Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891

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Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father, Charles Robert Sherman, a successful lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court, died unexpectedly in 1829. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children and no inheritance. After his father's death, the nine-year-old Sherman was raised by a Lancaster neighbor and family friend, attorney Thomas Ewing, Sr., a prominent member of the Whig Party who served as senator from Ohio and as the first Secretary of the Interior. Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him.

Sherman's older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge. One of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U.S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker. Two of his foster brothers served as major generals in the Union Army during the Civil War: Hugh Boyle Ewing, later an ambassador and author, and Thomas Ewing, Jr., who would serve as defense attorney in the military trials of the Lincoln conspirators. Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her.

Sherman's unusual given name has always attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his middle name came from his father having "caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees, 'Tecumseh'". Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has often been reported that, as an infant, Sherman was named simply Tecumseh. According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name "William" at age nine or ten, after being taken into the Ewing household. His foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle (Maria Ewing), was of Irish ancestry and a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, although he later left the church, citing the effect of the Civil War on his religious views. According to a story that may be myth, Sherman was baptized in the Ewing home by a Dominican priest, who named him William for the saint's day: possibly June 25, the feast day of Saint William of Montevergine. The story is contested, however. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs that his father named him William Tecumseh; Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant and given the name William at that time. As an adult, Sherman signed all his correspondence—including to his wife—"W.T. Sherman." His friends and family always called him "Cump."

Senator Ewing secured an appointment for the 16-year-old Sherman as a cadet in the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he roomed and became good friends with another important future Civil War General, George H. Thomas. While there Sherman excelled academically, but he treated the demerit system with indifference. Fellow cadet William Rosecrans would later remember Sherman at West Point as "one of the brightest and most popular fellows" and "a bright-eyed, red-headed fellow, who was always prepared for a lark of any kind." About his time at West Point, Sherman says only the following in his Memoirs:

At the Academy I was not considered a good soldier, for at no time was I selected for any office, but remained a private throughout the whole four years. Then, as now, neatness in dress and form, with a strict conformity to the rules, were the qualifications required for office, and I suppose I was found not to excel in any of these. In studies I always held a respectable reputation with the professors, and generally ranked among the best, especially in drawing, chemistry, mathematics, and natural philosophy. My average demerits, per annum, were about one hundred and fifty, which reduced my final class standing from number four to six.

Upon graduation in 1840, Sherman entered the army as a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery and saw action in Florida in the Second Seminole War against the Seminole tribe. He was later stationed in Georgia and South Carolina. As the foster son of a prominent Whig politician, in Charleston the popular Lt. Sherman moved within the upper circles of Old South society.

While many of his colleagues saw action in the Mexican–American War, Sherman was assigned to administrative duties in the captured territory of California. Along with fellow Lieutenants Henry Halleck and Edward Ord, Sherman embarked from New York on the 198-day journey around Cape Horn aboard the converted sloop USS Lexington. During that voyage Sherman grew close to Halleck and Ord, and in his Memoirs relate a hike with Halleck to the summit of Corcovado overlooking Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, notable as the future spot of the Cristo Redentor statue. Sherman and Ord reached the town of Yerba Buena, in California, two days before its name was changed to San Francisco. In 1848, Sherman accompanied the military governor of California, Col. Richard Barnes Mason, in the inspection that officially confirmed that gold had been discovered in the region, thus inaugurating the California Gold Rush. Sherman, along with Ord, assisted in surveys for the sub-divisions of the town that would become Sacramento.

Sherman earned a brevet promotion to captain for his "meritorious service", but his lack of a combat assignment discouraged him and may have contributed to his decision to resign his commission. He would eventually become one of the few high-ranking officers during the Civil War who had not fought in Mexico.

In 1850, Sherman was promoted to the substantive rank of Captain and on May 1 of that year he married his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, four years his junior. Rev. James A. Ryder, President of Georgetown College, officiated the Washington D.C. ceremony. President Zachary Taylor, Vice President Millard Fillmore and other political luminaries attended the ceremony. Thomas Ewing was serving as Secretary of the Interior at the time.

Like her mother, Ellen Ewing Sherman was a devout Roman Catholic, and the Shermans' eight children were reared in that faith. In 1864, Ellen took up temporary residence in South Bend, Indiana, to have her young family educated at the University of Notre Dame and St. Mary's College. In 1874, with Sherman having become world-famous, their eldest child, Marie Ewing ("Minnie") Sherman, also had a politically prominent wedding, attended by President Ulysses S. Grant and commemorated by a generous gift from the Khedive of Egypt. (Eventually, one of Minnie's daughters married a grandson of Confederate general Lewis Addison Armistead.) Another of the Sherman daughters, Eleanor, was married to Alexander Montgomery Thackara at General Sherman's home in Washington, D.C., on May 5, 1880. To Sherman's great displeasure and sorrow, his oldest surviving son, Thomas Ewing Sherman, joined the religious order of the Jesuits in 1878 and was ordained as a priest in 1889.

In 1853, Sherman resigned his captaincy and became manager of the San Francisco branch of the St. Louis-based bank Lucas, Turner & Co. He returned to San Francisco at a time of great turmoil in the West. He survived two shipwrecks and floated through the Golden Gate on the overturned hull of a foundering lumber schooner. Sherman suffered from stress-related asthma because of the city's aggressive business culture. Late in life, regarding his time in a San Francisco experiencing a frenzy of real estate speculation, Sherman recalled: "I can handle a hundred thousand men in battle, and take the City of the Sun, but am afraid to manage a lot in the swamp of San Francisco." In 1856, during the vigilante period, he served briefly as a major general of the California militia.

Sherman's San Francisco branch closed in May 1857, and he relocated to New York on behalf of the same bank. When the bank failed during the financial Panic of 1857, he closed the New York branch. In early 1858, he returned to California to wrap up the bank's affairs there. Later in 1858, he moved to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he tried his hand at law practice and other ventures without much success.

In 1859, Sherman accepted a job as the first superintendent of the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning & Military Academy in Pineville, Louisiana, a position he sought at the suggestion of Major D. C. Buell and secured because of General George Mason Graham. He proved an effective and popular leader of the institution, which later became Louisiana State University (LSU). Colonel Joseph P. Taylor, the brother of the late President Zachary Taylor, declared that "if you had hunted the whole army, from one end of it to the other, you could not have found a man in it more admirably suited for the position in every respect than Sherman."

Although his brother, Congressman John Sherman, was well known for his anti-slavery views, Captain Sherman was not an abolitionist and he had expressed some sympathy for the white Southerners' defense of their agrarian system, including the institution of slavery. On the other hand, Sherman was adamantly opposed to secession. In Louisiana he became a close friend of Professor David F. Boyd, a native of Virginia and an enthusiastic secessionist. Boyd later recalled witnessing that, when news of South Carolina's secession from the United States reached them at the Seminary, "Sherman burst out crying, and began, in his nervous way, pacing the floor and deprecating the step which he feared might bring destruction on the whole country." In what some authors have seen as an accurate prophecy of the conflict that would engulf the United States during the next four years, Boyd recalled Sherman declaring:

You people of the South don't know what you are doing. This country will be drenched in blood, and God only knows how it will end. It is all folly, madness, a crime against civilization! You people speak so lightly of war; you don't know what you're talking about. War is a terrible thing! You mistake, too, the people of the North. They are a peaceable people but an earnest people, and they will fight, too. They are not going to let this country be destroyed without a mighty effort to save it... Besides, where are your men and appliances of war to contend against them? The North can make a steam engine, locomotive, or railway car; hardly a yard of cloth or pair of shoes can you make. You are rushing into war with one of the most powerful, ingeniously mechanical, and determined people on Earth—right at your doors. You are bound to fail. Only in your spirit and determination are you prepared for war. In all else you are totally unprepared, with a bad cause to start with. At first you will make headway, but as your limited resources begin to fail, shut out from the markets of Europe as you will be, your cause will begin to wane. If your people will but stop and think, they must see in the end that you will surely fail.

In January 1861, as more Southern states seceded from the Union, Sherman was required to accept receipt of arms surrendered to the State Militia by the U.S. Arsenal at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Instead of complying, he resigned his position as superintendent and returned to the North, declaring to the governor of Louisiana, "On no earthly account will I do any act or think any thought hostile ... to the ... United States."

Immediately following his departure from Louisiana, Sherman traveled to Washington, D.C., possibly in the hope of securing a position in the army, and met with Abraham Lincoln in the White House during inauguration week. Sherman expressed concern about the North's poor state of preparedness but found Lincoln unresponsive.

Thereafter, Sherman became president of the St. Louis Railroad, a streetcar company, a position he would hold for only a few months. Thus, he was living in the border state of Missouri as the secession crisis came to a climax. While trying to hold himself aloof from controversy, he observed first-hand the efforts of Congressman Frank Blair, who later served under Sherman, to keep Missouri in the Union. In early April, he declined an offer from the Lincoln administration to take a position in the War Department as a prelude to his becoming Assistant Secretary of War. After the bombardment of Fort Sumter, Sherman hesitated about committing to military service and ridiculed Lincoln's call for 75,000 three-month volunteers to quell secession, reportedly saying: "Why, you might as well attempt to put out the flames of a burning house with a squirt-gun."However, in May, he offered himself for service in the regular army, and his brother (Senator John Sherman) and other connections maneuvered to get him a commission in the regular army. On June 3, he wrote that "I still think it is to be a long war—very long—much longer than any Politician thinks." He received a telegram summoning him to Washington on June 7.

