Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823

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John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder was a Moravian missionary.

From the description of Letters and manuscripts, 1741-1822. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523571

From the description of Journey with the commissioners to the Indian treaty, 1793. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122579018

From the description of Letters and papers, 1789-1796. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122540128

From the guide to the John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796, 1789-1796, (American Philosophical Society)

From the guide to the Journey with the commissioners to the Indian treaty, 1793, 1793, (American Philosophical Society)

From the guide to the John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and manuscripts, 1741-1822, 1741-1822, (American Philosophical Society)

Moravian missionary who worked to Christianize Indians in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Heckewelder, David Zeisberger, and Christian Delaware Indians migrated from Pennsylvania to the Ohio territory and laid out Schoenbrunn ("Beautiful Spring") in 1772 along the Tuscarawas River. They also founded Gnadenhutten ("Tents of Grace") further downstream, where nearly 100 Christian Indians were murdered by whites in 1782.

From the description of Diaries, 1786, 1789. (Rhinelander District Library). WorldCat record id: 22446223

John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder was a Moravian missionary to the Indians of Ohio.

From the description of English, Algonkin, and Delaware comparative vocabulary, [n.d.]. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122380130

From the description of Letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122488795

From the description of Names which the Lenni Lenape...had given to rivers, streams, places, &c., 1822. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122473839

From the description of Meteorological observations, 1802-1814. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 173466045

From the description of Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523448

From the description of Notes, amendments, and additions to his account of the Indians, 1820. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523376

From the description of Names of various trees, shrubs, and plants in the language of the Lennape [sic], 1840. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122578549

From the guide to the Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821, 1816-1821, (American Philosophical Society)

From the guide to the Notes, amendments, and additions to his account of the Indians, 1820, 1820, (American Philosophical Society)

John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder worked as a Moravian missionary to the Indians of Ohio.

From the guide to the Names of various trees, shrubs, and plants in the language of the Lennape [sic], 1840, 1840, (American Philosophical Society)

John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder served as a Moravian missionary to the Indians of Ohio.

From the guide to the Meteorological observations, 1802-1814, 1802-1814, (American Philosophical Society)

From the guide to the Names which the Lenni Lenape...had given to rivers, streams, places, etc., 1822, 1822, (American Philosophical Society)

Missionary of the Moravian Church to the Indians of Ohio and Pennsylvania during the latter half of the eighteenth century, Heckewelder spent many years learning the languages and customs of these Indian tribes.

He was most familiar with the Ohio Country Delaware and Mohegan Indians helping to establish the Moravian Mission of Gnadenhutten, Ohio in the 1760's and 1770's. Heckewelder vividly recorded in contemporary correspondence and in later accounts his experiences and broad knowledge of Indian life and of colonial affairs in the Ohio Valley.

From the description of A narrative of the United Brethren among the Delaware & Mohegan Indians : from its commencement in the year 1740 to the close of the year 1808 : comprising all the remarkable incidents which took place at their missionary stations during that period : interspersed with anecdotes, historical facts, speeches of Indians & other interesting matter / by John Heckewelder, who was many years in the service of that mission. 1820. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 35273536

Missionary of the Moravian Church to the Indians of Ohio and Pennsylvania during the latter half of the eighteenth century, Heckewelder spent many years learning the languages and customs of these Indian tribes.

He was most familiar with the Ohio Country Delaware and Mohegan Indians helping to establish the Moravian Mission of Gnadenhutten, Ohio in the 1760's and 1770's. Heckewelder vividly recorded in contemporary correspondence and in later accounts his experiences and broad knowledge of Indian life and of colonial affairs in the Ohio Valley.

From the description of John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1790-1822. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 35273710

John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder (1743-1823) was a missionary of the renewed Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian Church to the Native American tribes of Ohio. He retired from active missionary service in 1786. In 1792 he was appointed to a U.S. Government commission headed by General Putnam to arrange the Peace Treaty of Vincennes. In 1801 returned to Gnadenhűtten to administer the Indian “estate” on the Muskingum. In 1810, at the request of Caspar Wistar of the American Philosophical Society, Heckewelder recorded his knowledge of Indian life, published as an “Account of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States,” that appeared in Transactions of the Historical & Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 1 (1819).

