Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839

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Epithet: abolitionist

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001188.0x000283

Thomas Cooper, born in London in 1759, immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1794. Well-known for his political beliefs, Cooper eventually pursued a career as a science professor and became the second president of South Carolina College in 1821.

From the guide to the Thomas Cooper Papers, ., 1819-1837, (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.)

Thomas Cooper was a reformer, philosopher, lawyer, newspaper publisher, teacher, scientist, judge, and college administrator.

From the description of Letter, Northumberland, Pa., to Joseph Clay, Washington, D.C., 1803 December 10. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 35155334

Biographical note: Thomas Cooper had been a professor of chemistry at Carlisle College in Pennsylvania when he was offered a similar position at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky in 1815. Known for his radical religious principles, it is generally believed that the trustees, who were under attack for their own Presbyterian orthodoxy, chose Cooper to pacify their critics. In doing so however, they offered him a salary far below what they knew he would accept, and he declined the offer. Following this exchange, Cooper let it be known that he did want to be considered for the presidency at Transylvania. Though many prominent citizens petitioned the board to seriously consider Cooper for the presidency, he was never offered the position.

From the description of Letters, 1815-1817. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 191917832

Thomas Cooper, faculty member of Dickinson College, 1811-1815.

From the description of Notes on the chemical lectures of Thomas Cooper / [transcribed by] Samuel Alexander. [1812-1813] (Dickinson College). WorldCat record id: 48894837

Parker Cleaveland worked as a mineralogist and geologist.

From the guide to the Parker Cleaveland papers, [ca. 1806]-1844, Circa 1806-1844, (American Philosophical Society)

Cooper was born in England, where he studied law and medicine, practiced law, and experimented with chemistry. As an agitator for radical political causes he was dissatisfied with the conservative reaction against the French Revolution and moved to the U.S. in 1794, settling in Northumberland, Pa. There he practiced law and medicine and became active in Jeffersonian politics. He held a variety of state offices until 1811, when he was removed from his judgeship, with some justification. From 1811 to 1834 he taught chemistry, first at Carlisle (now Dickinson) College, then at the University of Pennsylvania and at South Carolina College (now the University of South Carolina), where he was also president. He was also a pioneer of political economy in the U.S., and the author of a number of books on legal and scientific topics.

From the description of Letters, 1800-1816, to Alexander James Dallas. (Rosenbach Museum & Library). WorldCat record id: 122591489

Staunch advocate of separation of church and state; anti-Federalist; outspoken supporter of Nullification and states' rights; served as chair of natural philosophy and chemistry at Dickinson College (1811-1815); served as a professor of applied chemistry and mineralogy at the University of Pennsylvania from 1816 to 1819; although through the influence of Thomas Jefferson, Cooper was elected in 1819 to the faculty of the newly founded University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Cooper never did assume this position, but went on to become professor of chemistry at South Carolina College in 1820. He was elected as the College's second president in 1821 and remained there until his retirement in 1834.

From the description of Thomas Cooper papers, 1778-1976 (bulk 1803-1853) (University of South Carolina). WorldCat record id: 642054615

Physician Joseph Carson taught medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The College of Philadelphia's Medical School, founded in 1765, became known as the University of Pennsylvania, Dept. of Medicine In 1779.

From the guide to the Joseph Carson letters, 1789-1858, 1789-1858, (American Philosophical Society)

Humphry Davy (1778–1829, APS 1810) was a British chemist and pioneer in the field of electrochemistry. He was a major figure in the reformed chemistry movement initiated by the French scientist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794, APS 1775).

Davy was the son of an impoverished Cornish woodcarver. As a youth, he was apprenticed to an apothecary-surgeon with whom he pursued a regimen of self-study that included theology, philosophy, poetics, several languages, as well as, botany, chemistry, anatomy, mechanics and physics. In subsequent years, when most of his time was occupied by scientific endeavors, Davy exhibited a particular fondness for philosophical writings and poetry. In 1799 he published his first poems.

However, it was Davy’s aptitude for scientific matters that soon attracted attention. One of the people who recognized his abilities was Davies Giddy (1767-1839), a Member of Parliament with scientific interests. Giddy eventually became Davy’s patron. He allowed his protégé access to his library; furthermore, he persuaded Davy’s master to release him from his indenture so that he could become the assistant to Thomas Beddoes, Giddy’s former teacher at Oxford.

In 1798 Davy joined Beddoes's Pneumatic Institution in Bristol which was established for the purpose of investigating the medical powers of newly discovered airs and gases. There, he made the acquaintance of fellow scientists as well as individuals with literary interests, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Joseph Cottle (1770-1853), and Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849). In 1797 Davy read Lavoisier’s Traité élémentaire de chimie in French, a study that made a deep impression on him. Two years later he published an essay in which he refuted Lavoisier’s caloric; that same year he established his reputation as a chemist with his book Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, chiefly concerning Nitrous Oxide . . . and its Respiration in which he suggested that nitrous oxide (laughing gas) be used as an anesthetic in minor surgical operations. Davy had arrived at his conclusions after a series of risky experiments with different gases on himself. He described his “emotions” after awakening from the effects of laughing gas as “enthusiastic and sublime.”

