National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

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Agency History (1909-1967)

This chronology covers key events in the NAACP's history, providing a general framework and points of reference for understanding the visual materials in this collection. Listed events do not necessarily correspond to particular visual materials in the collection; some listed events are well covered in the collection, while others are not.

  • 1909: Oswald Garrison Villard issues the “Call,” a petition calling for a national conference to discuss means for ending social and civil injustices against African Americans. Out of this effort the National Negro Committee, sometimes referred to as the Committee of Forty, is formed.
  • 1910: The National Negro Committee holds its second meeting and changes its name to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. First legal case: Pink Franklin v. State of South Carolina. First issue of the Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP, is published with W.E.B. Du Bois serving as editor. First NAACP office opens at 20 Vesey Street, New York, N.Y.
  • 1911: NAACP is incorporated in New York, N.Y.
  • 1912: First board of directors is selected. Oswald Garrison Villard is appointed chairman of the board of directors.
  • 1913: 50 branches in existence.
  • 1914: Joel Spingarn is elected chairman of the board of directors, replacing Oswald Garrison Villard. Offices move to 70 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y.
  • 1915: First Spingarn Medal is awarded to biologist Ernest Just, Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.
  • 1916: The first Amenia Conference is held at Troutbeck, Joel Spingarn's estate at Amenia, N.Y. James Weldon Johnson is hired as field secretary. Anti-lynching campaign starts with the formation of a committee to raise funds and public awareness about lynching.
  • 1917: Silent Protest parade is organized to protest the injustices of discrimination and segregation.
  • 1918: John Shillady is appointed executive secretary. Walter White is appointed assistant secretary.
  • 1919: NAACP publishes a major study of lynching entitled Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918. Anti-lynching Conference is held at Carnegie Hall, New York, N.Y. Memberships total 56,000. Mary White Ovington becomes chairman of the board of directors.
  • 1920: James Weldon Johnson is appointed executive secretary. He becomes the first African American to be appointed to this level within the Association. He replaces John Shillady, who resigned after being beaten by a mob in Austin, Texas, while on official business for the Association. William Pickens is appointed field secretary. Offices move to 69 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y.
  • 1922 - 25 : Involvement in various legal cases concerning restrictive convenants, peonage, and voting rights.
  • 1927: The Life Membership program is initiated.
  • 1929: Moorfield Storey, first president, dies. 325 branches in 44 states. Voting rights, housing, and employment discrimination campaigns accelerate.
  • 1930: Joel Spingarn succeeds Moorfield Storey as president. Daisy Lampkin becomes regional field secretary. James Weldon Johnson resigns. NAACP leads a successful campaign against the nomination of Judge John Parker to the United States Supreme Court.
  • 1931: Walter White is appointed executive secretary. Roy Wilkins is hired as assistant secretary.
  • 1933: Roy Wilkins and George Schuyler investigate working conditions of African Americans employed by the Mississippi Flood Control Project. The second Amenia Conference is held to discuss the social and political progress of African Americans.
  • 1934: Campaigns against employment discrimination get underway. Dr. Louis Wright becomes chairman of the board of directors. W.E.B. Du Bois resigns.
  • 1935: Roy Wilkins becomes acting editor of the Crisis. Charles Houston is appointed special counsel. Youth councils begin to spring up across the nation.
  • 1936: William Pickens becomes director of branches. William English Walling, founding member, dies. NAACP initiates campaigns against unequal salaries for African American teachers--first cases filed in Maryland. Campaigns and legal action to eliminate segregation in education at the college level.
  • 1937: Roy Wilkins becomes editor of the Crisis.
  • 1938: Thurgood Marshall is appointed special counsel, replacing Charles Houston. E. Frederic Morrow becomes coordinator of branches.
  • 1939: Joel Spingarn, president, dies. Legal Defense Fund formed.
  • 1940: Campaigns for elimination of discrimination in the armed services. Arthur Spingarn becomes president.
  • 1941: Ella Baker joins staff as assistant field secretary. Campaigns against discrimination in defense industries hiring practices. 55 youth councils and 14 college chapters exist.
  • 1942: Washington, D.C., bureau is established.
  • 1943: Ruby Hurley is appointed youth director. Ella Baker becomes director of branches.
  • 1944: W.E.B. Du Bois returns to the Association as director of special research.
  • 1945: Offices move to 20 West 40th Street, New York, N.Y.