Heckewelder was the son of a Moravian clergyman and native of Moravia, who served the church of the Unitas Fratrum in England. He was born in Bedford, England, and started his education in Moravian schools there, before moving with his parents to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania in 1754. There he finished the last three years of his education at the Moravian Boys’ School. Afterward, he was sent to assist in the operation of the Economy Farm of the Moravian Brethren at Christian’s Spring near Nazareth. He was indentured to a cedar cooper or barrel maker in Bethlehem, although he expressed a strong interest in evangelism and asked that he be allowed to participate in the work of David Zeisberger and Christian Frederick Post, Moravian missionaries to the Indians on the Muskingum River in the Ohio territory. In 1762 he got his chance, when Post asked him to assist with the transfer of several groups of Christian Delawares from the Susquehanna river area to Ohio. Plans for the migration were temporarily suspended by Pontiac’s War in 1763, and between 1763-1771 Heckewelder was forced to remain a cooper, only occasionally being dispatched as a messenger to the Indian settlement at Wyalusing, Pennsylvania, as well as other Indian towns along the western Susquehanna.

Heckewelder displayed a remarkable understanding of native American customs and languages, spending hours studying their language, traditions, and legendary history. In 1771 he began regular mission duties for a period of fifteen years, during which he was an assistant to David Zeisberger. He lived among the Moravian Christian Indians, guiding Indian groups from the Susquehanna to the Big Beaver River and beyond to Schoenbrunn and Gnadenhütten on the Muskingum river in western Pennsylvania. During those years he was constantly on horseback, leading groups of Indians between Bethlehem and Detroit. He served as their “passport” and guide since the notion of Indians as peaceful and God-fearing people was incongruous to many frontier people. Toward the end of the Revolutionary War in 1781, Heckewelder and all of his companions were taken prisoner by a wandering band of Loyalists and Indians, who held them as American spies in Upper Sandusky, Ohio. He was twice summoned to Detroit by the British authorities and arraigned before the English commandant of the post. During his absence from the Ohio territory in 1782, ninety-six Christian Indians at Gnadenhütten were massacred by white settlers.

In 1780 Heckewelder married Sarah Ohneberg of Nazareth, Pennsylvania. Six years later he retired from active missionary service and moved to Bethlehem, where he continued to be active in church work. However, the new government of the United States soon utilized Heckewelder’s expertise with Indian languages and culture, calling on him as an adviser to the War Department in 1792. Secretary of War Henry Knox asked him to accompany a commission led by General Rufus Putnam to negotiate the Treaty of Vincennes, recognizing American ownership of the Vincennes tract by the Miami Indians. The following year he advised a similar delegation, consisting of General Lincoln, Colonel Pickering and Virginia Governor Beverly Randolph, involved in negotiations with the Iroquois, leading to the Pickering Treaty or the Treaty of Canandaigua. Finally, in 1801 Heckewelder returned to Gnadenhütten, where for nine years he administered the Indian estate on the Muskingum river held in trust for Delaware Indian descendants by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. By this time most of these Indians had been transferred to Fairfield, Canada through Heckewelder’s efforts.

In 1810 Heckewelder and his family returned to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where new labors awaited him. Caspar Wistar of the American Philosophical Society, solicited his efforts in recording his knowledge of Indian life. The resulting work, an “Account of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States,” appeared in Transactions of the Historical & Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 1 (1819), translated into German and French editions. Heckewelder died in 1823.

From the guide to the John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, 1816-1822, (American Philosophical Society)

John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder (1743-1823) was a missionary of the renewed Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian Church to the Native American tribes of Ohio. He retired from active missionary service in 1786. In 1792 he was appointed to a U.S. Government commission headed by General Putnam to arrange the Peace Treaty of Vincennes. In 1801 returned to Gnadenhűtten to administer the Indian “estate” on the Muskingum. In 1810, at the request of Caspar Wistar of the American Philosophical Society, Heckewelder recorded his knowledge of Indian life, published as an “Account of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States,” that appeared in Transactions of the Historical & Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 1 (1819).