Davy engaged in electrochemical experiments that led to several discoveries, including the recognition that the production of electricity was linked to a chemical reaction. He also isolated and analyzed the chemical elements potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium. One of his best-known contributions to the field was his conclusion that, contrary to Lavoisier’s claims, there was no material basis for acidity. In 1810 he announced that the green gas contained in sea salt was an element. He named it chlorine.

As a strong promoter of applied science, Davy also engaged in various practical projects. He researched the chemistry of tanning, promoted improvements to agricultural practices, and developed a miner’s lamp that inhibited the ignition of the methane gas commonly found in mines. Furthermore, Davy was known as an effective lecturer. He made scientific topics accessible to an audience that extended beyond a small circle of fellow scientists.

Davy’s accomplishments were recognized with numerous awards and honors. In 1801 he joined the faculty of the Royal Institution in London. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1803, was awarded the Copley medal in 1805, and served as the Society’s president from 1820 to 1827. He was knighted in 1812 and created a baronet in 1818. He was also a founder of the Geological Society of London, the London Zoo and the Athenaeum.

Davy was married to Jane Apreece Kerr, a wealthy and well-connected widow. They did not have children. In 1829, he suffered a stroke while vacationing in Italy. He died a few days later.

From the guide to the Sir Humphry Davy correspondence, 1803-1822, 1803-1822, (American Philosophical Society)

José Francisco Correia da Serra (1750–1823, APS 1812) was an abbot, diplomat, scholar and botanist. In his work as a botanist he was particularly concerned with the systematic classification of vegetable species. Thomas Jefferson described him as “profoundly learned in several branches of science he was so above all others in that of Botany; in which he preferred an amalgamation of the methods of Linnaeus [1707-1778, APS 1769] and of Jussieu [1686-1758] to either of them exclusively.” Correia spent many years of his life in France, England and the United States where he made the acquaintance of leading European and American intellectual leaders of the time.

Correia was born in Serpa, Portugal, to the physician and lawyer Luis Dias Correia and Francisca Luisa da Serra. In 1756 the family was forced to leave Portugal because the elder Correia’s scientific work had incurred the displeasure of the Holy Office. They settled in Naples, Italy, where the boy came under the tutelage of the abbé and university professor of “Commerce and mechanics” Antonio Genovesi (1712-1769), a major force in the Neapolitan Enlightenment. During this time Correia was also taught in natural history by the botanist Luis Antonio Verney (1713-1792). In 1772 Correia moved to Rome where he studied at the University and other institutions. By that time he was already corresponding with Carl Linnaeus, in Latin. He also made the acquaintance of Don John Carlos of Braganza, second Duke of Lafoens, a member of the Portuguese royal family. The Duke became Correia’s friend and patron.

In 1775 Correia was ordained a Presbyterian abbot; two years later he received the degree of Doctor of Laws. However, it was clear that Correia’s real interest was natural history, especially botany, and that he did not plan to pursue a life in the church. In fact, some of his biographers have suggested that he focused on ecclesiastical studies mainly in order to protect himself in his scientific work from potential suspicions by the Inquisition. Whatever the case, in early 1778 the young abbé, with encouragement from the duke, who hoped to encourage scientific research in Portugal, moved to Lisbon. There he turned his attention to scholarly pursuits and diplomacy.

Correia and the duke set out right away to organize the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, a learned institution that was dedicated to the advancement of science. Correia also conducted botanical research. He spent the period from 1786 to about 1788 outside of Portugal, and while his activities during this period remain unclear, there is evidence that he visited Rome. In the mid-1790s, after his return to his native country, he began the task of editing what would be the first three of five volumes of Colleccao de livros ineditos da historia Portugueza, an extensive collection of documents.

In 1795 political difficulties compelled Correia to leave Portugal. The Royal Academy and many of its members were viewed with suspicion by certain ecclesiastical groups, especially after Correia befriended the French naturalist and Girondist Peter Marie Auguste Broussonet (1761-1807), who had taken refuge in Portugal. Armed with letters of introduction to several British scientists, Correia traveled to London. He soon became the protégé of Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820, APS 1787), president of the Royal Society, who facilitated Correia’s election to the Society. He also was welcomed by James Edward Smith (1759-1828, APS 1796), president of the Linnean Society. By then, Correia was already publishing on various natural science topics, especially botany, which contributed to his growing reputation as a naturalist.

