Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981

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Political reformer.

From the description of Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1975. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309721453

From the description of Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1974. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309721472

From the description of Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1965. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309721485

From the description of Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1954. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309728511

From the description of Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1963. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309721502

From the description of Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1961. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122586717

Social reformer Baldwin was a founder of the American Civil Liberties Union. He married Madeleine Zabriskie Doty in 1919; they were divorced in 1935.

From the description of Reminiscences, 1978. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 232007515

Baldwin was a founder of the American Civil Liberties Union. Prior to this, he worked for the National Civil Liberties Bureau, an arm of the American Union Against Militarism. In 1918, he was tried and convicted for refusing military service, and spent a year in jail.

During the 1920s and 1930s, he was involved with various political groups, such as the Women's International League for Peace, and corresponded with many prominent leftists, including Emma Goldman. In 1927 he visited the Soviet Union. He broke with the communists in 1939, after the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Following World War II, he served as an advisor to the U.S. Army and the United Nations in Germany, Austria, Japan, and Korea, and was for many years chair of the International League for the Rights of Man. He was also active in the study and protection of civil liberties in Puerto Rico.

From the description of Roger N. Baldwin papers, 1885-1991 (bulk 1911-1981) (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 175776526

Roger Nash Baldwin was born in Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts, on January 21, 1884 into a prominent Boston family. His parents were Frank Fenno Baldwin and Lucy Cushing (Nash) Baldwin, and he was the first of six children, three boys and three girls. His parents were Unitarians with strong liberal connections; W. E. B. Dubois was a Baldwin family friend and a frequent guest at the house. Baldwin's upbringing in this atmosphere in Wellesley, where he attended public school, instilled in him a life-long sympathy for the underdog. He attended Harvard, graduating in 1905 with an A.B. and an A.M. (received after a summer course in sociology).

On the advice of his father's friend and lawyer, Louis D. Brandeis, he decided to become a social worker. From 1906 to 1917 he lived and worked in St. Louis, determined to make his own way rather than depend on the family connections that would have helped him in Boston. While there he worked in the neighborhood settlements, served as chief officer of the St. Louis Juvenile Court and voluntary secretary of the National Probation Association, and founded the sociology department at Washington University, where he taught from 1906 to 1910. While in St. Louis he wrote (with Bernard Flexner) Juvenile Courts and Probation, which remained a standard in the field for many years. Ironically, in the 1960s the ACLU challenged the standards promulgated in the book, citing the need to guarantee juveniles due process.

In St. Louis Baldwin became attracted to the radical political and social movements that greatly affected his politics until the 1930s. He was a close friend of the anarchist Emma Goldman and he moved in left-wing circles. During the 1920s he joined the I.W.W., and in 1927 he visited the Soviet Union, producing from his trip a book entitled Liberty Under the Soviets, published in 1928. He broke with the Communists and other radicals only in 1939, after having been horrified by the Nazi-Soviet Pact.

Baldwin left St. Louis in 1917, when the United States entered World War I, in order to become involved with the pacifist movement. He was a member of the American Union Against Militarism (AUAM), an organization which lobbied first against U.S. entrance into the war and later for a negotiated peace. He also worked with the National Civil Liberties Bureau (NCLB), an arm of the AUAM founded to defend conscientious objectors but which quickly broadened its scope to include in its mission defense of the freedoms of speech, press, and conscience. In 1918 Baldwin was called up for military service, but as a conscientious objector he refused to go. His arrest, trial, and conviction made headlines, and he spent a year in jail, calling it “my vacation on the government.”

After his release, Baldwin spent four months in the Midwest working as an industrial laborer in several factories, but he was soon persuaded by his war-time NCLB colleagues to return to New York.

The end of the war had not meant an end to civil liberties violations, which were being fanned by the post-war “Red Scare,” and in 1920 the NCLB was transformed into the American Civil Liberties Union. Baldwin became its executive director.

Baldwin remained in this position until 1950. As executive director, he was intimately associated with two of the biggest cases with which the ACLU was involved in these years, the Scopes trial and the Sacco-Vanzetti case. In 1950 Baldwin resigned as executive director to become the ACLU's international adviser and to devote himself more fully to his work with the International League for the Rights of Man, where he served as chair for fifteen years. In that position he traveled extensively; his ports of call included the Middle East, Cuba, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Peru, Nigeria, many Western European countries, Poland, and the Soviet Union.