Sherman was first commissioned as colonel of the 13th U.S. Infantry Regiment, effective May 14, 1861. This was a new regiment yet to be raised, and Sherman's first command was actually of a brigade of three-month volunteers, at the head of which he became one of the few Union officers to distinguish himself at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, where he was grazed by bullets in the knee and shoulder. The disastrous Union defeat at Bull Run led Sherman to question his own judgment as an officer and the capacities of his volunteer troops. President Lincoln, however, was impressed by Sherman while visiting the troops on July 23 and promoted him to brigadier general of volunteers (effective May 17, 1861, with seniority in rank to Ulysses S. Grant, his future commander). He was assigned to serve under Robert Anderson in the Department of the Cumberland in Louisville, Kentucky, and in October Sherman succeeded Anderson in command of the department. Sherman considered that his new assignment broke a promise from Lincoln that he would not be given such a prominent position.

Having succeeded Anderson at Louisville, Sherman now had principal military responsibility for Kentucky, a border state in which Confederate troops held Columbus and Bowling Green and were present near the Cumberland Gap. He became exceedingly pessimistic about the outlook for his command and he complained frequently to Washington, D.C. about shortages, while providing exaggerated estimates of the strength of the rebel forces and requesting inordinate numbers of reinforcements. Critical press reports appeared about him after an October visit to Louisville by the secretary of war, Simon Cameron, and in early November 1861 Sherman insisted that he be relieved. He was promptly replaced by Brigadier General Don Carlos Buell and transferred to St. Louis, Missouri. In December, he was put on leave by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, commander of the Department of the Missouri, who considered him unfit for duty. Sherman went to Lancaster, Ohio, to recuperate. While he was at home, his wife Ellen wrote to his brother, Senator John Sherman, seeking advice. She complained of "that melancholy insanity to which your family is subject". In his private correspondence, Sherman later wrote that the concerns of command "broke me down" and admitted to having contemplated suicide. His problems were compounded when the Cincinnati Commercial described him as "insane".

By mid-December 1861 Sherman had recovered sufficiently to return to service under Halleck in the Department of the Missouri. In March, Halleck's command was redesignated the Department of the Mississippi and enlarged to unify command in the West. Sherman's initial assignments were rear-echelon commands, first of an instructional barracks near St. Louis and then in command of the District of Cairo. Operating from Paducah, Kentucky, he provided logistical support for the operations of Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to capture Fort Donelson (February 1862). Grant, the previous commander of the District of Cairo, had recently won a major victory at Fort Henry (February 6, 1862) and been given command of the ill-defined District of West Tennessee. Although Sherman was technically the senior officer at this time, he wrote to Grant, "I feel anxious about you as I know the great facilities [the Confederates] have of concentration by means of the River and R Road, but [I] have faith in you—Command me in any way."

After Grant captured Fort Donelson, Sherman got his wish to serve under Grant when he was assigned on March 1, 1862, to the Army of West Tennessee as commander of the 5th Division. His first major test under Grant was at the Battle of Shiloh. The massive Confederate attack on the morning of April 6, 1862, took most of the senior Union commanders by surprise. Sherman had dismissed the intelligence reports received from militia officers, refusing to believe that Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston would leave his base at Corinth. He took no precautions beyond strengthening his picket lines, and refused to entrench, build abatis, or push out reconnaissance patrols. At Shiloh, he may have wished to avoid appearing overly alarmed in order to escape the kind of criticism he had received in Kentucky. He had written to his wife that, if he took more precautions, "they'd call me crazy again".

Despite being caught unprepared by the attack, Sherman rallied his division and conducted an orderly, fighting retreat that helped avert a disastrous Union rout. Finding Grant at the end of the day sitting under an oak tree in the darkness and smoking a cigar, Sherman felt, in his words, "some wise and sudden instinct not to mention retreat". In what would become one of the most notable conversations of the war, Sherman said simply: "Well, Grant, we've had the devil's own day, haven't we?" After a puff of his cigar, Grant replied calmly: "Yes. Lick 'em tomorrow, though." Sherman proved instrumental to the successful Union counterattack of April 7, 1862. At Shiloh, Sherman was wounded twice—in the hand and shoulder—and had three horses shot out from under him. His performance was praised by Grant and Halleck and after the battle he was promoted to major general of volunteers, effective May 1, 1862.

Beginning in late April, a Union force of 100,000 moved slowly against Corinth, under Halleck's command with Grant relegated to second-in-command; Sherman commanded the division on the extreme right of the Union's right wing (under George H. Thomas). Shortly after the Union forces occupied Corinth on May 30, Sherman persuaded Grant not to leave his command, despite the serious difficulties he was having with Halleck. Sherman offered Grant an example from his own life, "Before the battle of Shiloh, I was cast down by a mere newspaper assertion of 'crazy', but that single battle gave me new life, and I'm now in high feather." He told Grant that, if he remained in the army, "some happy accident might restore you to favor and your true place". In July, Grant's situation improved when Halleck left for the East to become general-in-chief, and Sherman became the military governor of occupied Memphis.

The careers of both officers ascended considerably after that time. In Sherman's case, this was in part because he developed close personal ties to Grant during the two years they served together in the West. During the long and complicated campaign against Vicksburg, one newspaper complained that the "army was being ruined in mud-turtle expeditions, under the leadership of a drunkard [Grant], whose confidential adviser [Sherman] was a lunatic".

Sherman's military record in 1862–63 was mixed. In December 1862, forces under his command suffered a severe repulse at the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, just north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Soon after, his XV Corps was ordered to join Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand in his successful assault on Arkansas Post, generally regarded as a politically motivated distraction from the effort to capture Vicksburg. Before the Vicksburg Campaign in the spring of 1863, Sherman expressed serious reservations about the wisdom of Grant's unorthodox strategy, but he went on to perform well in that campaign under Grant's supervision.

The historian John D. Winters in The Civil War in Louisiana (1963) describes Sherman:

... He had yet [before Vicksburg] to display any marked talents for leadership. Sherman, beset by hallucinations and unreasonable fears and finally contemplating suicide, had been relieved from command in Kentucky. He later began a new climb to success at Shiloh and Corinth under Grant. Still, if he muffed his Vicksburg assignment, which had begun unfavorably, he would rise no higher. As a man, Sherman was an eccentric mixture of strength and weakness. Although he was impatient, often irritable and depressed, petulant, headstrong, and unreasonably gruff, he had solid soldierly qualities. His men swore by him, and most of his fellow officers admired him.

After the surrender of Vicksburg to the Union forces under Grant on July 4, 1863, Sherman was given the rank of brigadier general in the regular army, in addition to his rank as a major general of volunteers. Sherman's family came from Ohio to visit his camp near Vicksburg; his nine-year-old son, Willie, the Little Sergeant, died from typhoid fever contracted during the trip.

Command in the West was unified under Grant (Military Division of the Mississippi), and Sherman succeeded Grant in command of the Army of the Tennessee. Following the defeat of the Army of the Cumberland at the Battle of Chickamauga by Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee, the army was besieged in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Sherman's troops were sent to relieve them. While traveling to Chattanooga, Sherman departed Memphis on a train that arrived at the Battle of Collierville, Tennessee, while the Union garrison there was under attack on October 11, 1863. General Sherman took command of the 550 men and successfully defended against an attack of 3,500 Confederate cavalry.

During the Chattanooga Campaign in November, under Grant's overall command, Sherman quickly took his assigned target of Billy Goat Hill at the north end of Missionary Ridge, only to discover that it was not part of the ridge at all, but rather a detached spur separated from the main spine by a rock-strewn ravine. When he attempted to attack the main spine at Tunnel Hill, his troops were repeatedly repelled by Patrick Cleburne's heavy division, the best unit in Bragg's army. Sherman's efforts were assisted by George Henry Thomas's army's successful assault on the center of the Confederate line, a movement originally intended as a diversion. Subsequently, Sherman led a column to relieve Union forces under Ambrose Burnside thought to be in peril at Knoxville. In February 1864, he led an expedition to Meridian, Mississippi, to disrupt Confederate infrastructure.

Despite this mixed record, Sherman enjoyed Grant's confidence and friendship. When Lincoln called Grant east in the spring of 1864 to take command of all the Union armies, Grant appointed Sherman (by then known to his soldiers as "Uncle Billy") to succeed him as head of the Military Division of the Mississippi, which entailed command of Union troops in the Western Theater of the war. As Grant took overall command of the armies of the United States, Sherman wrote to him outlining his strategy to bring the war to an end concluding that "if you can whip Lee and I can march to the Atlantic I think ol' Uncle Abe will give us twenty days leave to see the young folks."

Sherman proceeded to invade the state of Georgia with three armies: the 60,000-strong Army of the Cumberland under George Henry Thomas, the 25,000-strong Army of the Tennessee under James B. McPherson, and the 13,000-strong Army of the Ohio under John M. Schofield. He commanded a lengthy campaign of maneuver through mountainous terrain against Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee, attempting a direct assault only at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. In July, the cautious Johnston was replaced by the more aggressive John Bell Hood, who played to Sherman's strength by challenging him to direct battles on open ground. Meanwhile, in August, Sherman "learned that I had been commissioned a major-general in the regular army, which was unexpected, and not desired until successful in the capture of Atlanta."

Sherman's Atlanta Campaign concluded successfully on September 2, 1864, with the capture of the city, which Hood had been forced to abandon. The fall of Atlanta had a major political impact in the North: it caused the collapse of the once powerful "Copperhead" faction within the Democratic Party, which had advocated immediate peace negotiations with the Confederacy. Sherman's military victory thus effectively ensured Abraham Lincoln's presidential re-election in November.

After ordering almost all civilians to leave the city in September, Sherman gave instructions that all military and government buildings in Atlanta be burned, although many private homes and shops were burned as well. This was to set a precedent for future behavior by his armies. The capture of the city of Atlanta made General Sherman a household name.