For about one year during his residence in London, Correia also served as Secretary to the Portuguese embassy. However, tensions with the conservative Minister compelled him to depart from England in 1802. In the summer of that year, Correia moved to Paris. There he made the acquaintance of leading scientists and other public figures. The list includes Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours (1739–1817, APS 1800), the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834, APS 1781), Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859, APS 1804), the French naturalist Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (1778-1841, APS 1841), and André Thouin (1746-1824), superintendent of the Jardin du Roi, now known as Jardin des Plantes, in Paris. Correia also met Esther Delavigne, who eventually became his lover.

Of particular importance to Correia was his extensive correspondence with friends in Portugal that he maintained throughout his time in London, Paris and then the United States. Through his contact with them he hoped to bring the latest scientific ideas and discoveries to his mother country. His letters are filled with news of new vaccines, maritime maps, instruments, and anything else that he thought might serve to aid the progress of Portugal. Correia’s wide-ranging contacts with fellow botanists made him an important intermediary in the exchanges between naturalists in different parts of the world. In 1807 his own government recognized his contributions by making him a Knight of the Order of Christ.

Overall, Correia’s time in Paris was happy and fruitful. However, life as a liberal under Napoleon was not easy, and Correia soon began to explore the possibility of relocating once again, this time to the United States. Finally, in the winter of 1811, the abbé was aboard the U.S.S. Constitution, on his way to what would become a particularly interesting period in his life.

Correia arrived in Washington, D. C., in early 1812, and he did not lose time in making the acquaintance of leading Americans, including President James Madison. He was anxious to visit Thomas Jefferson but owing to the fact that Philadelphia was the intellectual center of the new nation, he decided to establish himself there first. His European friends had already announced Correia’s imminent arrival to several prominent Philadelphians, including the physicians Benjamin Rush (1745-1813, APS 1768) and Caspar Wistar (1761-1818, APS 1787), and John Vaughan (1756–1841, APS 1784), the treasurer and librarian of the American Philosophical Society. The abbé was elected a member of the Society in January of 1812, before his arrival in the city. He became close friends with Vaughan who soon handled his business affairs and advised him in all kinds of matters. Correia also got to know the botanist Henry Muhlenberg (1753-1815, APS 1785), who introduced him to the physician and botanist Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879, APS 1818). And he reconnected with several Philadelphians he knew from his time in Paris, including the lawyer and financier Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844, APS 1813), and William Short (1759-1849, APS 1804), Jefferson’s private secretary in Paris. Life in Philadelphia was clearly enjoyable for the Portuguese exile but he remained anxious to visit “the great the truly great Mr. Jefferson.” In July of 1813 he left for Virginia for the first of what would eventually be seven visits over a period of about eight years.

Jefferson had been introduced to Correia in glowing letters from Lafayette, Du Pont, Thouin, and Humboldt. It is not surprising, then, that Jefferson received the visitor with warmth and great expectations. They were not disappointed. Jefferson described his guest as “the best digest of science in books, men, and things that I have ever met with; and with these the most amiable and engaging character.” The room in which Correia stayed during his visits to Monticello, the North Square Room, is still known as the Abbé’s room. Correia spent much of his time in Virginia on rambles through the country, often in the company of Thomas Mann Randolph (1768-1828, APS 1794). His interest in natural history eventually also took him to Kentucky, Georgia and north to the Canadian border.

Through Jefferson, Correia made the acquaintance of Francis Walker Gilmer (1790-1826), a promising young man who readily accepted the abbé’s invitation to accompany him on his excursions. In 1816 President Madison asked the two men to deliver a letter from him to the agent of the Cherokee, in the southeastern United States. In the course of their journey through South Carolina and Georgia, they made extensive botanical notations, and Gilmer also recorded several pages of Cherokee vocabulary.

In 1816 Correia received news of his appointment as Portuguese minister-plenipotentiary at Washington, D. C. His expectation that this post would not interfere with his scientific pursuits turned out to be mistaken, even though he never spent more than half a year in the nation’s capital. From the start he was forced to deal with complaints about privateers flying foreign flags who were threatening the Portuguese colonies in South America. The fear was that these privateers, many of whom were American, could encourage and aid a rebellion in Brazil. Correia successfully lobbied the U. S. government for a Neutrality Act that was designed to curb these actions.

In the late 1810s, increasing worries about the turn of Portuguese-American affairs and serious health problems gradually made the abbé’s temper shorter and his spirits lower. He also ultimately became a severe critic of America and Americans, an attitude that contributed to his estrangement from some of his older American friends. However, he also found comfort in new relationships with, for example, the English-born chemist and lawyer Thomas Cooper (1759-1839, APS 1802). Most significantly, Edward Joseph, his fifteen-year old son with his lover Esther Delavigne arrived in the United States from Paris in 1818. Edward, who stayed with his father until their return to Europe, got to know many of his Philadelphia friends quite well. In 1820 father and son sailed from the United States for Portugal via London, a year after Correia had learned of his appointment as Counselor of State for Brazil. Correia spent the last three years of his life in Lisbon, “covered with honors,” as his son Edward wrote in a letter to John Vaughan. He died in Lisbon in 1823.