Heckewelder was the son of a Moravian clergyman and native of Moravia, who served the church of the Unitas Fratrum in England. He was born in Bedford, England, and started his education in Moravian schools there, before moving with his parents to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania in 1754. There he finished the last three years of his education at the Moravian Boys’ School. Afterward, he was sent to assist in the operation the Economy Farm of the Moravian Brethren at Christian’s Spring near Nazareth. He was indentured to a cedar cooper or barrel maker in Bethlehem, although he expressed a strong interest in evangelism and asked that he be allowed to participate in the work of David Zeisberger and Christian Frederick Post, Moravian missionaries to the Indians on the Muskingum River in the Ohio territory. In 1762 he got his chance, when Post asked him to assist with the transfer of several groups of Christian Delawares from the Susquehanna river area to Ohio. Plans for the migration were temporarily suspended by Pontiac’s War in 1763, and between 1763-1771 Heckewelder was forced to remain a cooper, only occasionally being dispatched as a messenger to the Indian settlement at Wyalusing, Pennsylvania, as well as other Indian towns along the western Susquehanna.

Heckewelder displayed a remarkable understanding of native American customs and languages, spending hours studying their language, traditions, and legendary history. In 1771 he began regular mission duties for a period of fifteen years, during which he was an assistant to David Zeisberger. He lived among the Moravian Christian Indians, guiding Indian groups from the Susquehanna to the Big Beaver River and beyond to Schoenbrunn and Gnadenhütten on the Muskingum river in western Pennsylvania. During those years he was constantly on horseback, leading groups of Indians between Bethlehem and Detroit. He served as their “passport” and guide since the notion of Indians as peaceful and God-fearing people was incongruous to many frontier people. Toward the end of the Revolutionary War in 1781, Heckewelder and all of his companions were taken prisoner by a wandering band of Loyalists and Indians, who held them as American spies in Upper Sandusky, Ohio. He was twice summoned to Detroit by the British authorities and arraigned before the English commandant of the post. During his absence from the Ohio territory in 1782, ninety-six Christian Indians at Gnadenhütten were massacred by white settlers.

In 1780 Heckewelder married Sarah Ohneberg of Nazareth, Pennsylvania. Six years later he retired from active missionary service and moved to Bethlehem, where he continued to be active in church work. However, the new government of the United States soon utilized Heckewelder’s expertise with Indian languages and culture, calling on him as an adviser to the War Department in 1792. Secretary of War Henry Knox asked him to accompany a commission led by General Rufus Putnam to negotiate the Treaty of Vincennes, recognizing American ownership of the Vincennes tract by the Miami Indians. The following year he advised a similar delegation, consisting of General Lincoln, Colonel Pickering and Virginia Governor Beverly Randolph, involved in negotiations with the Iroquois, leading to the Pickering Treaty or the Treaty of Canandaigua. Finally, in 1801 Heckewelder returned to Gnadenhütten, where for nine years he administered the Indian estate on the Muskingum river held in trust for Delaware Indian descendents by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. By this time most of these Indians had been transferred to Fairfield, Canada through Heckewelder’s efforts.

In 1810 Heckewelder and his family returned to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where new labors awaited him. Caspar Wistar of the American Philosophical Society, solicited his efforts in recording his knowledge of Indian life. The resulting work, an “Account of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States,” appeared in Transactions of the Historical & Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 1 (1819), translated into German and French editions. Heckewelder died in 1823.