Baldwin became involved with international affairs in 1947, when the War Department invited him to go to Japan and South Korea to assist in developing civil liberties agencies in the infant democracies. He founded the Japan Civil Liberties Union, and the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Rising Sun in recognition of his service to Japanese democracy. In 1948 General Lucius Clay invited Baldwin to Germany and Austria to perform a similar service in those two countries; he returned to Germany several times in subsequent years.

Baldwin was also extremely active in the study and protection of civil liberties in Puerto Rico, setting up a commission to deal with the issue in the 1960s. A close friend of Puerto Rico's Governor Luis Muñoz Marín, Baldwin traveled to Puerto Rico frequently in his later years. He often taught a seminar on constitutional rights at the University of Puerto Rico law school.

Baldwin was connected to various educational institutions throughout his life. In addition to his stint at Washington University and his recurrent seminar course at the University of Puerto Rico, he taught several courses at the New School for Social Research in New York. He served for many years on the Overseers' Visiting Committee to the Harvard Economics Department. He also received numerous honorary degrees, including ones from Brandeis, Columbia, Haverford, Washington University, and Yale. His other honors included the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded in 1981.

Baldwin remained active right until the end of his long life; in a series of memoranda on old age, he attributed his longevity to his constant activity. He was an avid outdoorsman who loved canoeing and bird-watching. He was a director and vice-president of the National Audubon Society and donated some of his land in New Jersey to the Audubon Society as a bird sanctuary. While in St. Louis, Baldwin adopted two boys who had come to the attention of the Juvenile Court, Oral James and Otto Stolz. James followed his adoptive father to prison as a conscientious objector during World War I, while Stolz served in the army in France. Stolz committed suicide in 1930.

After being released from prison in 1919, Baldwin married Madeleine Zabriskie Doty, a journalist and feminist who never took Baldwin's name. They divorced in 1936, although they had not lived together for over a decade, and in 1936 Baldwin married Evelyn Preston. Evie had been married before and had two small boys, Carl and Roger, who chose to take Baldwin's name long before their mother, a feminist, did. Roger and Evie had one daughter, Helen. Evie died in 1962 at the age of 64 from cancer. Helen died in 1979 at the age of 41 from cancer. Baldwin himself died of heart failure on August 26, 1981, at the age of 97.