Correia published many essays and reports on botany in the leading European and American scientific journals of his time. His research centered on the systematic classification of vegetable species. In his work he attempted to apply the methods of compared anatomy of zoology to botany; he sought to group plants into families based on their similarities. His concept of symmetry was later adopted and developed by Candolle. While Correia was not “a member of every philosophical society in the world,” as his young protégé Gilmer wrote enthusiastically in a letter to his brother, he did belong to numerous learned societies. They included the Royal Society, the Linnean Society, the Academy of Science of Paris, and the Société Philomatique. He also offered several courses in botany at the American Philosophical Society.

From the guide to the José Francisco Correia da Serra papers, 1772-1827, 1772-1827, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Thomas Jefferson papers, 1775-1825, 1775-1825 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter, 1803-1830. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Croft, Floride Lydia Gaillard. Letter, 1829 May 25, Greenville, [S.C.], to W. Randell Croft, Columbia, [S.C.]. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Vaughan, John, 1755-1841. Papers, 1768-1922 (inclusive). American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Correspondence, 1814-1826 University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Lee family. Lee family papers, 1754-1836. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Thomas Cooper papers, 1778-1976 (bulk 1803-1853) University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letters, 1800-1816, to Alexander James Dallas. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Sir Humphry Davy correspondence, 1803-1822, 1803-1822 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Gibson, James. Papers, 1712-1846. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Brown, Samuel, 1769-1830. Samuel Brown : papers, 1817-1825. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Linsley, Joel Harvey, 1790-1868. Letter, 1829 May 26, Charleston, S.C., to Henry Davis, New York, N.Y. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Fendall, Philip Ricard, 1794-1868. Correspondence of Philip Ricard Fendall [manuscript] 1811-62. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Marian S. Carson collection of manuscripts, 1656-1995 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letters, 1815-1817. Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives, Kentucky Guide Project Office
creatorOf Letters Addressed to Thomas Walker (1749-1817), 1775-1819 British Library
referencedIn Gibbes, Lewis Reeves, 1810-1894. Papers, 1793-1894 (bulk 1838-1894) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Letters of scientists, 1655-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Hagley Museum. Research reports, 1953-1978. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter to the firm of Parker & Poor. 1814-1819. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Carroll collection, 1776-1867. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Gibbes, Lewis Reeves, 1810-1894. Papers, 1793-1894 (bulk 1838-1894) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Nicholson, John, 1757-1800. Papers, 1772-1819 [microform]. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Smith, Caleb, 1723-1762. Caleb Smith letters, 1742-1866, 1944 1742-1762. New Jersey Historical Society Library
referencedIn John W. and Maria Eliza Cutler Francis family collection 1823-1854 Francis, John W. and Maria Eliza Cutler family collection William L. Clements Library
creatorOf Carr, Dabney, 1773-1837. Papers of the Terrell family [manuscript], 1790-1870. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Parker Cleaveland papers, [ca. 1806]-1844, Circa 1806-1844 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. ALS, 1820 March 8, Monticello, to Dr. Thomas Cooper. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn Nicholas Biddle Papers, 1681-1933, (bulk 1775-1846) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter to James Madison [manuscript] 1816 Dec. 24. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Hassler, F. R. (Ferdinand Rudolph), 1770-1843. Papers of c [manuscript], 1806-1847. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf American Philosophical Society Library. Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection. 1668-1983. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Jackson, Samuel C. (Samuel Cram), 1802-1878. Samuel C. Jackson papers, 1832-1835. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Du Pont, Pierre S. (Pierre Samuel), 1870-1954,. The Longwood Manuscripts, 1438-1954. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIj, 1898-1988 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Brown, Matthew, fl. 1818,. Papers concerning the establishment and construction of the University of Virginia, 1817-1826. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Randolph, David Meade, 1760-1830,. Papers of the Shackelford family [manuscript] 1785-1963. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Correspondence and related papers as Rector of the University of Virginia, 1817-1825. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Johnson, Joseph, 1738-1809. Joseph Johnson Letterbook, 1795-1810. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Letter, Monticello, to Thomas Cooper [manuscript] 1825 April 4. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Letter to Thomas Cooper [manuscript], 1825 April 2. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Letter to Thomas Cooper [manuscript], 1823 May 30. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Thomas Cooper papers, 1819-1837 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Correia da Serra, José Francisco, 1750-1823. Papers, 1772-1827 American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Lucas, Simons Ravenel. Dr. Thomas Cooper, the great educator; a brief sketch of his life and politics and of his economic work in South Carolina--his recognition of the "Existing inequality of conditions," and his suggetions as to how they should be remedied [manuscript], 1907? University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Correia da Serra, José Francisco, 1750-1823. Papers, 1772-1827 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Letter to James Breckinridge [manuscript], 1819 July 8, 11, and 16. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Hamilton, James, 1786-1857. James Hamilton papers, 1820-1859. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Cleaveland, Parker, 1780-1858. Letters, [ca. 1806]-1844. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Joseph Johnson Letterbook, 1795-1810 The New York Public Library. Carl H. Pforzheimer Collection of Shelley and His Circle.
referencedIn Hoar, George Frisbie. 1826-1904. Autograph collection, 1598-1945 Houghton Library
referencedIn Smith, Edgar Fahs, 1854-1928,. Thomas Cooper Collection, 1792-1938. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIa, 1743-1806 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Smith, Caleb, 1723-1762. Caleb Smith letters, 1742-1866, 1944 1742-1762. New Jersey Historical Society Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Notes on the chemical lectures of Thomas Cooper / [transcribed by] Samuel Alexander. Dickinson College Library, Waidner-Spahr Library
referencedIn Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Copies of Thomas Jefferson papers [manuscript 1810-1826. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Correspondence with Thomas Cooper, James Patton Preston, and the University of Virginia Board of Visitors [manuscript] 1817-21. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter, draft, Philadelphia, to Thomas Jefferson [manuscript] 1819 Oct. 22. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter to James Madison, 1817 November 24. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter, 1822 Mar. 20 (Columbia, S.C.), to "Dear Sir." University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Wellcome Historical Medical Society. Selected letters, 1731-1871, relating to American medicine. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Letter to Thomas Cooper, 1819 January 22. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Evaluation of a collection of minerals selected for the University of Virginia, [manuscript], 1819 July 9. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn George P. Merrill Correspondence and Autographs, 1803-1926 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIb, 1807-1825 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Letters to James Pleasants, et al., soliciting for Central College, 4 Aug. 1817, and to Thomas Cooper, 19 Nov. 1819 [manuscript] 1817-1819. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter, Northumberland, Pa., to Joseph Clay, Washington, D.C., 1803 December 10. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter, Thomas Cooper, to J. Wagner. Medical University of South Carolina Libraries
referencedIn Carson, Joseph, 1808-1876,. Letters, 1789-1858. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Thomas Cooper Papers, ., 1819-1837 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection
referencedIn Hadley family. Headley and Howell family papers, 1783-1917. Bucks County Historical Society
creatorOf Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839. Letter, 25 May 1832 [to] George Schley. Medical University of South Carolina Libraries
referencedIn Davy, Humphry, Sir, 1778-1829. Correspondence, 1803-1822. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Vaughan, John, 1755-1841. Papers, 1768 - ca. 1936 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wellcome Historical Medical Society selected letters, 1731-1871, relating to American medicine, 1731-1871 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Black, William Claiborne, ca.1807-1879. William Claiborne Black papers, 1797-1880. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
creatorOf Joseph Carson letters, 1789-1858, 1789-1858 American Philosophical Society
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associatedWith Badash, Lawrence person
associatedWith Bailey, Jacob Whitman, 1811-1857 person
associatedWith Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887 person
associatedWith Baker, Joseph B. person
associatedWith Baldwin, B. F. person
associatedWith Baldwin, Loammi, 1780-1838 person