From the guide to the John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder papers, 1800-1847, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Names of various trees, shrubs, and plants in the language of the Lennape [sic], 1840, 1840 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Catalogus plantarum sponte crescentium circa Bethlehem in comitatu Northampton in Pensylvania & Hope in comitatu Sussex in West New Jersey, &c. [n.d.], n.d. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Memorabilien des Ind. Geminde gegenwarting in Sandusky, not before Nov. 1781. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Atwater, Amzi, 1776-1850. Manuscripts relating to the early history of the Connecticut Western Reserve, 1795-1869. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
creatorOf Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844. Letters, 1816-1822, to John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Hartline, Waldo. Topographic map showing relocation of town of Schoenbrunn in Tuscarawas County, Ohio / survey and map by Waldo Hartline & Albert T. Rosch. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808. Papers, 1786-1787. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
creatorOf Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821, 1816-1821 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection, 1783-1817 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Payne, John Howard, 1791-1852. John Howard Payne papers, 1794-1841, 1814-1841. Newberry Library
creatorOf Alexander, J. H. (John Henry), 1812-1867. Delaware language dictionary, 1856. Maryland Historical Society
creatorOf Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815. Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1796-1809. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Meteorological observations, 1802-1814. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and manuscripts, 1741-1822, 1741-1822 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Dreer, Ferdinand J. (Ferdinand Julius), 1812-1902. Autograph collection. 1492-1925 Historical Society of Pennsylvania
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Notes, amendments, and additions to his account of the Indians, 1820. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder papers, 1800-1847 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Parkman, Francis, 1823-1893. Letters : Boston, [Mass.], 1879-1892. Newberry Library
referencedIn Wallace, Paul Anthony Wilson. Paul A. W. Wallace Papers. [ca. 1920]-1967. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Library. Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection. 1668-1983. American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. A narrative of the United Brethren among the Delaware & Mohegan Indians : from its commencement in the year 1740 to the close of the year 1808 : comprising all the remarkable incidents which took place at their missionary stations during that period : interspersed with anecdotes, historical facts, speeches of Indians & other interesting matter / by John Heckewelder, who was many years in the service of that mission. Newberry Library
creatorOf Mahr, August Carl. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1790-1822. Newberry Library
creatorOf John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, 1816-1822 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Journey with the commissioners to the Indian treaty, 1793, 1793 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscript Maps, 1747-1948 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Names of various trees, shrubs, and plants in the language of the Lennape [sic], 1840. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder Diaries, 1786-1789 Western Reserve Historical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Journal of a journey to the Wabash : manuscript copy, 1792. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796, 1789-1796 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Caspar Wistar Papers, 1794-1817 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Journal of a journey to the Wabash, 1792. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Henry, Mathew Schropp, 1790-1862. Indian names of rivers, streams & other noted places in the state of Pennsylvania ... / by Matthew S. Henry. Jenks Library at Gordon College, Jenks Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. [The Heckewelder map]. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. [Map of northeastern Ohio, 1796]. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Historical and Literary Committee, American Indian Vocabulary Collection, 1784-1828 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Letters and papers, 1789-1796. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Atwater, Amzi, 1776-1850. Manuscripts relating to the early history of the Connecticut Western Reserve, 1795-1869 [microform]. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
referencedIn Moravian Indian mission records, 1739-1880. Library of Congress
referencedIn Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815. Correspondence, 1786-1815. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Diaries, 1786, 1789. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
referencedIn Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844. Letters, 1816-1822. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Names which the Lenni Lenape...had given to rivers, streams, places, etc., 1822, 1822 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. English, Algonkin, and Delaware comparative vocabulary, [n.d.]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIb, 1807-1825 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Notes, amendments, and additions to his account of the Indians, 1820, 1820 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Kampman, Christian Frederick, fl. 1780-1808. Catalogus plantarum sponte crescentium circa Bethlehem...in Pensylvania & Hope...in West New Jersey, [n.d.]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844. Collection, 1781-1844 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Papers, 1755-1822. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
creatorOf Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808. Letter : Goshen, [Ohio], to [John Gottlieb Ernestus] Heckewelder, [Gnadenhutten, Ohio], 1801 Sept. 5. Newberry Library