During September and October, Sherman and Hood played cat-and-mouse in north Georgia (and Alabama) as Hood threatened Sherman's communications to the north. Eventually, Sherman won approval from his superiors for a plan to cut loose from his communications and march south, having advised Grant that he could "make Georgia howl". This created the threat that Hood would move north into Tennessee. Trivializing that threat, Sherman reportedly said that he would "give [Hood] his rations" to go in that direction as "my business is down south". However, Sherman left forces under Maj. Gens. George H. Thomas and John M. Schofield to deal with Hood; their forces eventually smashed Hood's army in the battles of Franklin (November 30) and Nashville (December 15–16). Meanwhile, after the November elections, Sherman began a march on November 15 with 62,000 men to the port of Savannah, Georgia, living off the land and causing, by his own estimate, more than $100 million in property damage. Sherman called this harsh tactic of material war "hard war," often seen as a species of total war. At the end of this campaign, known as Sherman's March to the Sea, his troops captured Savannah on December 21, 1864. Sherman then dispatched a message to Lincoln, offering him the city as a Christmas present.

Sherman's success in Georgia received ample coverage in the Northern press at a time when Grant seemed to be making little progress in his fight against Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. A bill was introduced in Congress to promote Sherman to Grant's rank of lieutenant general, probably with a view towards having him replace Grant as commander of the Union Army. Sherman wrote both to his brother, Senator John Sherman, and to General Grant vehemently repudiating any such promotion. According to a war-time account, it was around this time that Sherman made his memorable declaration of loyalty to Grant:

General Grant is a great general. I know him well. He stood by me when I was crazy, and I stood by him when he was drunk; and now, sir, we stand by each other always.

While in Savannah, Sherman learned from a newspaper that his infant son Charles Celestine had died during the Savannah Campaign; the general had never seen the child.

Grant then ordered Sherman to embark his army on steamers and join the Union forces confronting Lee in Virginia, but Sherman instead persuaded Grant to allow him to march north through the Carolinas, destroying everything of military value along the way, as he had done in Georgia. He was particularly interested in targeting South Carolina, the first state to secede from the Union, because of the effect that it would have on Southern morale. His army proceeded north through South Carolina against light resistance from the troops of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston. Upon hearing that Sherman's men were advancing on corduroy roads through the Salkehatchie swamps at a rate of a dozen miles per day, Johnston "made up his mind that there had been no such army in existence since the days of Julius Caesar."

Sherman captured the state capital of Columbia, South Carolina, on February 17, 1865. Fires began that night and by next morning most of the central city was destroyed. The burning of Columbia has engendered controversy ever since, with some claiming the fires were accidental, others a deliberate act of vengeance, and still others that the retreating Confederates burned bales of cotton on their way out of town.

Local Native American Lumbee guides helped Sherman's army cross the Lumber River, which was flooded by torrential rains, into North Carolina. According to Sherman, the trek across the Lumber River, and through the swamps, pocosins, and creeks of Robeson County was "the damnedest marching I ever saw." Thereafter, his troops did little damage to the civilian infrastructure, as North Carolina, unlike its southern neighbor, was regarded by his men as a reluctant Confederate state, having been the second from last state to secede from the Union, before Tennessee. Sherman's final significant military engagement was a victory over Johnston's troops at the Battle of Bentonville, March 19–21. He soon rendezvoused at Goldsborough, North Carolina, with Union troops awaiting him there after the capture of Fort Fisher and Wilmington.

In late March, Sherman briefly left his forces and traveled to City Point, Virginia, to consult with Grant. Lincoln happened to be at City Point at the same time, allowing the only three-way meetings of Lincoln, Grant, and Sherman during the war.

Following Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House and the assassination of President Lincoln, Sherman met with Johnston in mid-April at Bennett Place in Durham, North Carolina, to negotiate a Confederate surrender. At the insistence of Johnston and of Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Sherman conditionally agreed to generous terms that dealt with both political and military issues. Sherman thought that those terms were consistent with the views Lincoln had expressed at City Point, but the general had not been given the authority, by General Grant, the newly installed President Andrew Johnson, or the Cabinet, to offer those terms.

The government in Washington, D.C., refused to approve Sherman's terms and the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, denounced Sherman publicly, precipitating a long-lasting feud between the two men. Confusion over this issue lasted until April 26, 1865, when Johnston, ignoring instructions from President Davis, agreed to purely military terms and formally surrendered his army and all the Confederate forces in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida, in what was the largest single capitulation of the war. Sherman proceeded with 60,000 of his troops to Washington, D.C., where they marched in the Grand Review of the Armies, on May 24, 1865, and were then disbanded. Having become the second most important general in the Union army, he thus had come full circle to the city where he started his war-time service as colonel of a non-existent infantry regiment.

Sherman was not an abolitionist before the war and, like others of his time and background, he did not believe in "Negro equality". Before the war, Sherman at times even expressed some sympathy with the view of Southern whites that the black race was benefiting from slavery, although he opposed breaking up slave families and advocated teaching slaves to read and write. During the Civil War, Sherman declined to employ black troops in his armies.

Sherman's military campaigns of 1864 and 1865 freed many slaves, who greeted him "as a second Moses or Aaron" and joined his marches through Georgia and the Carolinas by the tens of thousands. The fate of these refugees became a pressing military and political issue. Some abolitionists accused Sherman of doing little to alleviate the precarious living conditions of the freed slaves. To address this issue, on January 12, 1865, Sherman met in Savannah with Secretary of War Stanton and with twenty local black leaders. After Sherman's departure, Garrison Frazier, a Baptist minister, declared in response to an inquiry about the feelings of the black community:

We looked upon General Sherman, prior to his arrival, as a man, in the providence of God, specially set apart to accomplish this work, and we unanimously felt inexpressible gratitude to him, looking upon him as a man that should be honored for the faithful performance of his duty. Some of us called upon him immediately upon his arrival, and it is probable he did not meet [Secretary Stanton] with more courtesy than he met us. His conduct and deportment toward us characterized him as a friend and a gentleman.

Four days later, Sherman issued his Special Field Orders, No. 15. The orders provided for the settlement of 40,000 freed slaves and black refugees on land expropriated from white landowners in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Sherman appointed Brig. Gen. Rufus Saxton, an abolitionist from Massachusetts who had previously directed the recruitment of black soldiers, to implement that plan. Those orders, which became the basis of the claim that the Union government had promised freed slaves "40 acres and a mule", were revoked later that year by President Andrew Johnson.

Although the context is often overlooked, and the quotation usually chopped off, one of Sherman's statements about his hard-war views arose in part from the racial attitudes summarized above. In his Memoirs, Sherman noted political pressures in 1864–1865 to encourage the escape of slaves, in part to avoid the possibility that "able-bodied slaves will be called into the military service of the rebels." Sherman thought concentration on such policies would have delayed the "successful end" of the war and the "[liberation of] all slaves". He went on to summarize vividly his hard-war philosophy and to add, in effect, that he really did not want the help of liberated slaves in subduing the South:

My aim then was to whip the rebels, to humble their pride, to follow them to their inmost recesses, and make them fear and dread us. "Fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." I did not want them to cast in our teeth what General Hood had once done at Atlanta, that we had to call on their slaves to help us to subdue them. But, as regards kindness to the race ..., I assert that no army ever did more for that race than the one I commanded at Savannah.

Sherman's record as a tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of logistics and on his brilliance as a strategist. The influential 20th-century British military historian and theorist B. H. Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. Liddell Hart credited Sherman with mastery of maneuver warfare (also known as the "indirect approach"), as demonstrated by his series of turning movements against Johnston during the Atlanta Campaign. Liddell Hart also stated that study of Sherman's campaigns had contributed significantly to his own "theory of strategy and tactics in mechanized warfare", which had in turn influenced Heinz Guderian's doctrine of Blitzkrieg and Rommel's use of tanks during the Second World War. Another World War II-era student of Liddell Hart's writings about Sherman was George S. Patton, who "'spent a long vacation studying Sherman's campaigns on the ground in Georgia and the Carolinas, with the aid of [Liddell Hart's] book'" and later "'carried out his [bold] plans, in super-Sherman style'".

Sherman's greatest contribution to the war, the strategy of total warfare—endorsed by General Grant and President Lincoln—has been the subject of controversy. Sherman himself downplayed his role in conducting total war, often saying that he was simply carrying out orders as best he could in order to fulfill his part of Grant's master plan for ending the war.

Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earth tactics to break the backbone of the rebellion. He called this strategy "hard war".

Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. Although looting was officially forbidden, historians disagree on how well this regulation was enforced. Union soldiers who foraged from Southern homes became known as bummers. The speed and efficiency of the destruction by Sherman's army was remarkable. The practice of heating rails and bending them around trees, leaving behind what came to be known as "Sherman's neckties," made repairs difficult. Accusations that civilians were targeted and war crimes were committed on the march have made Sherman a controversial figure to this day, particularly in the American South.

The damage done by Sherman was almost entirely limited to the destruction of property. Though exact figures are not available, the loss of civilian life appears to have been very small. Consuming supplies, wrecking infrastructure, and undermining morale were Sherman's stated goals, and several of his Southern contemporaries noted this and commented on it. For instance, Alabama-born Major Henry Hitchcock, who served in Sherman's staff, declared that "it is a terrible thing to consume and destroy the sustenance of thousands of people," but if the scorched earth strategy served "to paralyze their husbands and fathers who are fighting ... it is mercy in the end".

The severity of the destructive acts by Union troops was significantly greater in South Carolina than in Georgia or North Carolina. This appears to have been a consequence of the animosity among both Union soldiers and officers to the state that they regarded as the "cockpit of secession". One of the most serious accusations against Sherman was that he allowed his troops to burn the city of Columbia. In 1867, Gen. O. O. Howard, commander of Sherman's 15th Corps, reportedly said, "It is useless to deny that our troops burnt Columbia, for I saw them in the act." However, Sherman himself stated that "[i]f I had made up my mind to burn Columbia I would have burnt it with no more feeling than I would a common prairie dog village; but I did not do it ..." Sherman's official report on the burning placed the blame on Confederate Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton III, who Sherman said had ordered the burning of cotton in the streets. In his memoirs, Sherman said, "In my official report of this conflagration I distinctly charged it to General Wade Hampton, and confess I did so pointedly to shake the faith of his people in him, for he was in my opinion a braggart and professed to be the special champion of South Carolina." Historian James M. McPherson has concluded that:

The fullest and most dispassionate study of this controversy blames all parties in varying proportions—including the Confederate authorities for the disorder that characterized the evacuation of Columbia, leaving thousands of cotton bales on the streets (some of them burning) and huge quantities of liquor undestroyed ... Sherman did not deliberately burn Columbia; a majority of Union soldiers, including the general himself, worked through the night to put out the fires.