associatedWith Balfour, John Hutton, 1808-1884 person
associatedWith Ball, Robert S. (Robert Stawell), Sir, 1840-1913 person
associatedWith Bancroft, Aaron, 1755-1839 person
associatedWith Bancroft, Edward, 1744-1821 person
associatedWith Bancroft, George, 1800-1891 person
associatedWith Bangs, Edward D. (Edward Dillingham), 1790-1838 person
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associatedWith Bank of the United States (1816-1836) corporateBody
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associatedWith Banks, Joseph, Sir, 1743-1820 person
associatedWith Bankson, Swan. Estate of. person
associatedWith Bankson, Swen estate corporateBody
associatedWith Bannitz, Charles A. person
associatedWith Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969 person
associatedWith Barbeu Du Bourg, M. (Jacques), 1709-1779 person
associatedWith Bard, John, 1716-1799 person
associatedWith Baring and Company person
associatedWith Barlow, Joel, 1754-1812 person
associatedWith Barnard, Frederick A. P. (Frederick Augustus Porter), 1809-1889 person
associatedWith Barnes, Joseph person
associatedWith Barnes, Joseph, & Co. person
associatedWith Barnitz, W. T. person
associatedWith Barnsley, Edward R. person
associatedWith Barnsley, Thomas, d. 1771 person
associatedWith Barrett, B. person
associatedWith Barry, Amelia Evans person
associatedWith Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815 person
associatedWith Barton, William, 1754-1817 person
associatedWith Barton, William P. C. (William Paul Crillon), 1786-1856 person
associatedWith Bartram, Anna person
associatedWith Bartram, Archibald, 1774? -1808 person
associatedWith Bartram family family
associatedWith Bartram, James Howell person
associatedWith Bartram, John, 1699-1777 person
associatedWith Bartram, Moses, 1732-1808 person
associatedWith Bartram, William, 1739-1823 person
associatedWith Bates, Henry Walter, 1825-1892 person
associatedWith Beadle, George Wells, 1903-1989 person
associatedWith Beattie, James, 1735-1803 person
associatedWith Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de, 1732-1799 person
associatedWith Beccaria, Giambatista, 1716-1781 person
associatedWith Beck, James M. (James Montgomery), 1861-1936 person
associatedWith Beck, John B. (John Brodhead), 1794-1851 person
associatedWith Beddome, Elizabeth person
associatedWith Beeke, Henry, 1751-1837 person
associatedWith Beitel, Christian person
associatedWith Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922 person
associatedWith Bell, Whitfield J. (Whitfield Jenks) person
associatedWith Bennett, P. W. person
associatedWith Benny, Elizabeth person
associatedWith Bensell, George? person
associatedWith Bentham, George, 1800-1884 person
associatedWith Bentinck, William Henry Cavendish, Lord, 1774-1839 person
associatedWith Berger, Jean Francois, 1779-1833 person
associatedWith Berkeley, W. person
associatedWith Bernard, H. Russell person
associatedWith Bernoulli, Jean, 1744-1807 person
associatedWith Berrien, John MacPherson, 1781-1856 person
associatedWith Berry, W. J. A. person
associatedWith Bertholon, Pierre person
associatedWith Berzelius, Jons Jakob, Friherre, 1779-1848 person
associatedWith Bethlehem (Pa.). Moravian Church person
associatedWith Betton, Samuel, 1786-1850 person
associatedWith Biddle, Cadwalader person
associatedWith Biddle, James, 1731-1797 person
associatedWith Biddle, James C. (James Cornell), 1795-1838 person
correspondedWith Biddle, Nicholas, 1786-1844. person
associatedWith Biesel, Augustus person
associatedWith Bigsby, John J. (John Jeremiah), 1792-1881 person
associatedWith Billings, John S., (John Shaw), 1838-1913 person
associatedWith Binckley, David person
associatedWith Bingham, William, 1752-1804 person
associatedWith Binney, Amos, 1803-1847 person
associatedWith Binney, Horace, 1780-1875 person
associatedWith Binns, John, 1772-1860. person
associatedWith Biot, Jean-Baptiste, 1774-1862 person
associatedWith Blackburn, John, 1690-1786 person
associatedWith Black, William Claiborne, ca.1807-1879. person
associatedWith Blaine, James Gillespie, 1830-1893 person
associatedWith Blair, John person
associatedWith Bland, Theodorick person
associatedWith Bland, Thomas, 1809-1885 person
associatedWith Bligh, William, 1754-1817 person
associatedWith Blumberg, Benjamin person
associatedWith Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 1752-1840 person
associatedWith Bohr, Niels Henrik David, 1885-1962 person
associatedWith Bonaparte, Charles Lucian, 1803-1857 person
associatedWith Bonaparte, Joseph, 1768-1844 person
associatedWith Bond, Phineas, 1749-1815 person
associatedWith Bond, Thomas, 1712-1784 person
associatedWith Booth, Christopher C., (Christopher Charles), 1924- person
associatedWith Booth, F. person
associatedWith Booth, Walther person
associatedWith Born, Max, 1882-1970 person
associatedWith Bostock, John, 1773-1846 person
associatedWith Boucher de Perthes, M. (Jacques), 1788-1868 person
associatedWith Boudinot, Elias, 1740-1821 person
associatedWith Bowdon, Temple person
associatedWith Bowen, Catherine Drinker, 1897-1973 person
associatedWith Boyer, Jean Pierre, 1776-1850 person
associatedWith Boyle, Courtenay person
associatedWith Bradford, Thomas, 1781-1851 person
associatedWith Breck, Samuel, 1771-1862 person
