembitz, 1856-1941. person
associatedWith Bureau on Jewish Employment Problems (Chicago, Ill.) corporateBody
associatedWith Charles Abrams 1902-1970. person
associatedWith Dorsen, Norman person
associatedWith Edelstein, Julius C. C. (Julius Caius Caesar), 1912-2005. person
associatedWith Ellenbogen, Henry. person
associatedWith Fine, Alvin I., 1916- person
associatedWith Florence Mendheim, 1899-1984 person
associatedWith Friedan, Betty. person
associatedWith Garrison, Lloyd K. (Lloyd Kirkham), b. 1897. person
associatedWith General Jewish Council person
associatedWith Glicksberg, Charles Irving, 1901- person
associatedWith Glueck, Sheldon, 1896- person
associatedWith Goldstein, Abraham, 1893-1953. person
associatedWith Greenberg, Blu, 1936- person
associatedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
associatedWith Harriet (Fleishl) Pilpel person
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Local 22 (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Jacob Xenab Cohen, 1889-1955 person
associatedWith Jewish Community Relations Council Boston-MacIver Report corporateBody
associatedWith Jewish Labor Committee corporateBody
associatedWith Jewish Labor Committee Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. corporateBody
associatedWith Joint Boycott Council of the American Jewish Congress and Jewish Labor Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith JUSTINE (WISE) POLIER, 1903-1987 person
associatedWith Kaplan, Harry. person
associatedWith Lelyveld, Arthur J., 1913-1996. person
associatedWith Levine, Louis. person
associatedWith Levine, Naomi person
associatedWith Levin, Jack L., 1912-2001. person
associatedWith Lewin, Kurt, 1890-1947. person
associatedWith Lowenthal, Marvin person
associatedWith Mack, Julian W. (Julian William), 1866-1943. person
associatedWith Marshall, Louis, 1856-1929. person
associatedWith Maslow, Will person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
associatedWith McKissick, Floyd B. (Floyd Bixler), 1922- person
associatedWith Morgenthau, Hans J. (Hans Joachim), 1904-1980. person
associatedWith Morris, Jacob M. (Jacob Morris), b. 1888. person
associatedWith National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing. corporateBody
associatedWith National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council corporateBody
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith Paul A. Freund person
associatedWith Pekelis, Alexander H. (Alexander Haim), 1902-1946 person
associatedWith Petegorsky, David W. person
associatedWith Pfeffer, Leo, 1910- person
associatedWith Philipson, David, 1862-1949. person
associatedWith Pilpel, Harriet F. person
associatedWith Polier, Justine Wise, 1903-1987. person
associatedWith Polier, Shad person
associatedWith Polier, Shad person
associatedWith Posner, Seymour person
associatedWith Posner, Seymour, 1925-1988. person
associatedWith Rabalsky, Benjamin person
associatedWith Richards, Bernard G. person
associatedWith Richards, Bernard G. (Bernard Gerson), 1877-1971. person
associatedWith Robison, Joseph B. person
associatedWith Rogers, Florence, 1907-2000. person
associatedWith Rosenthal, A. M. (Abraham Michael), 1922-2006 person
associatedWith Sadowsky, Beatrice, 1900- person
correspondedWith Sakharov, Andreĭ, 1921-1989 person
correspondedWith Sanford, Terry, 1917-1998 person
associatedWith Schwaab, Ronya, 1909-2001 person
associatedWith Seder Ritual Committee corporateBody
associatedWith Shecter, Louis E. person
associatedWith Siegman, Henry person
associatedWith Smullens, SaraKay Cohen 1940- person
associatedWith Snitow, Virginia Levitt person
associatedWith Sobeloff, Simon Ernest, 1894-1973. person
associatedWith Sophia Fund (Chicago, Ill.) corporateBody
associatedWith Squadron, Howard M. person
associatedWith Steinberg, Lillian person
associatedWith Stern, Marc D. person
correspondedWith Sutherland, Arthur E., 1902-1973 person
associatedWith Tenenbaum, Joseph. person
associatedWith The Institute of Jewish Affairs corporateBody
associatedWith Union of American Hebrew Congregations. corporateBody
associatedWith United Citizens' Committee for Freedom of Residence in Illinois. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Commission on Government Security. corporateBody
correspondedWith Vidal, Gore, 1925- person
associatedWith Waldman, Lois person
associatedWith Warburg, Felix M. (Felix Moritz), 1871-1937. person
associatedWith Wise, Henry person
associatedWith Wise, Louise Waterman person
foundedBy Wise, Stephen Samuel, 1874-1949 person
associatedWith Wise, Stephen S. (Stephen Samuel), 1874-1949. person
associatedWith World Jewish Congress corporateBody
associatedWith Zimmerman, Charles S. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Subject
Reproductive rights
Women's rights
Discrimination
Loyalty oaths
Education
Internal security
Political and Legislative Issues
Church and state
Israel
Economic and Social Welfare
Biomedical Issues and Ethics
Security clearances
Freedom of speech
Jewish Issues
Antisemitism
Terrorism
Civil Liberties and Rights
Freedom of religion
International law
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1933

Active 1959

Americans

English

Information

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Ark ID: w6rr63g1

SNAC ID: 38407994