From the guide to the Roger Nash Baldwin Papers, 1885-1981, 1911-1981, (Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Rochester Joint Board minutes, 1919-1966, bulk 1919-1932. [microform]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf American Fund for Public Service. American Fund for Public Service records, 1922-1941. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Gertrude Heyman papers, 1864-1957, 1928-1952 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Erik Barnouw Papers, 1920-1990. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Buell, Raymond Leslie, 1896-1946. Raymond Leslie Buell papers, 1915-1981 (bulk 1920-1946). Library of Congress
referencedIn Doty, Madeleine Z. (Madeleine Zabriskie), 1877-1963. Papers, 1880-1984. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972, 1929-1957 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Papers, 1925-1972 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Brant, Irving, 1885-1976. Irving Brant papers, 1910-1977 (bulk 1938-1975). Library of Congress
referencedIn Van Waters, Miriam. Papers, 1861-1971 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf World Congress Against War (1932 : Amsterdam). Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1932-1933. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf International Committee for Political Prisoners. Collection, 1927-1935. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Papers, 1868-1886, 1932-1985 (scattered) Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981. Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1963. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn American Association for Labor Legislation. Series 1, Subseries 4. Correspondence, 1920-1925. [microform]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981. Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1975. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Kirchwey, Freda. Papers, 1871-1972 (inclusive), 1937-1971 (bulk) [microform]. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf American Friends of Spanish Democracy. American Friends of Spanish Democracy records, 1935-1939. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Arthur Gleason Papers, 1863-1931, (bulk 1900-1923) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Goldbloom, Maurice. Maurice Goldbloom papers [microform], 1933-1971. University of Oregon Libraries, UO Libraries
creatorOf National Council for Prevention of War (U.S.). Records, 1921-1975. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Joseph Barnes Papers, 1923-1970 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Hertzberg, Sidney. Sidney Hertzberg papers, 1924-1984. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Laidler, Harry W. (Harry Wellington), 1884-1970. Harry Wellington Laidler Photographs [graphic]. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn New York (State). Legislature. Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities. National Civil Liberties Bureau subpoenaed files, 1917-1919. New York State Archives
referencedIn New York Bureau of Legal Advice. Records, 1917-1919. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. Joseph Barnes papers, 1907-1970, 1923-1970. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn New York Bureau of Legal Advice Records, 1917-1919 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Barnouw, Erik, 1908-2001. Erik Barnouw papers, 1920-1990. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956. Papers, 1909-1956. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981. Correspondence to Van Wyck Brooks, 1953-1962. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Subject Files Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Mark M. Litchman papers, 1901-1965 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Willard L. (AC 1920) and Clarice Brows Thorp Papers, 1857-1994, 1920-1967 Amherst College Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn Alvin Saunders Johnson papers, 1902-1969 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Johnson, Alvin Saunders, 1874-. Alvin Saunders Johnson papers, 1902-1969 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Lewis Gannett papers, 1681-1966 (inclusive) 1900-1960 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Norman Thomas papers, 1904-1967, 1933-1967 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Chaplin, Ralph, 1887-1961. Ralph Chaplin papers, 1909-1948. University of Michigan
referencedIn Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, 1896-1964, (Bulk 1937-1964) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Scott Millross Buchanan papers, 1911-1972. Houghton Library.
referencedIn James I. Loeb Papers, Bulk, 1939, 1937-1963, (Bulk 1939) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981. Reminiscences, 1978. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Roger William Riis Papers, 1903-1990, (bulk 1921-1952) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Wald, Lillian D., 1867-1940. Lillian D. Wald Papers, 1895-1936. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Harry Laidler Photographs, Bulk, 1950-1960, 1893-1968, (Bulk 1950-1960) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf International Committee for Political Prisoners. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1931-1934. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Ryan, John A. (John Augustine), 1869-1945. The John A. Ryan papers Catholic University of America
referencedIn Papers, 1942-1981 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. Jerome New Frank papers, 1918-1972 (inclusive), 1929-1957 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Warren K. Billings Papers, 1899-1973, (bulk 1920-1939) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Riis, Roger William, b. 1894. Roger William Riis papers, 1903-1990 (bulk 1921-1952). Library of Congress
referencedIn Brookwood Labor College (Katonah, N.Y.). Brookwood Labor College records, 1921-1937. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