associatedWith Brewster, David, Sir, 1781-1868 person
associatedWith Brewster, Sir David person
associatedWith Bridges, Calvin B. (Calvin Blackman), 1889-1938 person
associatedWith Bridgewater, Dorothy W. person
associatedWith Briggs, Isaac, 1763-1825 person
associatedWith Brinton, Daniel Garrison, 1837-1899 person
associatedWith British and Foreign Bible Society person
associatedWith Broderip, William John, 1789-1859 person
associatedWith Brodie, Benjamin, Sir, 1783-1862 person
associatedWith Broglie, Louis de, 1892-1987 person
associatedWith Brongniart, Adolphe, 1801-1876 person
associatedWith Brongniart, Alexandre-Theodore, 1739-1813 person
associatedWith Brooke, Rachel person
associatedWith Brooke, Richard, 1716-1783 person
associatedWith Brooks, William Keith, 1848-1908 person
associatedWith Broom, Robert, 1866-1951 person
associatedWith Broussonet, Pierre Marie Auguste, 1761-1807 person
associatedWith Brown, A. person
associatedWith Browne, Peter A. (Peter Arrell), 1782-1860 person
associatedWith Brown, Robert, 1773-1858 person
correspondedWith Brown, Samuel, 1769-1830. person
associatedWith Brown, William, 1752-1792 person
associatedWith Brunel, Isambard Kingdom, 1806-1859 person
associatedWith Brunell(?) person
associatedWith Bryan, Guy person
associatedWith Buchanan, James, 1791-1868 person
associatedWith Buchan, David Stewart Erskine, Earl of, 1742-1829 person
associatedWith Buckland, Francis T., (Francis Trevelyan), 1826-1880 person
associatedWith Buckland, Mary Morland person
associatedWith Buckland, William, 1784-1856 person
associatedWith Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de, 1707-1788 person
associatedWith Buisson person
associatedWith Bulkeley, John, and son corporateBody
associatedWith Bunker Hill Monument Association corporateBody
associatedWith Burd, Edward person
associatedWith Burd, James, ca. 1710-1783 person
associatedWith Burr, Aaron, 1756-1836 person
associatedWith Butler, D. A. person
associatedWith Butler, Elizur, 1794-1857 person
associatedWith Butler, Samuel, 1774-1839 person
associatedWith Cadwalader, John, 1805-1879 person
associatedWith Cadwallader, John person
associatedWith Caldwell, Charles, 1772-1853 person
associatedWith Caldwell, James B. person
associatedWith Calhoun, John C. (John Caldwell), 1782-1850. person
associatedWith Camper, Petrus, 1722-1789 person
associatedWith Canada. Montreal corporateBody
associatedWith Carey, Mathew, 1760-1839 person
associatedWith Carlile, Richard, 1790-1843 person
associatedWith Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881 person
associatedWith Carpenter, William Benjamin, 1813-1885 person
associatedWith Carr, Frank person
associatedWith Carrington, John T. person
associatedWith Carson, Hampton L. (Hampton Lawrence), 1852-1929 person
associatedWith Carson, Joseph, 1808-1876, person
associatedWith Carson, Marian S., person
associatedWith Carson, Marian S., person
associatedWith Carson, Marian S., collector. person
associatedWith Cash, Caleb person
associatedWith Cassin, John, 1813-1869 person
associatedWith Castries, Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix, marquis de, 1727-1800 person
associatedWith Cattell, Abraham Gilmore & Co. person
associatedWith Cauchy, Augustin Louis, Baron, 1789-1857 person
associatedWith Causten, James Hyman, 1818-1856 person
associatedWith Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.) person
associatedWith Chambers, Robert, 1802-1871 person
associatedWith Chambrun, René de, 1906- person
associatedWith Channing, William Ellery, 1780-1842 person
associatedWith Charles II, King of England, 1630-1685 person
associatedWith Charleston Museum (Charleston, S. C.) person
associatedWith Charlesworth, Edward P., 1813-1893 person
associatedWith Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873 person
associatedWith Chase, Samuel, 1741-1811 person
associatedWith Cheatham, Benjamin Franklin, 1820-1886 person
associatedWith Cherokee Nation person
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associatedWith Cheyney, Edward Potts, 1861-1947 person
associatedWith Childs, George William, 1829-1894 person
associatedWith Childs & Smith. Architects. corporateBody
associatedWith Chrétien, de Troyes, 12th cent. person
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associatedWith Ch'un, P'an person
associatedWith Churchman, J. (Joseph), 1767-1837 person
associatedWith Churchman, John, 1753-1805 person
associatedWith Claiborne, Richard person
associatedWith Clarkson, Matthew person
associatedWith Clark, William person
associatedWith Clay, Joseph person
associatedWith Clay, Joseph, 1764-1811, person
associatedWith Clayton, John, 1657-1725 person
associatedWith Clayton, John, 1686-1773 person
associatedWith Cleaveland, Parker, 1780-1858. person
associatedWith Clemson, Thomas G. person
associatedWith Cleveland, William J. person
associatedWith Clodd, Edward, 1840-1930 person
associatedWith Clymer, George, 1739-1813 person
associatedWith C. M. M. person
associatedWith Coats, Thomas person
associatedWith Cock, Allan Geoffry person
associatedWith Cohaw, J. W. person
associatedWith Colden, Cadwallader, 1688-1776 person
associatedWith Colden, Jane, 1724-1766 person
associatedWith College of Physicians of Philadelphia person