In this general connection, it is also noteworthy that Sherman and his subordinates (particularly John A. Logan) took steps to protect Raleigh, North Carolina, from acts of revenge after the assassination of President Lincoln.

After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, Sherman ordered the city's evacuation. When the city council appealed to him to rescind that order, on the grounds that it would cause great hardship to women, children, the elderly, and others who bore no responsibility for the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a written response in which he sought to articulate his conviction that a lasting peace would be possible only if the Union were restored, and that he was therefore prepared to do all he could do to quash the rebellion:

You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot have peace and a division of our country. If the United States submits to a division now, it will not stop, but will go on until we reap the fate of Mexico, which is eternal war ... I want peace, and believe it can only be reached through union and war, and I will ever conduct war with a view to perfect and early success. But, my dear sirs, when peace does come, you may call on me for anything. Then will I share with you the last cracker, and watch with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every quarter.

Literary critic Edmund Wilson found in Sherman's Memoirs a fascinating and disturbing account of an "appetite for warfare" that "grows as it feeds on the South". Former U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara refers equivocally to the statement that "war is cruelty and you cannot refine it" in both the book Wilson's Ghost and in his interview for the film The Fog of War.

But when comparing Sherman's scorched-earth campaigns to the actions of the British Army during the Second Boer War (1899–1902)—another war in which civilians were targeted because of their central role in sustaining an armed resistance—South African historian Hermann Giliomee declares that it "looks as if Sherman struck a better balance than the British commanders between severity and restraint in taking actions proportional to legitimate needs". The admiration of scholars such as Victor Davis Hanson, B. H. Liddell Hart, Lloyd Lewis, and John F. Marszalek for General Sherman owes much to what they see as an approach to the exigencies of modern armed conflict that was both effective and principled.

In May 1865, after the major Confederate armies had surrendered, Sherman wrote in a personal letter:

I confess, without shame, I am sick and tired of fighting—its glory is all moonshine; even success the most brilliant is over dead and mangled bodies, with the anguish and lamentations of distant families, appealing to me for sons, husbands and fathers ... tis only those who have never heard a shot, never heard the shriek and groans of the wounded and lacerated ... that cry aloud for more blood, more vengeance, more desolation.

In June 1865, two months after Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox, General Sherman received his first postwar command, originally called the Military Division of the Mississippi, later the Military Division of the Missouri, which came to comprise the territory between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. Sherman's efforts in that position were focused on protecting the main wagon roads, such as the Oregon, Bozeman and Santa Fe Trails. Tasked with guarding a vast territory with a limited force, Sherman was wary of the multitude of requests by territories and settlements for protection.

One of Sherman's main concerns in postwar commands was to protect the construction and operation of the railroads from attack by hostile Indians. Sherman's views on Indian matters were often strongly expressed. He regarded the railroads "as the most important element now in progress to facilitate the military interests of our Frontier". Hence, in 1867, he wrote to Grant that "we are not going to let a few thieving, ragged Indians check and stop the progress of [the railroads]." After the 1866 Fetterman Massacre, Sherman wrote Grant that "we must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination, men, women and children."

Despite this language, there was little large-scale military action taken against the Indians during the first three years of Sherman's tenure, as Sherman was willing to let the process of negotiations play out in order to buy time to procure more troops and allow the completion of the Union Pacific and Kansas Pacific Railroads. During his time as departmental commander, Sherman was a member of the Indian Peace Commission. Though the commission was responsible for the negotiation of the Medicine Lodge Treaty and the Sioux Treaty of 1868, Sherman was not particularly privy in either due to being called away to Washington during the negotiations of both. In one such instance, he was called to testify in the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson. However, Sherman was successful in negotiating other treaties, such as the removal of Navajos from the Bosque Redondo to traditional lands in Western New Mexico. When the Medicine Lodge Treaty was broken in 1868, Sherman authorized his subordinate in Missouri, Philip Sheridan, to conduct the Winter Campaign of 1868–69 (of which the Battle of Washita River was a part), where Sheridan used hard-war tactics similar to those he and Sherman had employed in the Civil War. Sherman was also involved with the trial of Satanta and Big Tree: he ordered that the two chiefs should be tried as common criminals for their role in the Warren Wagon Train Raid, a raid that came dangerously close to killing Sherman himself.

On July 25, 1866, Congress created the rank of General of the Army for Grant and then promoted Sherman to lieutenant general. When Grant became president in 1869, Sherman was appointed Commanding General of the United States Army and promoted to General of the Army. After the death of John A. Rawlins, Sherman also served for one month as interim Secretary of War. His tenure as commanding general was marred by political difficulties, many of which stemmed from disagreements with Secretaries of War Rawlins and William W. Belknap, whom Sherman felt had usurped too much of the Commanding General's powers, reducing him to a sinecure office. Sherman also clashed with Eastern humanitarians, who were critical of the Army's killing of Indians and had apparently found an ally in President Grant. To escape these difficulties, from 1874 to 1876, he moved his headquarters to St. Louis, Missouri, returning to Washington only upon the appointment of Alphonso Taft as Secretary of War and the promise of more authority.

Much of Sherman's time as Commanding General was devoted to making the Western and Plains states safe for settlement through the continuation of the Indian Wars, which included three significant campaigns: the Modoc War, the Great Sioux War of 1876, and the Nez Perce War. The displacement of Indians was facilitated by the growth of the railroad and the eradication of the buffalo. Sherman believed that the intentional eradication of the buffalo should be encouraged as a means of weakening Indian resistance to assimilation. He voiced this view in remarks to a joint session of the Texas legislature in 1875. However he never engaged in any program to actually eradicate the buffalo. During this time, Sherman reorganized frontier forts to reflect the shifting frontier.

After George Armstrong Custer's defeat at the Battle of Little Bighorn, Sherman wrote that "hostile savages like Sitting Bull and his band of outlaw Sioux ... must feel the superior power of the Government." He further wrote that "during an assault, the soldiers can not pause to distinguish between male and female, or even discriminate as to age." Despite his harsh treatment of the warring tribes, Sherman spoke out against the unfair way speculators and government agents treated the natives within the reservations.

In 1875 Sherman published his memoirs in two volumes. According to critic Edmund Wilson, Sherman:

[H]ad a trained gift of self-expression and was, as Mark Twain says, a master of narrative. [In his Memoirs] the vigorous account of his pre-war activities and his conduct of his military operations is varied in just the right proportion and to just the right degree of vivacity with anecdotes and personal experiences. We live through his campaigns ... in the company of Sherman himself. He tells us what he thought and what he felt, and he never strikes any attitudes or pretends to feel anything he does not feel.

During the election of 1876, Southern Democrats who supported Wade Hampton for governor used mob violence to attack and intimidate African American voters in Charleston, South Carolina. Republican Governor Daniel Chamberlain appealed to President Ulysses S. Grant for military assistance. In October 1876, Grant, after issuing a proclamation, instructed Sherman to gather all available Atlantic region troops and dispatch them to South Carolina to stop the mob violence.

On June 19, 1879, Sherman delivered an address to the graduating class of the Michigan Military Academy, in which he may have uttered the famous phrase "War is Hell". On April 11, 1880, he addressed a crowd of more than 10,000 at Columbus, Ohio: "There is many a boy here today who looks on war as all glory, but, boys, it is all hell." In 1945, President Harry S. Truman would say: "Sherman was wrong. I'm telling you I find peace is hell."

One of Sherman's significant contributions as head of the Army was the establishment of the Command School (now the Command and General Staff College) at Fort Leavenworth in 1881. Sherman stepped down as commanding general on November 1, 1883, and retired from the army on February 8, 1884.

He lived most of the rest of his life in New York City. He was devoted to the theater and to amateur painting and was much in demand as a colorful speaker at dinners and banquets, in which he indulged a fondness for quoting Shakespeare. During this period, he stayed in contact with war veterans, and through them accepted honorary membership into the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity and the Irving Literary Society. Sherman was proposed as a Republican candidate for the presidential election of 1884, but declined as emphatically as possible, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected." Such a categorical rejection of a candidacy is now referred to as a "Shermanesque statement".

In 1888 he joined the newly formed Boone and Crockett Club, a wildlife conservation organization founded by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell.

Sherman died of pneumonia in New York City at 1:50 PM on February 14, 1891, six days after his 71st birthday. President Benjamin Harrison sent a telegram to General Sherman's family and ordered all national flags to be flown at half mast. Harrison, in a message to the Senate and the House of Representatives, wrote that:

He was an ideal soldier, and shared to the fullest the esprit du corps of the army, but he cherished the civil institutions organized under the Constitution, and was only a soldier that these might be perpetuated in undiminished usefulness and honor.

On February 19, a funeral service was held at his home, followed by a military procession. General Joseph E. Johnston, the Confederate officer who had commanded the resistance to Sherman's troops in Georgia and the Carolinas, served as a pallbearer in New York City. It was a bitterly cold day and a friend of Johnston, fearing that the general might become ill, asked him to put on his hat. Johnston replied: "If I were in [Sherman's] place, and he were standing in mine, he would not put on his hat." Johnston did catch a serious cold and died one month later of pneumonia.

General Sherman's body was then transported to St. Louis, where another service was conducted on February 21, 1891 at a local Catholic church. His son, Thomas Ewing Sherman, a Jesuit priest, presided over his father's funeral mass. Sherman is buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. Louis.