  • 1946: Campaigns against segregation in education continue--a number of new cases filed. Clarence Mitchell is appointed national labor secretary, Washington, D.C., bureau. Ella Baker, director of branches, resigns. Gloster Current succeeds Ella Baker as director of branches.
  • 1948: Henry Lee Moon is appointed director of public relations. W.E.B. Du Bois, director of special research, resigns.
  • 1949: Walter White, executive secretary, resigns due to poor health. Oswald Garrison Villard, founding member, dies.
  • 1950: Clarence Mitchell is appointed director, Washington, D.C., bureau. The National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization meets in Washington, D.C., to support enactment of civil rights laws.
  • 1951: “Equality under Law” campaign is initiated to eliminate segregation in elementary and secondary schools.
  • 1952: School desegregation cases reach the United States Supreme Court. Dr. Louis Wright, chairman of the board of directors, dies.
  • 1953: “Fight for Freedom” campaign is initiated, with the goal to eliminate segregation and discrimination by 1963, the 100th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. Organizers vowed to raise $1,000,000 annually through 1963 to help fund the campaign. Channing Tobias is appointed chairman of the board of directors.
  • 1954: Brown v. Board of Education decided; the United States Supreme Court decision overturns the “separate but equal” doctrine.
  • 1955: Walter White, former executive secretary, dies. Roy Wilkins succeeds Walter White as executive secretary. Memberships surpass 300,000.
  • 1956: Legal action is initiated against the NAACP by the states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, challenging the right of the NAACP to operate in those states.
  • 1957: Federal court orders Little Rock, Arkansas, to desegregate its schools. Widespread violence breaks out as the first nine African American students try to attend Central High School. Local NAACP leaders Daisy and L.C. Bates direct the strategy for implementing the United States Supreme Court's desegregation orders in Little Rock. Civil Rights Act of 1957 is enacted through coordinated efforts of the NAACP and other civil rights and labor groups. Prayer Pilgrimage in Washington, D.C., to show support for civil rights.
  • 1959: Branches are involved in voter registration campaigns in the South. The Association celebrates its 50th anniversary.
  • 1960: Dr. Robert Weaver becomes chairman of the board of directors; he resigns one year later to head the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency.
  • 1961: Bishop Stephen Gill Spottswood is appointed chairman of the board of directors.
  • 1963: Memberships surpass 500,000. Medgar Evers, Mississippi field director, is assassinated. W.E.B. Du Bois dies in Accra, Ghana.
  • 1966: Arthur Spingarn, president, retires. Kivie Kaplan is elected president.
  • 1967: Offices move to 1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

From the guide to the Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records (Library of Congress), ca. 1838-1969, bulk 1944-1955, (Prints and Photographs Division Library of Congress)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Illinois. Civil Service Commission. Correspondence and subject files, 1905-1962. Illinois State Archive
referencedIn Sampson, Edith S. (Edith Spurlock), 1901?-1979. Papers, 1927-1979 (inclusive) 1934-1979 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Civil Rights History Project collection, 2010-2011 Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center Library of Congress,http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/folklife.home
creatorOf National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Records, 1915-1955. State Historical Society of Iowa, Library
creatorOf National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Audio materials, 1956-1977 [sound recording]. Library of Congress
referencedIn Durr, Virginia Foster. Papers, 1919-1991 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Green, Ellen Haynes, 1915-. [Papers] 1957-1992. University of South Florida, USF Library
referencedIn Dade, Malcolm,. Oral history interview with Malcolm Dade, 1969. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf American Association for the Advancement of Atheism. General brochure and pamphlet collection, 1921-ongoing (bulk 1948-1967) The Henry Ford, Benson Ford Research Center
referencedIn Baker, Ella, 1903-1986. Ella Baker papers, 1926-1986. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Walden, A. T. (Austin Thomas), 1885-1965. Papers, 1885-1965. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn Wolford, David,. School desegregation in western Kentucky oral history project, 2002. Kentucky Historical Society, Martin F. Schmidt Research Library
referencedIn Political women in Connecticut Interview transcripts, 1980-1981 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Corvallis Branch. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Corvallis Branch records, 1971-1974. Oregon State University Libraries
referencedIn Mallery, Joseph A. Papers, 1924-1960. Washington State University, Holland and Terrell Libraries
referencedIn Zimmerman, David W., 1901-. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Cowen, Richard W. Richard W. and Constance Cowen papers, 1975. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn National Union of Hospital and Health Care Employees. Series 6, Subseries 4. Bayard Rustin interview, 1977. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Alabama. Governor (1955-1959 : Folsom). Correspondence regarding Jimmy Wilson, 1958. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn John Mercer Wright papers, 1928-1945 University of Kansas Kenneth Spencer Research Library Kansas Collection.