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associatedWith Collin, Nicholas, 1746-1831 person
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associatedWith Collins, Mary person
associatedWith Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768 person
associatedWith Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences . corporateBody
associatedWith Columbian Society of Artists person
associatedWith Columbia University person
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associatedWith Compagnie des Indes person
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associatedWith Congregational Church (Charleston, S. C.) person
associatedWith Conklin, Edwin Grant, 1863-1952 person
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associatedWith Conrad, C. and A., and company person
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associatedWith Cooper, James Graham, 1830-1902 person
correspondedWith Cooper, Thomas Priestly, b.1821 person
associatedWith Cope, Thomas D. (Thomas Darlington) person
associatedWith Copley, John Singleton, 1738-1815 person
associatedWith Copway, George person
associatedWith Coquerel, Athanase, 1795-1868 person
associatedWith Cornell University. Agassiz club person
associatedWith Corrêa da Serra, Edward J. person
associatedWith Correia da Serra, José Francisco, 1750-1823. person
associatedWith Corwin, Thomas, 1794-1865 person
associatedWith Couch, Jonathan, 1789-1870 person
associatedWith Coues, Elliott, 1842-1899 person
associatedWith Coulet du Gard, René person
associatedWith Coxe, John Redman, 1773-1864. person
associatedWith Coxe, Tench, 1755-1824 person
associatedWith Cox, John Lewis, 1777-1856 person
associatedWith Craik, William person
associatedWith Crick, Francis, 1916-2004 person
associatedWith Croft, Floride Lydia Gaillard. person
associatedWith Croghan, George, d. 1782 person
associatedWith Croker, John Wilson, 1780-1857 person
associatedWith Crookes, William, 1832-1919 person
associatedWith Crow, William person
associatedWith Cumming, Hugh S. (Hugh Smith), 1869-1948 person
associatedWith Cunningham, W. (William), 1849-1919 person
associatedWith Curie, Marie, 1867-1934 person
associatedWith Currie, William, 1754-1828 person
associatedWith Curzon, Edward person
associatedWith Cushing, Harvey, 1869-1939 person
associatedWith Cutbush, Edward, 1772-1843 person
associatedWith Cutler family family
associatedWith Cuvier, Frédéric, 1773-1838 person
associatedWith Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832 person
associatedWith Dallas, Alexander James, 1759-1817. person
associatedWith Dalrymple, John, Sir, 1726-1810 person
associatedWith Dana, James Dwight, 1813-1895 person
associatedWith Darlington, William, 1782-1863 person
associatedWith Darwin, Emma person
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associatedWith Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912 person
associatedWith Darwin, Leonard, 1850-1943 person
associatedWith Darwin, Robert Waring, 1766-1848 person
associatedWith Dauxion Lavaysse, J. -J. (Jean-J.), ca. 1770-1826 person
associatedWith Davidson, Chalmers Gaston, 1907-1994 person
associatedWith Davidson, George, 1825-1911 person
associatedWith Davis, Charles Henry, 1807-1877 person
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associatedWith Davis, John Edward, 1815-1877 person
associatedWith Davis, John Philip, 1784-1862 person
associatedWith Davis, Richard Beale person
associatedWith Davis, William person
associatedWith Davy, Humphry, Sir, 1778-1829. person
associatedWith Davy, Jane Kerr, Lady, 1780-1855 person
associatedWith Davy, John, 1790-1868 person
associatedWith Deane, Silas, 1737-1789 person
associatedWith Dearborn, Benjamin person
associatedWith De Butts, Elisha, 1773-1831 person
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associatedWith De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004 person
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associatedWith Democratic Party (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Denham, Thomas, d. 1728 person
associatedWith Dennie, Joseph, 1768-1812. person
associatedWith Derby, Mrs. person
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associatedWith Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867 person
associatedWith Des Moulin, Charles. person
associatedWith Destouches, Jean-Louis person
associatedWith Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude, comte, 1754-1836 person
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associatedWith Dick, Elisha Cullen, 1762-1825 person
associatedWith Dickerson, Mahlon, 1770-1853 person
associatedWith Dickinson College. corporateBody
associatedWith Dickinson, John, 1732-1808 person
associatedWith Diehl, John person
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associatedWith Dixon, Joseph person
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associatedWith Donath, Joseph, 1750? -1829 person
associatedWith Donders, Franciscus Cornelis, 1818-1889 person
associatedWith Donlevy, Andrew, 1694? -1761? person
associatedWith Dorlodot, Albert de person
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associatedWith Dvoĭchenko-Markova, E. M. person
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associatedWith F. A. person
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