Sherman's birth family was Presbyterian and he was originally baptized as such. His foster family, including his future wife Ellen, were devout Catholics, and Sherman was re-baptized and later married in the Catholic rite. According to his son Thomas, who became a Catholic priest, Sherman attended the Catholic Church until the outbreak of the Civil War, but not thereafter. In 1888, Sherman wrote publicly that "my immediate family are strongly Catholic. I am not and cannot be." A memoirist reports that Sherman told him in 1887 that "my family is strongly Roman Catholic, but I am not." Sherman wrote his wife Ellen Ewing in 1842 that "I believe in good works rather than faith.”

Major monuments to Sherman include the gilded bronze Sherman Memorial (1902) by Augustus Saint-Gaudens at the main entrance to Central Park in New York City, and the Sherman Monument (1903) by Carl Rohl-Smith near President's Park in Washington, D.C. The Sherman Monument (1900) in Muskegon, Michigan features a bronze statue by John Massey Rhind, and the Sherman Monument (1903) in Arlington National Cemetery features a smaller version of Saint-Gaudens's equestrian statue. Copies of Saint-Gaudens's Bust of William Tecumseh Sherman are in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and elsewhere.

Other posthumous tributes include Sherman Circle in the Petworth neighborhood of Washington, DC, the naming of the World War II M4 Sherman tank, and the "General Sherman" Giant Sequoia tree, the most massive documented single-trunk tree in the world.

In the years immediately after the war, Sherman's conservative politics was attractive to white Southerners. By the 1880s, however, Southern "Lost Cause" writers began to demonize Sherman for his attacks on civilians in the "March". The magazine Confederate Veteran, based in Nashville, gave Sherman more attention than anyone else, in part to enhance the visibility of the western theater. His devastation of railroads and plantations mattered less than the March's insult to southern dignity, especially its unprotected womanhood. Moody criticizes English historians Field Marshal Viscount Garnet Wolseley, Maj. Gen. John F. C. Fuller, and especially Capt. Basil H. Liddell Hart, who built up Sherman's reputation by exaggerating his "atrocities" and filtering his actions through their ideas about modern warfare.

By contrast Sherman was a popular hero in the North and well regarded by his soldiers. Military historians have paid special attention to his Atlanta campaign and the March to the Sea, generally giving him high marks as an innovative strategist and quick-witted tactician.

Around 1868, Sherman began to write a "private" recollection for his children about his life before the Civil War, identified now as his unpublished "Autobiography, 1828–1861". This manuscript is held by the Ohio Historical Society. Much of the material in it would eventually be incorporated in revised form in his memoirs.

In 1875, ten years after the end of the Civil War, Sherman became one of the first Civil War generals to publish a memoir. His Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. By Himself, published by D. Appleton & Co., in two volumes, began with the year 1846 (when the Mexican War began) and ended with a chapter about the "military lessons of the [civil] war". The memoirs were controversial, and sparked complaints from many quarters. Grant (serving as President when Sherman's memoirs first appeared) later remarked that others had told him that Sherman treated Grant unfairly but "when I finished the book, I found I approved every word; that ... it was a true book, an honorable book, creditable to Sherman, just to his companions—to myself particularly so—just such a book as I expected Sherman would write."

In 1886, after the publication of Grant's memoirs, Sherman produced a "second edition, revised and corrected" of his memoirs with Appleton. The new edition added a second preface, a chapter about his life up to 1846, a chapter concerning the post-war period (ending with his 1884 retirement from the army), several appendices, portraits, improved maps, and an index. For the most part, Sherman refused to revise his original text on the ground that "I disclaim the character of historian, but assume to be a witness on the stand before the great tribunal of history" and "any witness who may disagree with me should publish his own version of [the] facts in the truthful narration of which he is interested." However, Sherman did add the appendices, in which he published the views of some others.

Subsequently, Sherman shifted to the publishing house of Charles L. Webster & Co., the publisher of Grant's memoirs. The new publishing house brought out a "third edition, revised and corrected" in 1890. This difficult-to-find edition was substantively identical to the second (except for the probable omission of Sherman's short 1875 and 1886 prefaces).

After Sherman died in 1891, there were dueling new editions of his memoirs. His first publisher, Appleton, reissued the original (1875) edition with two new chapters about Sherman's later years added by the journalist W. Fletcher Johnson. Meanwhile, Charles L. Webster & Co. issued a "fourth edition, revised, corrected, and complete" with the text of Sherman's second edition, a new chapter prepared under the auspices of the Sherman family bringing the general's life from his retirement to his death and funeral, and an appreciation by politician James G. Blaine (who was related to Sherman's wife). Unfortunately, this edition omits Sherman's prefaces to the 1875 and 1886 editions.

In 1904 and 1913, Sherman's youngest son (Philemon Tecumseh Sherman) republished the memoirs, with Appleton (not Charles L. Webster & Co.). This was designated as a "second edition, revised and corrected". This edition contains Sherman's two prefaces, his 1886 text, and the materials added in the 1891 Blaine edition. Thus, this virtually invisible edition of Sherman's memoirs is actually the most comprehensive version.

There are many modern editions of Sherman's memoirs. The edition most useful for research purposes is the 1990 Library of America version, edited by Charles Royster. It contains the entire text of Sherman's 1886 edition, together with annotations, a note on the text, and a detailed chronology of Sherman's life. Missing from this edition is the useful biographical material contained in the 1891 Johnson and Blaine editions.