referencedIn Durham, LaRamon,. LaRamon Durham oral history interview, 1989 Oct. 13. Georgia State University
referencedIn Buck, J. L. Blair (James Lawrence Blair), 1886-1967. Papers of James Lawrence Blair Buck [manuscript] / compiled by Buck as president of the Virginia Committee for Public Schools, 1931 [1958-60]. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Kester, Howard, 1904-1977. Howard Kester papers, 1923-1972. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Davis, John W. (John Warren), 1888-1980. Papers, 1905-1979. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
creatorOf White, Walter Francis, 1893-1955. Correspondence with Johan Thorsten Sellin, 1935. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records (Library of Congress), ca. 1838-1969, bulk 1944-1955 Prints and Photographs Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Mitchell, Clarence M. (Clarence Maurice), 1911-1984. Reminiscences of Clarence Maurice Mitchell : oral history, 1981. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Tanner, Jack Edward, 1919-2006. Jack Edward Tanner collection, 1900-2001 bulk 1955-1990. Washington State Historical Society
referencedIn Greenberg, Jack, 1924-. Oral history interview with Jack Greenberg, 1975. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Scott, George, 1926-. Papers, 1944-1979. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
creatorOf Milgram, Morris 1916-. Morris Milgram papers 1923-1994, undated Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Hagen, Booker T.,. Booker T. Hagen oral history interview, 1989 Oct. 14. Georgia State University
referencedIn Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters' meetings [sound recording]. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Records of the Jamaica Peace Corps Training Program, Bulk, 1962, Bulk, 1962 1961-1982 New York University. Archives.
referencedIn Spingarn, Joel Elias, 1875-1939. Joel E. and Amy E. Spingarn papers, 1898-1972. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Caldwell, Robert C., 1913-1999. [Robert C. Caldwell family papers] University of Kansas Archives / MSS / Rare Books, Kenneth Spencer Research Library
referencedIn Loren Miller papers, 1876-2003, 1932-1966 Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery
referencedIn Jones, Thomas Elsa. Thomas Elsa Jones collection (1-71), 1925-1947 (bulk, 1926-1946). Lincoln Memorial University Library, Carnegie-Vincent Library
referencedIn Saunders, Robert W. (Robert William), 1921-. Robert W. and Helen S. Saunders papers, 1950-2001. University of South Florida, USF Library
referencedIn McCollum, Matthew, d. 1980. Rev. Matthew McCollum papers, 1970-1980 (bulk [undated]). Claflin College
referencedIn Henry, Alberta. Alberta Henry papers, 1939-1998. Utah Division of State History, Utah Historical Society
referencedIn Collins, W. George,. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Wright, Louis T. (Louis Tompkins), 1891-1952. Papers, 1879, 1898, 1909-1997. Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn Ralph Bunche papers, 1922-1988 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn International Ladies Garment Workers Union. Charles S. Zimmerman papers, 1919-1958 [bulk 1920-1945]. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Abner, Willoughby, 1920-1972. Willoughby Abner papers, 1955-1964, (bulk 1961-1964). Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf American Fund for Public Service. American Fund for Public Service records, 1922-1941. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Crowder, Ralph L.,. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education oral history collection at the Kansas State Historical Society [multimedia], 1991-1996 (bulk 1991-1992). Kansas State Historical Society
referencedIn Carty, Denzil A. Denzil A. Carty papers, 1931-1975. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
referencedIn Bernd, Aaron, 1894-1937. Aaron Bernd papers, 1919-1937. Emory University Library, Special Collect Department
referencedIn Stoney, Thomas P. (Thomas Porcher), 1889-1973. Thomas P. Stoney papers, 1886-1987. South Carolina Historical Society
referencedIn Willis, Winifred Lockhart, 1902-1982. Papers, 1917-1982 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn AFL-CIO. Civil Rights Dept. Southern Region records, 1963-1972. Georgia State University
referencedIn Records of the Harvard-Radcliffe Afro-American Cultural Center, and undated, 1969-1975, 1981-1982 Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn Max D. Movsovitz papers, 1980-2000 University of Kansas Kenneth Spencer Research Library Kansas Collection.