creatorOf Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808. Papers [microform], 1781-1797. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Wistar, Caspar, 1761-1818. Letters, 1794-1817. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815. Miscellaneous papers, 1788-1815. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Miller, Samuel, 1769-1850. Papers, 1790-1814. New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Whittlesey, Elijah. Notebook, ca. 1853. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Names which the Lenni Lenape...had given to rivers, streams, places, &c., 1822. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Peter Stephen Du Ponceau letters, 1816-1822, to John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, 1816-1822 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Meteorological observations, 1802-1814, 1802-1814 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Wood, John, ca. 1775-1822. Vocabulary of the language of the Nottoway tribe of Indians, 1820. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Letters and manuscripts, 1741-1822. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815. American Indian materials, 1789-1813. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Logan, Mingo Chief. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823. Journey with the commissioners to the Indian treaty, 1793. American Philosophical Society Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, John, 1735-1826 person
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873 person
associatedWith Alexander, J. H. (John Henry), 1812-1867. person
associatedWith Alexander, William, surveyor. person
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associatedWith American Philosophical Society. Historical & Literary Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Banks, Joseph, Sir, 1743-1820 person
associatedWith Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815. person
associatedWith Cleaveland, Moses, 1754-1806. person
associatedWith Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839 person
associatedWith Coues, Elliott, 1842-1899 person
associatedWith Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832 person
associatedWith Darlington, William, 1782-1863 person
associatedWith Deering, Frank Cutter, 1866-1938, person
associatedWith Denke, Christian Frederick, 1775-1838. person
associatedWith Dreer, Ferdinand Julius, 1812-1902, person
associatedWith Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844. person
associatedWith Edison, Thomas A., (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931 person
associatedWith Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955 person
associatedWith Ettwein, John. person
associatedWith Ettwein, John. family
associatedWith Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 person
associatedWith Fitch, John person
associatedWith Genth, F. A., (Frederick Augustus), 1820-1893 person
associatedWith Gray, Asa, 1810-1888 person
associatedWith Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872 person
associatedWith Harding, Warren G. person
associatedWith Hartline, Waldo. person
associatedWith Heckewelder, Johanna Maria person
associatedWith Henry, Mathew Schropp, 1790-1862. person
associatedWith Huffnagle, John. person
associatedWith Kampman, Christian Frederick. person
associatedWith Kampman, Christian Frederick, 1708-1808 person
associatedWith Kampman, Christian Frederick, fl. 1780-1808. person
associatedWith Liebert, Aug. H. person
associatedWith Logan, Mingo Chief. person
associatedWith Loskiel, George Henry, 1740-1814. person
associatedWith Mahr, August Carl. person
associatedWith Massachusetts Peace Society. corporateBody
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associatedWith McCarty, William. person
associatedWith Miller, George G. person
associatedWith Miller, George G. person
associatedWith Miller, Samuel, 1769-1850. person
associatedWith Moravian Church. corporateBody
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associatedWith Parkman, Francis, 1823-1893. person
associatedWith Payne, John Howard, 1791-1852. person
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associatedWith Pyrlaeus, J. C. person
associatedWith Reuben T. Durrett Collection on Kentucky and the Ohio River Valley (University of Chicago. Library) corporateBody
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associatedWith Rush, Benjamin, 1746-1813 person
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associatedWith Seidel, Nathaniel. person
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associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Steiner, Abraham. person
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associatedWith Turpin, P. J. F., (Pierre Jean François), 1775-1840 person
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associatedWith Wood, John, ca. 1775-1822. person
associatedWith Worcester, Noah, 1758-1837. person
associatedWith Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Ohio River Valley
Canada
North Carolina
Ohio River Valley
Ohio
Ohio
Northwest, Old
Ohio River Valley
Pennsylvania
United States
Pennsylvania
United States
Northwest, Old
Ohio
United States
Gnadenhutten (Ohio)
Western Reserve (Ohio)
Canada
Gnadenhutten (Ohio)
Pennsylvania
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Western Reserve (Ohio)
Ohio
Ohio River Valley
Pennsylvania
Tuscarawas River Valley (Ohio)
Pennsylvania
North America
Canada
Pennsylvania--Bethlehem
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
Ohio
Subject
Indians of North America--Social life and customs
Moravians--Ohio
Quakers
Indians of North America--Languages
Indians of North America--Treaties
Shawnee Indians
Indians of North America--History--Study and teaching
Meteorology--Ohio--Observations
Native America
Peace movements--History--19th century--Sources
Meteorology--Pennsylvania--Observations
Bounties, Military--History--18th century--Sources
Indians of North America--Missions
Fruit trees--Grafting
Publishers and publishing--History--19th century--sources
Indians of North America--Wars--1790-1794
Algonquian Indians
Cheroenhaka Indians
Indians of North America--Government relations
Delaware Indians
Maps shelf
United States--Description and travel--1783-1848
Indians of North America--Land tenure
Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823
Ojibwa Indians
Delaware Indians--Missions--History--18th century--Sources
Language and Linguistics
Meteorology--Observations
Pennsylvania History
Moravians
Algonquian languages
Indians of North America--Pennsylvania--History
Travelers--United States--Diaries
Moravian Church--United States--History
Moravian Indians--Missions--History--18th century--Sources
Missionaries--United States--Diaries
Delaware language
Gnadenhutten Massacre, Gnadenhutten, Ohio, 1782
Iroquoian languages
Travelers--Diaries
Moravians--Missions--History--18th century--Sources
Manuscript maps--Facsimiles
Western Reserve Historical Society Maps
Meteorology--Canada--Observations
Indians of North America--Pennsylvania--Social life and customs
Mohegan Indians--Missions--History--18th century--Sources
Ohio--Description and travel
Names, Delaware
Names, Indian
Missionaries--Diaries
Algonquin language
Quakers--United States
Indians of North America--Missions--History--18th century
Names, Indian--North America
Indians of North America--History
Manuscripts, American
Pennsylvania--Description and travel
Land settlement--History--18th century--Sources
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1743-03-12

Death 1823-01-21

Americans

German,

English,

Algonquian languages

Information

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