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creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter to William F. Scott. New York, NY. 1888 July 20. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Holmes, William Cox, 1840-1924. Papers of William Cox Holmes [manuscript], 1861-1916. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Corcoran, W. W. (William Wilson), 1798-1888,. Richard L. and Vinnie Ream Hoxie papers, 1862-1921. Historical Society of Washington, Dc
referencedIn Blair, Francis Preston, 1791-1876. Blair family papers, 1755-1968 (bulk 1829-1892). Library of Congress
creatorOf Wagstaff, David, 1910-. [Military manuscript collection]. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Philip Case Lockwood memorial collection of Civil War portraits and autographs, 1862-ca. 1886. Houghton Library
referencedIn Huntington Free Library. Scrapbook on wars with western Indians, 1878-1880. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Poe, O. M. (Orlando Metcalfe), 1832-1895. O.M. Poe papers, 1852-1922 (bulk 1863-1885). Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. [Autograph letter signed, addressed to General B.H. Grierson] Newberry Library
referencedIn Felix Limongi Collection of Louisiana Slavery and Civil War Materials Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections
referencedIn Swank, James Moore, 1836-1914. Papers, 1785-1898 (inclusive), 1785, 1871-1898 (bulk). Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Monthly Reports of the Foreman or Overseer, 9/1898 - 12/1899 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Leland Stanford papers, 1841-1897 Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn PH 1716, Young, Brigham 1801-1877. Brigham Young photographs circa 1860-1870 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Church History Library
referencedIn Bevan, Edith Rossiter. Edith Rossiter Bevan autograph collection, 1792-1943. Library of Congress
referencedIn Stuart, J. M., Union soldier. Civil War letter of J.M. Stuart, 1864 Dec. 15. Navarro College
referencedIn Buell, Don Carlos, 1818-1898. Don Carlos Buell : papers, 1853-1897. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919,. Carnegie autograph collection, 1867-1945. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William T. Sherman letter, 1875 Mar. 10. University of Nebraska - Lincoln
referencedIn Bash, Cullen B. Letter, 1933 April 14 : Salmon, Idaho, to G.L. Thompson, Oroville, Wash. Washington State University, Holland and Terrell Libraries
creatorOf Dennison, William, 1815-1882. Papers 1860-1861. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Hudson, James G., b.1832. Canebrake Rifle Guards diary, 1861. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Historical Society of Pennsylvania cartoons and caricatures collection Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Monterey Public Library. California History Room. Documents clippings 1843-2002. Monterey Public Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : Washington, D.C., to Charles A. Aiken, Schenectady, N.Y., 1871 June 22. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Albert Stephens Borgman autograph collection, 1600-1950. Houghton Library
referencedIn Sherman, Hoyt, 1827-1904. Letter to Jesse C. Green. Des Moines, IA. 1885 Nov. 7. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Preston, John Smith, 1809-1881. John S. Preston correspondence, 1855-1866. South Carolina Historical Society
referencedIn McClintock, James M. Papers of James M. McClintock, 1862-1887. Library of Congress
creatorOf McMillen, William L. Papers 1852-1896. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Stanley, David Sloane, 1828-1902. Memoirs and related papers, 1862-1897. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : to Robert Clarke / by William T. Sherman, 1880 Feb 29. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Swift, Henry A., 1823-1869. Henry A. Swift papers, 1855-1868. Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf Strong, William E. (William Emerson), 1840-1891. Papers, 1863-1878. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Van Duzer, John C. Diary, 1864. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Toner, Joseph M. (Joseph Meredith), 1825-1896,. Joseph Meredith Toner Collection, newspaper clippings, 1816-1895 (bulk 1833-1895). Library of Congress
referencedIn Philip Henry Sheridan Papers, 1853-1896, (bulk 1862-1887) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Pascal, Charles Lacroix, fl. 1860-1868. Scrapbook of Charles Lacroix Pascal, 1836-1890. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Tilton, Clint Clay, 1870-1946. Clint Clay Tilton collection of Lincolniana and Americana, 1783-1954. Southern Illinois University, Morris Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter to [?] Tourtelotte. New York, NY. 1887 Feb. 4. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf SUPPLEMENTARY LAYARD PAPERS Vol. II (ff. 174). , 1833-1896 British Library
referencedIn Bradbury, William H., 1829-1900. William H. Bradbury papers, 1862-1900 (bulk 1862-1865). Library of Congress
referencedIn Hunton, Hamilton Morris, 1908-. Autograph collection of Hamilton Morris Hutton [manuscript], 1828-1930. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Young, John Russell, 1840-1899,. Autograph letters signed from John Russell Young, Philadelphia, New York, London and Paris, to various people [manuscript], 1868, 1888-[1898]. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS, 1888 February 1 : New York, to Murray. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. [Letter] 1880 Nov. 18, Headquarters Army of the United States, Washington, D.C. [to] T. H. S. Hamersly / W. T. Sherman. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Johnson, Andrew, 1808-1875. Andrew Johnson papers, 1783-1947 (bulk 1865-1869). Library of Congress
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary. Correspondence, 1865-1891 Smithsonian Institution Archives
referencedIn Sherman, William T. (William Techumseh), 1820-1891. Sherman-Thackara Papers, 1820-1949 1869-1897 [microform]. Villanova University, Falvey Memorial Library
referencedIn Warren, G. K. (Gouverneur Kemble), 1830-1882. Letter, 1865 February 28, to Col. Alexander Doull. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Emerson, George D.,. Autograph letters, 1700-1915, 1871-1915 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn McClintock, James M. Papers of James M. McClintock, 1861-1909 (bulk 1861-1869). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Stovall, Pleasant A., 1857-1935. Pleasant Alexander Stovall papers, 1846-1974. Georgia Historical Society
creatorOf Johnston, Joseph E. (Joseph Eggleston), 1807-1891. Papers, 1825-1891. William & Mary Libraries
referencedIn Vinnie Ream and R. L. Hoxie Papers, 1853-1937, (bulk 1853-1914) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Family papers, 1808-1959. University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
referencedIn Salsbury, Nathan, 1846-1902. Nate Salsbury essays, [ca. 1890-1965]. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Brady, Mathew B., ca. 1823-1896. Civil War era photograph album, 1860-1870. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Ulysses S. Grant papers, 1819-1974 (bulk 1843-1908). Library of Congress
creatorOf Mack, Florence,. Autographs. Colorado College, Tutt Library
referencedIn Goodyear, A. Conger (Anson Conger), 1877-1964. Anson Conger Goodyear collection, 1813-1890 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf United States. Adjutant-General's Office. General orders no. 25, 1870 February 26. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
referencedIn Peter Wellington Alexander Papers, 1855-1863 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Hawks, Francis T. Francis T. Hawks papers, 1853-1882. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn J.P. Reynolds & Co. Records, 1868-1888. University of Oslo Medical Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS : St. Louis, to Edward Lee Plumb, Mexico City, 1867 Oct. 3. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn Webber, Samuel Gilbert, 1838-1926. Samuel Gilbert Webber papers, 1862-1888 (bulk, 1862-1865). University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf Buell, George Pearson, 1833-1883. Buell-Brien papers, 1805-1943. Tennessee State Library & Archives, TSLA
referencedIn Chever, Edward English, 1828-1905. Autobiography and Reminiscence of Edward English Chever : "General William T. Sherman's Desk", San Francisco, 1901. The Society of California Pioneers - Alice Phelan Sullivan Library
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Ulysses S. Grant papers, 1863-1866. Navarro College
referencedIn Cline, Isaac Monroe, 1861-1955,. Painting [realia] : William T. Sherman. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Anderson, Robert, 1805-1871. Papers of Robert Anderson, 1819-1948 (bulk 1836-1870). Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS, 1876 June 9 : to Major General E.O.C. Ord. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn Hinshaw, William, b. 1842. Papers, 1865, 1919, n.d. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Shafter, William Rufus, 1835-1906. William Rufus Shafter papers, 1862-1945, (bulk 1862-1904). Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Taylor, James E., 1839-1901,. Painting [realia] : The Grand Review. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Obear, Katharine T., 1852-. Letter, [ca. 193u-1975] to Horace F.W. Gibbes. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf William T. Sherman letter to Captain Hatheway, 1888 September 18 Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Whitaker, William Asbury, 1883-1960. William Asbury Whitaker papers, 1596-1957 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Marshall P. Wilder Papers, 1880-1914 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn John B. Sanborn papers., 1854-1898. Minnesota Historical Society
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William Tecumseh Sherman papers, 1810-1896 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
creatorOf Dawes, E. C. (Ephraim Cutler), b. 1840. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Du Pont, Henry, 1812-1889. Miscellaneous letters, 1811-1887 [photoprints]. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Thomas F. Bayard Papers, 1780-1899, (bulk 1860-1889) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Johnston, Joseph E. (Joseph Eggleston), 1807-1891. Confederate States Army Civil War orders, 1865. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Papers 1874-1879. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Steele, Frederick, 1819-1868. General Frederick Steele papers, 1845-1965 (inclusive), 1862-1868 (bulk). Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Babcock, Orville Elias, 1835-1884. Orville E. Babcock papers, 1851-1947, bulk 1861-1884. Newberry Library
referencedIn Beach, John D., soldier. Letter, 1862 Nov. 8. Navarro College
referencedIn Carey, Milton T. Milton T. Carey Papers, 1862-1865. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn George Dewey Papers, 1805-1949, (bulk 1885-1931) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Thompson, William Gilman, 1856-1927,. William Gilman Thompson autograph collection, 1771-1924 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Sherman, William (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter, 1878. Boston Athenaeum
referencedIn Antebellum and Civil War Collection, 1832-1935, undated. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
creatorOf Records of the Adjutant General's Office. 1762 - 1984. Generals' Papers and Books. 1830 - 1884. Papers and Books of General William T. Sherman
referencedIn Ligon, James Blackman, 1837-. James Blackman Ligon papers, 1862-1943; (bulk, 1862-1864). University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Whittle, D. W. (Daniel Webster), 1840-1901. D.W. Whittle papers, 1861-1974 (bulk 1861-1865). Library of Congress
referencedIn Sullivan, Peter John, 1821-1883. Peter John Sullivan letters, 1878. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Miller, Katherine Wise, 1853-1940. Macculloch-Miller family archive : manuscripts, 1778-1948 (bulk 1880s-1948). Macculloch Hall Historical Museum
referencedIn Harsch, Robert M. Ninety-Seventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 1862-1865 : typescript, 1967. Indiana Historical Society Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letters to Ada Rehan, 1888-1890. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Civil War Stereographs, 1861-1865 @ 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Chase, Samuel Portland, 1808-1873. Letter to William Tecumpseh Sherman : Washington, D.C. : ALS, 1863 Nov. 1. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Sylvanus Cadwallader Papers, 1818-1904, (bulk 1862-1898) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library
referencedIn John Rogers Photograph Collection, 1860-1927, undated © 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Outcalf, Oliver. Civil War letter of Oliver Outcalf, 1865 Mar. 27. Navarro College
referencedIn Charles Ewing Family Papers, 1769-1951, (bulk 1850-1890) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph letter signed : New York, to Cyrus W. Field, 1886 Nov. 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Letter, 1888 April 25, New York, to [an unidentified person, n.p.]. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Moore, Edward B. (Edward Burt), 1831-1901. Diary and correspondence, 1864-1896. University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center
