Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981

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Roger Nash Baldwin (January 21, 1884 – August 26, 1981) was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). He served as executive director of the ACLU until 1950.

Many of the ACLU's original landmark cases took place under his direction, including the Scopes Trial, the Sacco and Vanzetti murder trial, and its challenge to the ban on James Joyce's Ulysses. Baldwin was a well-known pacifist and author.

Baldwin was born in Wellesley, Massachusetts, the son of Lucy Cushing (Nash) and Frank Fenno Baldwin. He earned his bachelor's and master's degrees at Harvard University; afterwards, he moved to St. Louis on the advice of Louis D. Brandeis. There he taught sociology at Washington University, worked as a social worker and became chief probation officer of the St. Louis Juvenile Court. He also co-wrote Juvenile Courts and Probation with Bernard Flexner at this time; this book became very influential in its era, and was, in part, the foundation of Baldwin's national reputation

Baldwin was a member of the American Union Against Militarism (AUAM), which opposed American involvement in World War I. After the passage of the Selective Service Act of 1917, Baldwin called for the AUAM to create a legal division to protect the rights of conscientious objectors. On July 1, 1917, the AUAM created the Civil Liberties Bureau (CLB), headed by Baldwin. The CLB separated from the AUAM on October 1, 1917, renaming itself the National Civil Liberties Bureau, with Baldwin as director. In 1920, NCLB was renamed the American Civil Liberties Union. with Baldwin continuing as the ACLU's first executive director.

In the meantime, on 30 October 1918, as a conscientious objector himself, refusing even to register for the draft, undergo medical examination, or accept any alternative service such as farming, was sentenced at the Federal Court in New York City to a year in a penitentiary.

As director of ACLU, Baldwin was integral to the shape of the association's early character; it was under Baldwin's leadership that the ACLU undertook some of its most famous cases, including the Scopes Trial, the Sacco and Vanzetti murder trial, and its challenge to the ban on James Joyce's Ulysses. Baldwin retired from the ACLU leadership in 1950. He remained active in politics for the rest of his life; for example, he co-founded the International League for the Rights of Man, which is now known as the International League for Human Rights.

In St. Louis, Baldwin had been greatly influenced by the radical social movement of the anarchist Emma Goldman. He joined the Industrial Workers of the World. Roger Baldwin oversaw, documented and supplied funding for a large number of defense cases for I.W.W. members and investigations throughout the United States. A fully accessible archive of his correspondence with I.W.W branches, investigators and attorneys has been published by Princeton's Mudd Manuscript Library.

In 1927, he had visited the Soviet Union and wrote a book, Liberty Under the Soviets. Later, however, as more and more information came out about Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union, Baldwin became more and more disillusioned with communism and in 1953 called it "A NEW SLAVERY" (capitalized in the original). He condemned "the inhuman communist police state tyranny, forced labor." In the 1940s, Baldwin led the campaign to purge the ACLU of Communist Party members.

In 1947, General Douglas MacArthur invited him to Japan to foster the growth of civil liberties in that country. In Japan, he founded the Japan Civil Liberties Union, and the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Rising Sun. In 1948, Germany and Austria invited him for similar purposes. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1951.

President Jimmy Carter awarded Baldwin the Medal of Freedom on January 16, 1981.

A resident of Oakland, New Jersey, Baldwin died of heart failure on August 26, 1981, at The Valley Hospital in Ridgewood, New Jersey.