referencedIn Kaplan, Kivie, 1904-1975. Papers, 1948-1975. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Hook, Keith, b. 1917. Keith Hook papers, 1948-1979. Connecticut Historical Society
referencedIn Ovington, Mary White, 1865-1951. Papers, 1946-1951 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Payne, Arthur J. (Arthur Jerome), b. 1894,. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Stone, Kathryn H. (Kathryn Haeseler), 1906-. Papers of Kathryn H. Stone [manuscript], 1881-1988 (bulk 1965-1988). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Law, W. W.,. W.W. Law oral history interview, 1990 Nov. 15. Georgia State University
referencedIn United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Federal surveillance of African Americans, 1920-1984 [electronic resource]. University of California, Irvine. Library. Department of Special Collections
referencedIn Young, Pauline A., 1900-1991. Pauline A. Young Papers. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn International Union, United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America. Fair Practices and Anti-Discrimination Dept. UAW Fair Practices and Anti-Discrimination Dept. records. 1940- 1980. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Robbins Gilman and family papers., 1699-2009. Minnesota Historical Society.
referencedIn Hughes, Langston, 1902-1967. Papers of Langston Hughes [manuscript], 1925-1982. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Pickens, William, 1881-1954. William Pickens papers, 1906-1954. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Kennedy, William Jesse, 1889-1985. William Jesse Kennedy papers, 1902-1982. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Correspondence to Van Wyck Brooks, 1958. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Norton, John C. John C. Norton papers, ca. 1972-1973. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn United Citizens' Committee for Freedom of Residence in Illinois. Records, 1951-1966. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Denzil A. Carty papers., 1931-1975. Minnesota Historical Society.
referencedIn Walling, Anna Strunsky, 1879-1964. Anna Strunsky Walling papers, 1880-1968 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Clark, Kenneth Bancroft, 1914-2005. Kenneth Bancroft Clark papers, 1897-1994 (bulk 1935-1990). Library of Congress
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Motley, Constance Baker, 1921-2005. The reminiscences of Judge Constance Baker Motley. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Blaine, Anita McCormick. Correspondence and papers, 1828-1958. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Ward, Willis F. (Willis Franklyn), 1912-1983. Willis Franklyn Ward papers, 1941-1955. The Henry Ford, Benson Ford Research Center
referencedIn Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938. James Weldon Johnson papers, 1899-1952. Lincoln Memorial University Library, Carnegie-Vincent Library
referencedIn Jackson, Thomas M. Thomas M. Jackson papers, 1903-1963. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Fleming, Harold C. Harold C. Fleming papers, 1950-1993 (bulk 1961-1987). Library of Congress
referencedIn Cohen, James. An oral history with James Cohen, 1976 Feb 2. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
referencedIn Lovett, Edward, 1902-1977. Papers, 1932-1977. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
referencedIn Dukes, Ofield. Ofield Dukes papers, 1964-1972. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Mosley, Joan. Oral history, 1985-1986. American Primers
referencedIn Indritz, Phineas., 1932-1997. Papers of Phineas Indritz, 1932-1997 (bulk 1945-1990). Howard University, Law Library
referencedIn Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.). Atlanta Office. Other organizations files, 1959-1969. Martin Luther King, Jr., Memorial Center
referencedIn Bates, Daisy. Daisy Bates papers, 1948-1986 University of Arkansas - Fayetteville, University Libraries
referencedIn Salter, William Mackintire, 1853-1931. Papers, 1883-1907. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Queens Borough Public Library. Long Island Division. Afro-Americans, N.A.A.C.P. Queens Co. / [compiled by Queens Borough Public Library, Long Island Division]. Queens Borough Public Library, Queens Library
referencedIn Ramírez, Gus, 1953-. Oral history interview with Gus Ramírez, 2001 [videorecording]. University of Texas at Arlington, Central Library
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Philip M. Weightman Papers, 1944-1967 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers. President's Office. General reference files of George L-P. Weaver, Assistant to President, 1945-1960 (bulk 1956-1960). Rutgers University