creatorOf Roger N. Baldwin letters, 1917 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn John Nicholas Beffel Papers, 1909-1970 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Emma Goldman Papers, Bulk, 1929-1940, 1908-1970, (Bulk 1929-1940) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Albizu Campos, Pedro, 1891-1965. person
associatedWith Allen, Corinne Marie Tuckerman, 1856-1931. person
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. corporateBody
associatedWith Amberson, William Ruthrauff, b. 1894. person
associatedWith American Association for Labor Legislation. corporateBody
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union. corporateBody
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois. corporateBody
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California. corporateBody
associatedWith American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. corporateBody
associatedWith American Friends of Spanish Democracy. corporateBody
associatedWith American Fund for Public Service. corporateBody
associatedWith American Labor Conference on International Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith American Union Against Militarism. corporateBody
associatedWith Ascher, Charles S. (Charles Stern), 1899-1980. person
associatedWith Bandung Conference. corporateBody
associatedWith Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. person
associatedWith Barnouw, Erik, 1908-2001. person
associatedWith Baskin, Alex. person
associatedWith Beffel, John Nicholas. person
correspondedWith Billings, Warren K., 1893-1972. person
associatedWith Black, Algernon D. (Algernon David), 1900-1993. person
associatedWith Blackwell, Alice Stone, 1857-1950. person
associatedWith Bowles, Chester, 1901-1986. person
correspondedWith Brant, Irving, 1885-1976. person
associatedWith Brooks, Lawrence Graham, 1881-1981. person
correspondedWith Brookwood Labor College (Katonah, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Browder, Earl, 1891-1973 person
associatedWith Brown, John Mason, 1900-1969 person
correspondedWith Buchanan, Scott Millross, 1895-1968 person
correspondedWith Buell, Raymond Leslie, 1896-1946. person
associatedWith Bulkley, Mary E. (Mary Ezit), 1856-1947. person
correspondedWith Burr, Jane, 1882-1958 person
correspondedWith Bynner, Witter, 1881-1968 person
associatedWith CARE (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith Center on Conscience & War. corporateBody
associatedWith Chaplin, Ralph, 1887-1961. person
correspondedWith Chase, Stuart, 1888-1985. person
associatedWith Columbia University Oral History Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. Oral History Research Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Committee on Militarism in Education (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Consumers' Research, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Cook, Cassius V., 1879-1950. person
associatedWith Cooperative League of the U.S.A. corporateBody
associatedWith Curti, Merle (Merle Eugene), 1897-1996. person
associatedWith Dana, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1881-1950. person
associatedWith Darcy, Samuel, 1905- person
associatedWith Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. person
associatedWith Dorfman, Joseph, 1904-1991. person
associatedWith Doty, Madeleine Z. (Madeleine Zabriskie), 1877-1963 person
associatedWith Eastman, Max, 1883-1969 person
associatedWith ELIZABETH GLENDOWER (GARDINER) EVANS, 1856-1937 person
associatedWith Estridge, Larry A., person
associatedWith Evans, Elizabeth Glendower, 1856-1937. person
associatedWith Farquharson, Mary U. person
associatedWith Federation Against War. corporateBody
associatedWith Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley person
associatedWith Fraenkel, Osmond K. (Osmond Kessler), 1888-1983. person
associatedWith Frank, Adelaide Schulkind. person
associatedWith Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. person
associatedWith Frank, Walter, 1882-1969. person
associatedWith Fry, Varian, 1907-1967. person
correspondedWith Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966 person
associatedWith Gawthorpe, Mary Eleanor, 1881-1973. person
associatedWith Germer, Adolph. person
associatedWith Ghose, Sailendra Nath. person
correspondedWith Gleason, Arthur, 1878-1923. person
associatedWith Goldbloom, Maurice. person
associatedWith Goldman, Emma, 1869-1940. person
associatedWith Gordon, Beate, person
correspondedWith Grant, Frances R. person
associatedWith Gray, Harold Studley, 1894-1972. person
associatedWith Gutmann, James, b. 1897. person
associatedWith Harris, Frank, 1855-1931 person
associatedWith Harris, Leon A. person
associatedWith Harrison, Gilbert A. person
associatedWith Harrison, Gilbert A. person
associatedWith Hastie, William. person
associatedWith Helen Hill Miller, 1899- person
correspondedWith Herbert, Robert Beverley, b. 1879. person
associatedWith Herndon, Booton. person
associatedWith Hertzberg, Sidney person
associatedWith Hertzberg, Sidney. person
associatedWith Heyman, Gertrude, 1878?-1958. person
associatedWith Hildegard Nagel, 1886-1985 person
associatedWith Hires, Harrison Streeter, 1887-1962, person
associatedWith Hobson, Laura Keane Zametkin. person
associatedWith Hogan, Thomas F., person
correspondedWith Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Hough, Henry Beetle, 1896- person
associatedWith Hudson, Manley O. (Manley Ottmer), 1886-1960. person
associatedWith Hughan, Jessie Wallace, 1875-1955. person
correspondedWith Hussey, Alfred Rodman, -1964. person
associatedWith India League of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Industrial Workers of the World. corporateBody
associatedWith Industrial Workers of the World. General Defense Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Inglis, Agnes, 1870-1952. person
associatedWith International Committee for Political Prisoners. corporateBody
associatedWith International League for Human Rights. corporateBody
associatedWith International League for the Rights of Man. corporateBody