Archival Resources
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creatorOf Roger N. Baldwin letters, 1917 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn New York Bureau of Legal Advice. Records, 1917-1919. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Nagel, Hildegard, 1886-1985. Papers of Hildegard Nagel, 1868-1985 (bulk 1868-1886). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Billings, Warren K., 1893-1972. Papers of Warren K. Billings, 1899-1973 (bulk 1920-1939). Library of Congress
referencedIn Witter Bynner papers, 1829-1965. Houghton Library
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Printed Materials Series, 1947-1995 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
creatorOf Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981. Reminiscences of Roger Nash Baldwin : oral history, 1974. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Dorfman, Joseph, 1904-1991. Joseph Dorfman papers, 1890-1983. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Erik Barnouw Papers, 1920-1990. Columbia University. Rare Book an Manuscript Library
referencedIn Macdonald, Dwight. Dwight Macdonald papers, 1865-1984 (bulk 1920-1978) Yale University Library
referencedIn Varian Fry Papers, [ca. 1940]-1967 Columbia University. Rare Book an Manuscript Library
creatorOf Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981. Roger N. Baldwin papers, 1885-1991 (bulk 1911-1981) Princeton University Library
referencedIn Alfred Rodman Hussey Papers, 1944-1964, (bulk 1945-1948) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Olmsted, Allen S. (Allen Seymour), 1888-1977. Allen S. Olmsted papers, 1898-1978. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Van Waters, Miriam. Papers, 1861-1971 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Roger Nash Baldwin Papers, 1885-1981, 1911-1981 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Rebecca Shelley Papers, 1890-1984 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Sidney Hertzberg papers, 1924-1984 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Farquharson, Mary U. Mary U. Farquharson papers, 1875-1982. University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Guide to the American Labor Conference on International Affairs Records, 1939-1950 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
creatorOf Frank, Walter, 1882-1969. Papers of Walter Frank [manuscript], 1866-1970 (bulk 1925-1970). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Parris, Guichard Auguste Bolivar, 1903-1990. Papers, ca. 1910-1987. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn David Karsner Papers, 1918-1930 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn American Civil Liberties Union. Collection, 1917- Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
creatorOf Goldman, Emma, 1869-1940. Collection of papers, 1909-1940. University of Michigan
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
creatorOf Mrachnyĭ, Mark. Papers, 1922-1940. University of Michigan
referencedIn Olmsted, Allen S. (Allen Seymour), 1888-1977. Papers, 1898-1977. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Eastman, Max Forrester, 1883-1969. Eastman mss. 1892-1968 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Sayre, John Nevin, 1884-1977. Papers, 1885-1982 1922-1967 (bulk). Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Willard L. (AC 1920) and Clarice Brows Thorp Papers, 1857-1994, 1920-1967 Amherst College Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. Papers, 1938-1959 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Goldman, Emma, 1869-1940. Papers, 1924-1940. Churchill County Museum
creatorOf Goldbloom, Maurice. Papers, 1933-1971. University of Oregon Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1868-1886, 1932-1985 (scattered) Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Gawthorpe, Mary Eleanor, 1881-1973. Mary E. Gawthorpe : papers, 1881-1990 (bulk 1907-1933). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Columbia University Oral History Collection. Collection. 1952-1960. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Albizu Campos, Pedro, 1891-1965. person
associatedWith Allen, Corinne Marie Tuckerman, 1856-1931. person
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. corporateBody
associatedWith Amberson, William Ruthrauff, b. 1894. person
associatedWith American Association for Labor Legislation. corporateBody
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union. corporateBody
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois. corporateBody
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California. corporateBody
associatedWith American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. corporateBody
associatedWith American Friends of Spanish Democracy. corporateBody
associatedWith American Fund for Public Service. corporateBody
associatedWith American Labor Conference on International Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith American Union Against Militarism. corporateBody
associatedWith Ascher, Charles S. (Charles Stern), 1899-1980. person
associatedWith Baldwin, William H. (William Henry), b. 1891. person
associatedWith Bandung Conference. corporateBody
associatedWith Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. person
associatedWith Barnouw, Erik, 1908-2001. person
associatedWith Baskin, Alex. person