referencedIn ILGWU. Gus Tyler papers, 1952-1980 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Organizations collection, 1959-1993. South Carolina State University, Miller F. Whittak, Miller F. Whittaker Library
referencedIn George, Stine,. Stine George oral history interview, 1989 Oct. 14. Georgia State University
creatorOf Spivak, John Louis, 1897- . Papers, 1929-1948 (bulk 1929-1933). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn McMillan, Enolia, 1904-2006,. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Dillard, Ernest, 1915-. Ernest Dillard papers, 1936-1983. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Spingarn, Joel E, 1875-1939. Papers, 1934-1938. William & Mary Libraries
referencedIn Doty, Edward L.,. Oral history interview with Edward L. Doty, 1967. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Tuskegee Institute. Tuskegee Institute news clippings file, 1899-1966 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Pickens, William, 1881-1954. William Pickens papers (Additions), 1909-1950. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Henry Lee Moon family papers, series II 1885-1985. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
creatorOf Fairley, J. C. An oral history with J.C. Fairley, Mamie Phillips and Charles Phillips, 1998 June 24. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
referencedIn Jewish Labor Committee Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Records, 1957-1985. Temple University Libraries, Paley Library
creatorOf Johnson, Guy Benton, 1901-1991. [Collection of print materials pertaining to school desegregation in North Carolina]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Hines, Louise Kerr, 1916-. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Papers, 1919-1991 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Dinkins, David N. David Dinkins papers, 1941-2001 [Bulk Dates: 1985-1993]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Diane Ragsdale. Texas Woman's University Library, Mary Evelyn Blagg-Huey Library
referencedIn Ovington, Mary White, 1865-1951. Mary White Ovington papers, 1854-1948. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Roy Wilkins Papers, 1901-1980, (bulk 1932-1980) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Welsh, Edward K., 1902-1979. Papers, 1937-1974. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Clark, Obie, 1932-. An oral history with Obie Clark, 1997 Sept. 30. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
referencedIn Hamilton, Grace Towns, 1907-. Grace Towns Hamilton oral history interview, 1977 July 16. Georgia State University
referencedIn Weightman, Phillip M. 1902-. Philip M. Weightman Papers 1944-1967. New York University, Tamiment Library
referencedIn Boston (Mass.). School Committee. Secretary. School Committee Secretary's desegregation files--Boston Public Schools, 1963-1984, (bulk 1974-1976). City of Boston Archives & Records Management Division
referencedIn Southern Regional Council. Voter Education Project files, 1954-1971. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Channing Tobias papers., 1911-1961. University of Minnesota. Kautz Family YMCA Archives. [ymca]
referencedIn Monterey Public Library. California History Room. Protests, demonstrations, etc. clippings 1963-2006 Monterey Public Library
referencedIn Hill, Charles A.,. Oral history interview with Charles A. Hill, 1967. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Watts, Charles E., 1899-. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Alabama. Attorney General's Office. Dillard v. Crenshaw County et al, legal case files, 1985-1991. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn William Pickens papers (Additions), 1909-1950 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn W. E. B. Du Bois Papers MS 312., 1803-1999, 1877-1963 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Charlottesville (Va.). School Board. Records of the Charlottesville City School Board [manuscript], ca.1869-2006. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Chi Eta Phi Sorority. Records, 1955-1985 (bulk 1977-1984). Bureau of National Affairs Library
referencedIn Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938. James Weldon Johnson and Grace Nail Johnson papers, circa 1850-2005 (bulk 1900-1976). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968,. Civil rights movement literature, 1958-1967. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Jackie Robinson Papers, 1934-2001, (bulk 1947-1987) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Lucille Lortel papers, 1902-2000 The New York Public Library. Billy Rose Theatre Division.