referencedIn Wright-Boyd family papers, 1812-1914. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Eaton, John, 1829-1906. John Eaton letter, 1864 Jan. 30. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Beale, James, b. 1844?. James Beale papers, 1862-1895. Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William T. Sherman letter, 1874 Nov. 13. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Fairchild, Lucius, 1831-1896. Lucius Fairchild papers, 1819-1943. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Hunt, Henry Jackson, 1819-1889. Papers of Henry Jackson Hunt, 1841-1978 (bulk 1862-1889). Library of Congress
referencedIn Civil War Letters, 1852-1913 University of Kansas Kenneth Spencer Research Library Department of Special Collections
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : Washington, D.C., to J.B. Ketchum, New York, 1870 Apr. 20. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Van Cise, Edwin A., 1824-1914. Papers of Edwin A. Van Cise, 1857-1904. Library of Congress
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Kurtz, Wilbur G. (Wilbur George), 1882-1967. Wilbur G. Kurtz, Sr. visual arts collection, 1859-1972, undated. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
creatorOf Hillyer, William Silliman, 1831-1874. Papers of William Silliman Hillyer, 1822 (1861-1874) 1931, [manuscript]. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Veasey, James Alexander. General Historical Manuscripts, Documents, and Photographs 1500-1980. The University of Tulsa, McFarlin Library
referencedIn Gamble, Thomas, 1858-1945. The Race Question scrapbook, circa 1880-1900. Georgia Historical Society
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. W. T. Sherman letters to David Milliken, Jr., 1886. University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. The letters of General William T. Sherman to John T. Doyle ; 1869-1890 : ALS, 1869-1890. California Historical Society
referencedIn Sonosky, Marvin J. Indian Claims Commission report and related materials, 1980-1982. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
creatorOf Sibley, Henry Hastings, 1811-1891. Henry H. Sibley papers, 1815-1932. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Mayo, C. H. (Clarence Hastings). Papers of C. H. Mayo, 1879-1883. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Allen, Theodore F., 1842-1919. Civil War Diaries 1864-1865. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William Tecumseh Sherman Letter, 1853. University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB Library
referencedIn Sosnowski family. Sosnowski family papers, 1840-1967. South Carolina Historical Society
referencedIn General Manuscripts Miscellaneous Collection Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections
creatorOf Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882. Plummer autograph collection. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County Foundation, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
referencedIn King, Frank R. Letters, 1857-1865. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Ransom, Elizabeth. Elizabeth Ransom Photograph Collection [graphic]. New-York Historical Society Library
referencedIn Young, John Russell, 1840-1899. John Russell Young papers, circa 1840-1959 (bulk 1858-1898). Library of Congress
referencedIn Dow family. Dow family Part I Letters 1861-1888. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn St. Stephen's Episcopal Church (Charleston, S.C.). St. Stephen's Church records, 1822-1881. South Carolina Historical Society
referencedIn Lester S. Willson Diaries, 1863-1865 Montana State University-Bozeman Library, Merrill G Burlingame Special Collections
referencedIn Benham, Elizabeth Ann McNeil. Benham-McNeil family papers, 1772-1907. Library of Congress
referencedIn John Sherman Papers, 1836-1900, (bulk 1857-1894) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Inventory of the J. M. Smith Letters Ragan MSS 00136 ., 14 Jan 1862; 9 Sept 1864 Cushing Memorial Library,
referencedIn John Alexander Logan Family Papers, 1836-1925, (bulk 1860-1917) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William Tecumseh Sherman telegram, 1864. Georgia Historical Society
referencedIn Armstrong, Robert, fl. 1865. Robert Armstrong diary, 1865. Georgia Historical Society
referencedIn Hall, Henderson C. Letter to Col. John A. Rawlins. Black River Bridge, MS. 1863 Sept. 14. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Durham, Alfred M. Sketch of the life of Thomas Durham, 1936. Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn Day, Harry L. (Harry Loren), 1865-1942. Papers, 1889-1956. University of Idaho Library
referencedIn United States Military Academy. Class of 1890 photograph album, 1886-1893. Alabama Department of Archives and History
creatorOf Chamberlain, Sylvester. Letters received, 1885-1898. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
referencedIn Garrison, Sally (Sally A. Sharp), 1854-. Sally Garrison's Account of the Atlanta Campaign, 1863-1864. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn Consolidated Military Officer's File of General William T. Sherman United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Du Pont, Samuel Francis, 1803-1865. Papers, 1812-1865. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS : Camp, Walnut Hills, Miss., to David D. Porter, 1863 June 18. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn Montgomery, Mary Ann Phelps, 1847-1943,. Mary Ann Phelps Montgomery collection, 1746-1939 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Wilson, J. N. (Jerome Nelson), 1827-1897. Georgia and other southern views, 1870. University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Main Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph letter signed : Washington, D.C., to "Dear Admiral," 1882 Dec. 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Civil Works Map File, 1818 - 1947 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Church, William Conant, 1836-1917. William Conant Church papers, 1862-1924. Library of Congress
referencedIn David D. Porter Family Papers, 1799-1899 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891,. Correspondence : with Ulysses S. Grant, 1863 Feb. 1. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn King, Grace Elizabeth, 1852-1932. Grace Elizabeth King papers, 1781-1933 [microfilm manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Magrath, A. G. (Andrew Gordon), 1813-1893. Andrew Gordon Magrath papers, 1851-1930 University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf Boyd, David French, 1834-1899. David French Boyd papers. William T. Sherman letters, 1859-1891. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Vilas, William F. (William Freeman), 1840-1908. William F. Vilas papers, 1827-1961. Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
referencedIn Photographic Portrait File The Huntington Library
referencedIn Col. Henry Landes collection, ca. 1890s-1903. Jefferson County Historical Society
referencedIn Burrage, Henry S. (Henry Sweetser), 1837-1926. Civil War autograph letters, [ca. 1861-1865]. Maine Historical Society Library
referencedIn William G. Dickson papers, Dickson, William G., 1864-1865 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Sandburg, Carl, 1878-1967. Autograph file, S, 1556-1989. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Brown family. Papers, 1802-1963 (inclusive), 1833-1908 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn D. W. Whittle Papers, 1861-1974, (bulk 1861-1865) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Custer, George A. (George Armstrong), 1839-1876. Papers, 1857-1929. Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn Carlton, Caleb Henry, 1836-1923. Caleb Henry Carlton papers, 1831-1954 (bulk 1844-1916). Library of Congress
referencedIn Watts, Elijah S. 1836-1909. Elijah S. Watts papers 1861-1907. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Stidham Collection. 1973 - 1973. Civil War and Reconstruction Records
creatorOf Gilmore, William E., collector. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Stanton, Edwin McMasters, 1814-1869. Letter : Washington, D.C., to William T. Sherman, n.p., 1865 Apr. 17. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Goff-Williams papers, 1859-1889 (bulk 1861-1865). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876. Documents relating to George Armstrong Custer, 1867-1892. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876,. Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana : Part III: The Civil War and the Union, 1804-1915. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Mary Ann Phelps Montgomery collection, 1746-1939 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Capron, Horace, 1804-1885. Horace Capron papers, 1834-1961 (bulk 1871-1875). Library of Congress
referencedIn James Gillespie Blaine Papers, 1777-1945, (bulk 1870-1892) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Records of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau (Civil War). 1861 - 1907. Letters Sent
referencedIn Specifications for Construction, Repairs, and Supplies for Buildings and Statues, 1887 - 1901 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
creatorOf Houston, J. B. Papers of J. B. Houston, 1881-1899. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891,. Correspondence : South Carolina, with Wade Hampton, 1865 Feb. 24-27. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn Jocknick, Gustavus F., b. 1817. Papers of Gustavus F. Jocknick, 1853-circa 1922. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Swearingen, John G., d. 1865. John G. Swearingen letters [manuscript], 1864 and 1930. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Van Zwaluwenburg, Jacob, b. 1843. Jacob van Zwaluwenburg memoir Undated. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Library Of Congress, Manuscript Division. William T. Sherman Papers.
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library
referencedIn Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : Governor's Island, N.Y.C., to J.M. Dalzell, 1891 Feb. 26. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Conkling, Roscoe, 1829-1888. Roscoe Conkling papers, 1769-1895. Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : St. Louis, Mo., to John A. Rawlins, Washington, D.C., 1867 Jan. 21. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph letter signed : Fifth Ave. Hotel, N.Y.C., to W.J. Florence, 1883 Nov. 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Nathaniel Prentiss Banks Papers, 1829-1911, (bulk 1860-1880) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Feilden, H. W. (Henry Wemyss), 1838-1921. Correspondence of Henry W. Feilden [manuscript] 11861-1922. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Robert Anderson Papers, 1819-1948, (bulk 1836-1870) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn H. W. Halleck Papers, 1843-1896, (bulk 1862) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Creager, Marvin. Letters, 1862-1864. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Smith, Thomas Kilby, 1820-1887. Papers of Thomas Kilby Smith, 1848-1887 (bulk 1861-1869). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Henry Cordes Brown : [collection] : 1858-1948. History Colorado
referencedIn Davis E. Castle journals, Castle, Davis E., 1864-1865 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Barney, Hiram. Papers of Hiram Barney, 1772-1924 (bulk 1836-1894). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Thomas F. Bayard Papers, 1780-1899, (bulk 1860-1889) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Halleck, H. W. (Henry Wager), 1815-1882. Letter: St. Louis, [Mo.], to G[eorge] W. Cullum, Cairo, [Ill.], [18]62 Feb. 14. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Monterey Public Library. California History Room. Biography clippings : "S" [surname] folder 1896-2008. Monterey Public Library
referencedIn Peter Palmquist cased photographs collection., circa 1844-1899 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Cope, John. John Cope papers, 1831-1919. Library of Congress
referencedIn Selected pamphlets, Sherman and Ewing families, [ca. 1862-ca. 1934] Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Moody, Dwight Lyman, 1837-1899. Papers of Dwight Lyman Moody, 1864-1937 (bulk 1864-1899). Library of Congress
referencedIn Menefee family. Menefee family papers, 1826-1958. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : Washington, D.C., to Charles A. Aiken, Schenectady, N.Y., 1871 June 22. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf McClernand, John A. (John Alexander), 1812-1900. Papers, 1823-1919 [1861-1864]. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Caldwell, John Curtis, 1833-1912. Index to a synopsis of military operations and data of rank and command with special reference to the military record of Lieutenant General Nelson A. Miles, U.S. Army, from the commencement of the war of rebellion in 1861 to the concentration of troops in the city of Chicago in 1894, for the purpose of protecting life and property and for the maintainace of civil law and order. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Evelyn Wadsworth Symington Collection of John Hay Material, 1864-1905 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS, 1887 May 5 : Philadelphia on New Hotel Lafayette letterhead, to [Colonel] Tourtelotte. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph memorandum signed, [n.d.] Sunday. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Correspondence, 1859-1863. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Fuller, B. A. G. B. A. G. Fuller autograph collection. 1620-1920. Houghton Library
referencedIn Edward E. Dickerson Papers, 1861-1991 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Correspondence, 1864-1906. Houghton Library
referencedIn Fleming, Walter L. (Walter Lynwood), 1874-1932. Walter L. Fleming manuscript, 1912. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Herbert, George W., 1808-1872. George W. Herbert : papers, 1854-1871. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Stewart, John H. Papers, 1865-1868. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865. Letter : City Point, Va., to Ulysses S. Grant, n.p., 1865 Apr. 7. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Davis, Jefferson Columbus, 1828-1879. Papers, 1847-1880. Indiana Historical Society Library