associatedWith International League for the Rights of Man and the New Democracy, Inc. corporateBody
correspondedWith Ishill, Joseph. person
associatedWith Jeannette Augustus Marks, 1875-1964 person
associatedWith Johnson, Alvin Saunders, 1874- person
associatedWith Karsner, David, 1889-1941 person
associatedWith Kemp, Maida Springer, 1910- person
correspondedWith Kenyon, Dorothy, 1888-1972 person
associatedWith Kirchwey, Freda. person
associatedWith Laidler, Harry W. (Harry Wellington), 1884-1970. person
associatedWith Lamson, Peggy, 1912- person
associatedWith Laski, Harold Joseph, 1893-1950 person
correspondedWith League for Mutual Aid (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Leonard, Betty Lindeman, person
associatedWith Lerner, Max, 1902- person
associatedWith Lerner, Max, 1902-2001. person
associatedWith Lindeman, Eduard. person
correspondedWith Lindsey, Ben B. (Ben Barr), 1869-1943. person
associatedWith Litchman, Mark,  1925- person
associatedWith Lloyd, William Bross, 1875-1946 person
associatedWith Lloyd, William Bross, 1908- person
associatedWith Loeb, James I. (James Isaac), 1908- person
associatedWith MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964. person
associatedWith Macdonald, Dwight. person
associatedWith MacDonald, Dwight. person
associatedWith MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982 person
associatedWith MAIDA (STEWART) SPRINGER KEMP, 1910- person
associatedWith Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. person
associatedWith Marshall Civil Liberties Trust Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Marx, Guido H. (Guido Hugo), b. 1871. person
associatedWith Mary Melinda (Kingsbury) Simkhovitch, 1867-1951 person
associatedWith MARY (WARE) DENNETT person
associatedWith Medzel, Eleanor. person
associatedWith Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956. person
associatedWith Miller, Helen Hill, 1899- person
associatedWith MIRIAM VAN WATERS, 1887-1974 person
correspondedWith Morgan, Arthur Ernest, 1878-1975 person
associatedWith Mrachnyĭ, Mark. person
associatedWith Nagel, Hildegard, 1886- person
associatedWith National Civil Liberties Bureau. corporateBody
associatedWith National Committee on Conscientious Objectors (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith National Council for Prevention of War (U.S.) corporateBody
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith New York Bureau of Legal Advice. corporateBody
associatedWith New York (State). Legislature. Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities. corporateBody
associatedWith Olmsted, Allen S. (Allen Seymour), 1888-1977. person
associatedWith Orbach, Harold L. person
associatedWith Parris, Guichard Auguste Bolivar, 1903-1990. person
associatedWith Phillips, Harlan B., person
associatedWith Phillips, Harlan B. (Harlan Buddington), 1920- person
associatedWith Preston, John Hyde, 1906- person
associatedWith Reed, John, 1887-1920 person
correspondedWith Rice, Elmer, 1892-1967 person
correspondedWith Riis, Roger William, b. 1894. person
associatedWith Ryan, John A. (John Augustine), 1869-1945. person
associatedWith Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Sánchez, George I., 1906-1972 person
associatedWith Sayre, John Nevin, 1884-1977. person
associatedWith Schroeder, Theodore. person
associatedWith Scopes, John Thomas, 1900-1970 person
associatedWith Shelley, Rebecca, 1887-1984. person
associatedWith Simkhovitch, Mary K. (Mary Kingsbury), 1867-1951. person
associatedWith Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968. person
associatedWith Spivak, John L., 1897-1981 person
associatedWith Spivak, John Louis, 1897- . person
associatedWith Strong, Sydney, 1860-1938. person
associatedWith Swanberg, W. A., 1907- person
associatedWith Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Thorp, Willard Long, 1899-1992 person
correspondedWith Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940 person
associatedWith United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith Van Waters, Miriam. person
correspondedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949 person
associatedWith Wald, Lillian D., 1867-1940. person
associatedWith Washington University (Saint Louis, Mo.) corporateBody
associatedWith Weinberger, Harry, 1888- person
associatedWith Welles, Orson, 1915-1985 person
associatedWith Westin, Alan F., person
associatedWith Wittenberg, Philip, 1895- person
associatedWith Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. corporateBody
associatedWith Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 1852-1944. person
associatedWith Wood, L. Hollingsworth (Levi Hollingsworth), 1874-1956. person
correspondedWith Woollcott, Alexander, 1887-1943 person
associatedWith Woolsey, John Munro, 1877-1945. person
associatedWith World Congress Against War (1932 : Amsterdam). corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Japan
United States
Soviet Union
United States
Japan
United States
Soviet Union
United States
United States
United States
Puerto Rico
United States
Subject
World War, 1939-1945
Government consultants--20th century--Correspondence
Reformers--Interviews
American history/Gilded Age, Populism, Progressivism
Communism
World war, 1914-1918--Conscientious objectors--United States
Pacifists
Pacifism
Government consultants--United States--20th century--Correspondence
Prison reformers
Civil rights--History--20th century--Sources
Social problems--20th century
Political prisoners
Communism--Soviet Union
Feminists
World War, 1914-1918--Conscientious objectors
American history/20th century
World War I
American politics and government
Puerto Rico--Politics and government--20th century
Sacco--Vanzetti Trial, Dedham, Mass., 1921
Civil rights workers--Interviews
Civil rights--20th century
Civil rights--United States--20th century
Civil rights
Legal history
Civil rights--Puerto Rico--20th century
Communism--United States
Social reformers
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1884-01-21

Death 1981-08-26

Information

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Ark ID: w6d799qh

SNAC ID: 7661068