referencedIn Hollowell, Donald,. Donald Hollowell oral history interview, 1978 Nov. 30. Georgia State University
referencedIn Papers, 1827-1985 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Annette H. Peyser papers, 1945-1951 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Voices from the Food Revolution: People Who Changed The Way Americans Eat, An oral history project conducted by Judith Weinraub, 2009-2011 Fales Library & Special Collections
referencedIn Kemp, Maida Springer, 1910-. Oral history interview with Maida Springer Kemp, 1977. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Joel E. and Amy E. Spingarn papers, 1898-1972 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn New York (State). Office of the Lieutenant Governor. Central subject and correspondence files, 1929-1932, 1983-1985. New York State Archives
referencedIn Starks, Deborah Godwin, 1950-. Papers, 1948-1986. Indiana Historical Society Library
referencedIn Jenkins, Herbert T. Papers, 1881-1982. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn Onondaga Community College. Clipping collection, 1935-1985. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn James B. Lewis Papers, 1975-1994 University of New Mexico. Center for Southwest Research
referencedIn Alexander, Kelly (Kelly Miller), 1948-. Kelly M. Alexander, Jr. papers 1965-2005 1980-2000. University of North Carolina, Charlotte, J. Murrey Atkins Library
referencedIn Elliott, John Lovejoy, 1868-1942. Papers, 1894-1942. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Newport News (Va.) School Board Records, 1896-1973 (bulk 1950-1970) The Library of Virginia
referencedIn Robinson, Jackie, 1919-1972. Jackie Robinson papers, 1934-2001 (bulk 1947-1987). Library of Congress
referencedIn NAACP of Portland, Oregon records, circa 1914-1986 Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Morrow, E. Frederic (Everett Frederic), 1909-. Reminiscences of E. Frederic Morrow : oral history, 1968. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf McIlvane, Donald W. Papers, 1960-1977. University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
referencedIn Dudley, Edward R., 1911-. Papers. ca. 1942-ca. 1973. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
creatorOf National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Papers of the NAACP. Supplement to Part 5, Residential segregation, General office files, 1956-1965 [microform] / edited by John H. Bracey, Jr. and August Meier ; project coordinator, Randolph H. Boehm. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn John Wesley Dobbs Family, 1873-1975. Papers. 1873-1975. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn Engelhardt, Sam (Samuel Martin), 1912-1991. Papers 1888-1973. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Laidlaw, H. B. (Harriet Burton), b. 1874. Papers: Series I-IV, 1851-1958 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Convention Collection, July 1949. California Polytechnic State University, Robert E. Kennedy Library, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo
referencedIn The records of the Catholic Interracial Council of New York. Catholic University of America
referencedIn Bank, Steven A., 1969-. The Dilemma of the NAACP : A Case study : the Trenton six 1948-1953 / By Steven A. Bank, 1991. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn Whitby, Beulah,. Oral history interview with Beulah Whitby, 1969. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Taylor, Hobart, 1920-. Reminiscences of Hobart Taylor, Jr. : oral history, 1977. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Jones, Johnnie, 1919-. Johnnie Jones, Sr. oral history interview, 1993-1994. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Cook, Stuart W. (Stuart Wellford), 1913-1993. Stuart Cook papers, 1947-1993. University of Akron, Bierce Library
creatorOf Camp Johnson (Beaver County, Pa.). Records 1939-1995. Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Heinz History Center Detre Library and Archives
referencedIn James A. Roston scrapbook, 1897-1924 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Harris, Narvie J.,. Narvie J. Harris oral history interview, 1992 Jun. 11. Georgia State University
referencedIn Pickens, William, 1881-1954. William Pickens record group : preliminary inventories [microform] Emory University, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Center for National Policy Review (U.S.). Records, 1959-1986. Library of Congress
referencedIn Marshall, Louis, 1856-1929. Papers, 1891-1930. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Moorfield Storey Papers, 1876-1929 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn David Dinkins Papers, 1941-2001, [Bulk Dates: 1985-1993]. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Bond, Julian, 1940-. Julian Bond papers [manuscript], circa 1943-2006. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1880-1963. Lincoln Memorial University Library, Carnegie-Vincent Library
referencedIn Haughton, James, 1929-. James Haughton papers, 1924-1984 (bulk 1959-1982) New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Alston, Charles Henry, 1907-1977. Charles Henry Alston papers, 1928-1980. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Cass, Melnea A. (Melnea Agnes), 1896-1978. Reminiscences of Melnea A. Cass : oral history, 1977. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Texas State Conference of Branches. NAACP Texas Conference of Branches Records, 1953-1973. University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Randall, Elizabeth D., 1918-. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Southern Regional Council. Southern Regional Council administrative records, 1944-1968. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Wade, Daisy Harris, 1931-. An oral history with Daisy Harris Wade, 2000. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
referencedIn Rubin, Vera D. Records of the Jamaica Peace Corps Training Program 1962 1961-1982 (bulk 1962-1962). New York University. Archives.
referencedIn Bright, Marshall, 1903-. Oral history interview, 1976. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Davis, Samuel K., 1899-1968. Samuel K. Davis papers, 1919-1980. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
referencedIn Walden, A. T. (Austin Thomas), 1885-1965. Papers, 1885-1965. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn Bendiner, Robert. Papers, 1934-1988. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Arthur B. Spingarn Papers, 1850-1970, (bulk 1920-1955) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Sawyer, Grant, 1918-1996. Executive Records, 1959-1966. Nevada State Library, Division of State Archives
referencedIn Mack, Oliver, 1946-. Oliver Mack oral history interview, 1993. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
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