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referencedIn Lowes, William W. Papers 1864 Jan. 18-Sept. 14. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Heth, Henry, 1825-1899. Papers of Henry Heth [manuscript], 1758-1942. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Memorials. Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Meade, Sedgewick, Buford, McNeil. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Swearingen, John G., fl. 1864. Letters of John G. Swearingen, 1864 and 1930. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter to Brig. General George Henry Thomas, 1864 May 30. Georgia Newspaper Project
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph letter signed : H.Q., Washington, to D. Van Nostrand, Esq., 1869 July 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Porter, Lucia Chauncey. Correspondence, 1853-1917. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
creatorOf Field, Cyrus W. (Cyrus West), 1819-1892. Collection of letters and documents related to Cyrus W. Field and the Atlantic cable, [1855 Feb. 25-1886 Nov. 29]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William T. Sherman letters, 1860. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Gifford Pinchot papers, 1770-1972 (bulk 1870-1946) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Markland, A. H. (Absolom Hanks). Papers, 1821-1888. Tennessee State Library & Archives, TSLA
creatorOf Sherman, John, 1823-1900. Papers 1841-1896. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Arthur, Chester Alan, 1829-1886. Chester Alan Arthur papers, 1843-1960 (bulk 1870-1888). Library of Congress
creatorOf Ward, Samuel, 1814-1884. Samuel Ward papers, 1647-1912. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Fleming, Walter L. (Walter Lynwood), 1874-1932. Walter L. Fleming collection, 1848-1914 (bulk 1860-1890). Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS : Raleigh, N.C., to Ulysses S. Grant, 1865 Apr. 25. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Techumseh), 1820-1891. Sherman-Thackara Papers, 1820-1949 1869-1897. Villanova University, Falvey Memorial Library
referencedIn Barton, Amelia Victoria Boinest, 1839-1930. Amelia Victoria Boinest personal papers, 1865 Mar. 27 and undated. The Citadel, Daniel Library
referencedIn John William Draper Family Papers, 1777-1951, (bulk 1860-1882) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter to S.S. McClure, 1888 August 21. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. [Autograph letter signed, addressed to General U.S. Grant]. Newberry Library
referencedIn United States. Army. Infantry Regiment, 19th (1861- ). Army of the Cumberland military orders, 1864. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Cullen, John Paul. Papers, 1929-1968. University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : Washington, D.C. to General E.O.C. Ord, San Francisco, Calif., 1871 March 18. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County Foundation, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
referencedIn Shafter, William Rufus, 1835-1906. William Rufus Shafter papers, 1862-1945 (inclusive), 1862-1904 (bulk). [microform]. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Edward M. Hayhurst correspondence and other materials, 1862-1938 L. Tom Perry Special Collections19th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
creatorOf Rawlins, John A. (John Aaron), 1831-1869. Special order: In Field Near Vicksburg, Miss., to W[illiam] T. Sherman, 1863 May 25. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Wilder, Marshall P. (Marshall Pinckney), 1859-1915. Marshall P. Wilder papers, 1880-1914. Library of Congress
referencedIn Brodnax, Samuel Houston, b. 1844 November 27. Memoirs. circa 1921. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn William C. Cochran family. Papers 1839-1936. Oberlin College Library
referencedIn Walter, Harvey Washington, 1819-1878. Harvey Washington Walter papers, 1849-1899 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Walter, Harvey Washington, 1819-1878. Harvey Washington Walter papers, 1849-1899 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Waite, Morrison R. (Morrison Remick), 1816-1888. Letters, 1871-1882. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
creatorOf Guiteau, Charles Julius, 1841-1882. Autograph album for the Charles J. Guiteau murder trial, 1882 January. Harold B. Lee Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS : St. Louis, to Maj. Gen. John A. Rawlins, 1865 Aug. 25. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to J.M. Dalzell, 1881 Oct. 5. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Flower, Frank Abial, 1854-1911. Papers, 1837-1889. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Ewing, Thomas, 1789-1871. Papers 1775-1934. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Limbocker, William E., 1835-1863. Diary, 1861. Clarke Historical Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William T. Sherman letter, 1887. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Faulk, Andrew Jackson, 1814-1898. Andrew Jackson Faulk letters and speeches, 1862-1870. Newberry Library
referencedIn Francis Vinton Greene papers, 1776-1921, 1801-1921 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Brown, Charles S. Papers / 1864-1865. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Stanton, Edwin McMasters, 1814-1869. Papers, 1864 May 20. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William Tecumseh Sherman papers, 1863-1865. Navarro College
referencedIn Jacob van Zwaluwenburg memoir, van Zwaluwenburg, Jacob, Undated William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Rhoades, John R. Corporal John R. Rhoades papers, 1858-1865 (bulk 1862-1865). University of Oslo Medical Library
creatorOf Letter, To: Ellen Ewing Sherman From: William T. Sherman, June 1878 Villanova University, Falvey Memorial Library
referencedIn Cooke, Henry David, 1825-1881. Papers of Henry David Cooke, 1838-1956 (bulk 1846-1881). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William T. Sherman papers, 1853-1898. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn United States. War Dept. Subsistence Dept. Letter : Washington, [D.C.], to John A. Rawlins, Secretary of War, [Washington, D.C.], 1869 Mar. 30. Newberry Library
referencedIn Dwight Lyman Moody Papers, 1864-1937, (bulk 1864-1899) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Hardie, James Allen, 1823-1876. James Allen Hardie papers, 1844-1886 (bulk 1847-1876). Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : St. Louis, Mo., to Capt. [Isaac Bowen], 1852 June 22. South Carolina Historical Society, SCHS
referencedIn Archer, Edward Richard, 1834-1918. Diary, 1864-1865. Virginia Historical Society Library
referencedIn Brattle family. Brattle family correspondence, 1834-1866. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Crandon, Jr., Joseph, b. ca. 1844. Joseph Crandon, Jr. letter, 1865. Georgia Historical Society
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. [Letter] 1891 Jan. 19, New York [to] Lieut. B. Fernow, Albany, N.Y. / W.T. Sherman. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Dolley, Frank S. Collection of Frank S. Dolley, 1862-1957. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Lehmann, Frederick W. (Frederick William), 1853-1931. Historical and literary mss., 1756-1929. Washington University in St. Louis, .
contributorOf Letter Directive of Brigade General William T. Sherman to Colonel Jacob G. Lauman, 3/20/1862 - 3/20/1862 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Civil War letters and field order of William T. Sherman, 1863-1865. Navarro College
referencedIn Colfax, Schuyler, 1823-1885. Schuyler Colfax correspondence and speeches, 1837-1882. Library of Congress
referencedIn McLean family. Papers, 1789-1944, bulk 1861-1865. American Periodical Series I
referencedIn Hewett, Waterman Thomas, 1846-1921. Waterman Thomas Hewett collection, 1914-1920. Princeton University Library
referencedIn August V. Kautz Papers, 1846-1939, (bulk 1860-1890) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Wilsford, Inez Smith, 1855-1939. Inez Smith Wilsford reminiscence, circa 1900-1939. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Rolf, Alfred. Alfred Rolf Letters, 1864-1867. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn McCook family papers, 1809-1966 (bulk 1850-1900). Library of Congress
creatorOf Greene, F. V. (Francis Vinton), 1850-1921. F.V. Greene papers, 1776-1921, bulk (1801-1921). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Du Pont, Henry 1812-1889. Papers 1859-1889. Winterthur Library
referencedIn Proudfit, James K., 1831-1914. Papers and photographs, [undated]. Wisconsin Veterans Museum Research Center
referencedIn Packard, Thaddeus B., 1836-. Diaries, 1861-1864. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter, 1875. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Boos, John E., 1879-1974. Papers, 1911-1954, n.d. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Ewing, Hugh, 1826-1905. Papers 1841-1893. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf United Daughters of the Confederacy Collection. Papers & Scrapbooks, 1849-1979. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn Leonard, Theodule. Theodule Leonard papers, 1841-1896. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn The John D. Beach collection, 1861-1865 Willamette University University Archives and Special Collection
referencedIn Ulysses S. Grant Papers, 1819-1969, (bulk 1843-1885) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Sherman, Ellen Ewing, 1824-1888. Letters, 1862. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Grierson, Benjamin Henry, 1826-1911. Benjamin Henry Grierson papers, 1865-1890. Newberry Library
referencedIn Evarts family papers, 1753-1960 (inclusive), 1798-1901 (bulk) Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Crosland, William, 1800-1865. Calendar of miscellaneous papers [of] Dr. William Crosland 1826-1888 / compiled from original M[anu]s[cripts] in possession of Mrs. R.B. Ricaud, Bennettsville, S.C., by Tommie Gillespie 1937 ; W.P.A. Project No. 2004 ; sponsored by University of South Carolina ; supervised by Miss Flora B. Surles. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Willard, L. S. (Lot Sabine), fl. 1862-1865. L.S. Willard letters, 1862-1864. Newberry Library
creatorOf Monterey Public Library California History Room. Historic Documents File 1826-1987, (bulk 1830-1890). Monterey Public Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William T. Sherman letter, 1889. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. ALS : Memphis, to James B. McPherson, 1863 Oct. 6. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Cutts, Suzanne H. Collection of letters written to members of the Scott family, [ca. 1880-1936]. Brown University, John Hay Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891,. Autograph letter signed from William Tecumseh Sherman to Mr. Elliott [manuscript], 1875 December 15. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Boyd, David French, 1834-1899. David French Boyd letter, 1864 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf Parsons, Lewis B. (Lewis Baldwin), 1818-1907. Papers, 1799-1908 (bulk 1836-1908). Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Coffey, William. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Andrew Johnson Papers, 1783-1947, (bulk 1865-1869) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to Gen. Sherman, 1865 Apr. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Stanton, Edwin McMasters, 1814-1869. Edwin McMasters Stanton papers, 1818-1921 (bulk 1862-1870). Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Autograph signature clipped from the docketing of a letter : Washington, 1869 Mar. 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : St. Louis, Mo., to Henry C. Bowen, New York, 1885 Apr. 3. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Correspondence, 1861. Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn Halleck, H. W. (Henry Wager), 1815-1872. H.W. Halleck papers, 1843-1896 (bulk 1862). Library of Congress
referencedIn Fuller, Ezra B. Ezra B. Fuller papers, undated. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn Alexander Stewart Webb papers, 1818-1930 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Robinson, James Sidney, 1827-1892. Papers 1860-1878. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Agnew, Cornelius Rea. Letters, 1875-1888. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Buell, Don Carlos, 1818-1898. Papers, 1813-1961 1843-1898. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. William Tecumseh Sherman family papers, 1808-1891 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter : St. Louis, Mo., to George K. Leet, Washington, D.C., 1866 Aug. 11. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Letter of William T. Sherman, 1887. Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. W. T. Sherman letter, 1880 September 13. University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 53: Assistant Secretary, Outgoing Correspondenc.
referencedIn Hampton family. Hampton family papers, 1773-1974. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Autograph File, S, 1556-1996. Houghton Library
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. ALS, 1864, July 9, City Point, Va., to Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington, D.C. Rosenbach Museum & Library
editorOf Petitions and Memorials, Resolutions of State Legislatures, and Related Documents Which Were Referred to the Committee on Military Affairs during the 31st Congress