associatedWith Beffel, John Nicholas. person
correspondedWith Billings, Warren K., 1893-1972. person
associatedWith Black, Algernon D. (Algernon David), 1900-1993. person
associatedWith Blackwell, Alice Stone, 1857-1950. person
associatedWith Bowles, Chester, 1901-1986. person
correspondedWith Brant, Irving, 1885-1976. person
associatedWith Brooks, Lawrence Graham, 1881-1981 person
correspondedWith Brookwood Labor College (Katonah, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Browder, Earl, 1891-1973 person
associatedWith Brown, John Mason, 1900-1969 person
correspondedWith Buchanan, Scott Millross, 1895-1968 person
correspondedWith Buell, Raymond Leslie, 1896-1946. person
associatedWith Bulkley, Mary E. (Mary Ezit), 1856-1947. person
correspondedWith Burr, Jane, 1882-1958 person
correspondedWith Bynner, Witter, 1881-1968 person
associatedWith CARE (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith Center on Conscience & War. corporateBody
associatedWith Chaplin, Ralph, 1887-1961. person
correspondedWith Chase, Stuart, 1888-1985. person
associatedWith Columbia University Oral History Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. Oral History Research Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Committee on Militarism in Education (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Consumers' Research, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Cook, Cassius V., 1879-1950. person
associatedWith Cooperative League of the U.S.A. corporateBody
associatedWith Curti, Merle (Merle Eugene), 1897-1996. person
associatedWith Dana, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1881-1950. person
associatedWith Darcy, Samuel, 1905- person
associatedWith Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947 person
associatedWith Dorfman, Joseph, 1904-1991. person
associatedWith Dorothy Whitney Straight Elmhirst Project. corporateBody
associatedWith Doty, Madeleine Z. (Madeleine Zabriskie), 1877-1963 person
associatedWith Eastman, Max, 1883-1969 person
associatedWith Estridge, Larry A., person
associatedWith Evans, Elizabeth Glendower, 1856-1937 person
associatedWith Farquharson, Mary U. person
associatedWith Federation Against War. corporateBody
associatedWith Fly, James Lawrence, 1898-1966. person
associatedWith Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley person
associatedWith Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 1890-1964 person
associatedWith Frank, Adelaide Schulkind. person
associatedWith Frank, Jerome, 1889-1957. person
associatedWith Frank, Walter, 1882-1969. person
associatedWith Freund, Paul Abraham, 1908-1992 person
associatedWith Fry, Varian, 1907-1967. person
correspondedWith Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966 person
associatedWith Gawthorpe, Mary Eleanor, 1881-1973. person
associatedWith Germer, Adolph. person
associatedWith Ghose, Sailendra Nath. person
correspondedWith Gleason, Arthur, 1878-1923. person
associatedWith Goldbloom, Maurice. person
associatedWith Goldman, Emma, 1869-1940. person
associatedWith Gordon, Beate, person
correspondedWith Grant, Frances R. person
associatedWith Gray, Harold Studley, 1894-1972. person
associatedWith Gutmann, James, b. 1897. person
associatedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
associatedWith Harris, Frank, 1855-1931 person
associatedWith Harris, Leon A. person
associatedWith Harrison, Gilbert A. person
associatedWith Harrison, Gilbert A. person
associatedWith Hastie, William. person
correspondedWith Herbert, Robert Beverley, b. 1879. person
associatedWith Herndon, Booton. person
associatedWith Hertzberg, Sidney person
associatedWith Hertzberg, Sidney. person
associatedWith Heyman, Gertrude, 1878?-1958. person
associatedWith Hildegard Nagel, 1886-1985 person
associatedWith Hires, Harrison Streeter, 1887-1962, person
associatedWith Hobson, Laura Keane Zametkin. person
associatedWith Hogan, Thomas F., person
correspondedWith Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Hough, Henry Beetle, 1896- person
associatedWith Hudson, Manley O. (Manley Ottmer), 1886-1960. person
associatedWith Hughan, Jessie Wallace, 1875-1955. person
correspondedWith Hussey, Alfred Rodman, -1964. person
associatedWith India League of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Industrial Workers of the World. corporateBody
associatedWith Industrial Workers of the World. General Defense Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Inglis, Agnes, 1870-1952. person
associatedWith International Committee for Political Prisoners. corporateBody
associatedWith International League for Human Rights. corporateBody
associatedWith International League for the Rights of Man. corporateBody
associatedWith International League for the Rights of Man and the New Democracy, Inc. corporateBody
correspondedWith Ishill, Joseph. person
associatedWith Jeannette Augustus Marks, 1875-1964 person
associatedWith Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Institute for Religious and Social Studies corporateBody
associatedWith Johnson, Alvin Saunders, 1874- person
associatedWith Karsner, David, 1889-1941 person
associatedWith Kemp, Maida Springer, 1910-2005 person
correspondedWith Kenyon, Dorothy, 1888-1972 person
associatedWith Kirchwey, Freda, 1893-1976 person
associatedWith Laidler, Harry W. (Harry Wellington), 1884-1970. person
associatedWith Lamson, Peggy, 1912- person
associatedWith Laski, Harold Joseph, 1893-1950 person
correspondedWith League for Mutual Aid (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Leonard, Betty Lindeman, person
associatedWith Lerner, Max, 1902- person
associatedWith Lerner, Max, 1902-2001. person
associatedWith Lindeman, Eduard. person
correspondedWith Lindsey, Ben B. (Ben Barr), 1869-1943. person
associatedWith Litchman, Mark,  1925- person
associatedWith Lloyd, William Bross, 1875-1946 person
associatedWith Lloyd, William Bross, 1908- person
associatedWith Loeb, James I. (James Isaac), 1908- person
associatedWith MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964. person
associatedWith Macdonald, Dwight. person
associatedWith MacDonald, Dwight. person
associatedWith MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982 person
associatedWith Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. person
associatedWith Marshall Civil Liberties Trust Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Marx, Guido H. (Guido Hugo), b. 1871. person
associatedWith Mary Melinda (Kingsbury) Simkhovitch, 1867-1951 person
associatedWith Medzel, Eleanor. person
associatedWith Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956. person
associatedWith Miller, Helen Hill, 1899-1996 person
correspondedWith Morgan, Arthur Ernest, 1878-1975 person
associatedWith Mrachnyĭ, Mark. person
associatedWith Nagel, Hildegard, 1886- person
associatedWith National Civil Liberties Bureau. corporateBody
associatedWith National Committee on Conscientious Objectors (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith National Council for Prevention of War (U.S.) corporateBody
correspondedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith New York Bureau of Legal Advice. corporateBody
associatedWith New York (State). Legislature. Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities. corporateBody
associatedWith Olmsted, Allen S. (Allen Seymour), 1888-1977. person
associatedWith Orbach, Harold L. person
associatedWith Parris, Guichard Auguste Bolivar, 1903-1990. person
associatedWith Phillips, Harlan B., person
associatedWith Phillips, Harlan B. (Harlan Buddington), 1920- person
associatedWith Preston, John Hyde, 1906- person
associatedWith Reed, John, 1887-1920 person
correspondedWith Rice, Elmer, 1892-1967 person
correspondedWith Riis, Roger William, b. 1894. person
associatedWith Ryan, John A. (John Augustine), 1869-1945. person
associatedWith Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Sánchez, George I., 1906-1972 person
associatedWith Sayre, John Nevin, 1884-1977. person
associatedWith Schroeder, Theodore. person
associatedWith Scopes, John Thomas, 1900-1970 person
associatedWith Shelley, Rebecca, 1887-1984. person
associatedWith Simkhovitch, Mary K. (Mary Kingsbury), 1867-1951. person
associatedWith Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968. person
associatedWith Spivak, John L., 1897-1981 person
associatedWith Spivak, John Louis, 1897- . person
associatedWith Strong, Sydney, 1860-1938. person
associatedWith Swanberg, W. A., 1907- person
associatedWith Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Thorp, Willard Long, 1899-1992 person
correspondedWith Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940 person
associatedWith United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith Van Waters, Miriam, 1887-1974 person
correspondedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949 person
associatedWith Wald, Lillian D., 1867-1940. person
associatedWith Washington University (Saint Louis, Mo.) corporateBody
associatedWith Weinberger, Harry, 1888- person
associatedWith Welles, Orson, 1915-1985 person
associatedWith Westin, Alan F., person
associatedWith Wittenberg, Philip, 1895- person
associatedWith Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. corporateBody
associatedWith Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 1852-1944. person
associatedWith Wood, L. Hollingsworth (Levi Hollingsworth), 1874-1956. person
correspondedWith Woollcott, Alexander, 1887-1943 person
associatedWith Woolsey, John Munro, 1877-1945. person
associatedWith World Congress Against War (1932 : Amsterdam). corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Puerto Rico 00 PR
Japan 00 JP
Saint Louis (Mo.) MO US
Wellesley MA US
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Ridgewood NJ US
Subject
Prison reformers
Pacifists
World War, 1939-1945
Social reformers
Communism--United States
Civil rights--20th century
Communism--Soviet Union
Government consultants--20th century--Correspondence
Pacifism
Puerto Rico--Politics and government--20th century
Feminists
Reformers--Interviews
Political prisoners
Civil rights--History--20th century--Sources
Civil rights
American politics and government
American history/Gilded Age, Populism, Progressivism
Civil rights--United States--20th century
Civil rights workers--Interviews
World War, 1914-1918--Conscientious objectors
Legal history
World War I
Government consultants--United States--20th century--Correspondence
World war, 1914-1918--Conscientious objectors--United States
Communism
Civil rights--Puerto Rico--20th century
American history/20th century
Social problems--20th century
Sacco--Vanzetti Trial, Dedham, Mass., 1921
Occupation
Executive
Activity

Person

Birth 1884-01-21

Death 1981-08-26

Male

Americans

English

Information

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