Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913

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U. S. Army surgeon and founder of the Army Medical Library.

From the description of John Shaw Billings letters, 1891, Apr. 13 and May 13, New York City, to W.R. Benjamin. (Duke University). WorldCat record id: 34992422

1860. Graduated from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, with A.B., M.A.

From the description of General correspondence June 1862-Oct. 1901 [microform]. (Alma Public Library). WorldCat record id: 7883610

The Adjutant General of the Army had responsibility for matters relating to command, discipline, and administration of the military establishment, and has had the duties of recording, authenticating, and communicating the Secretary's orders, instructions,a nd regulations to troops and individuals in the Army. The Adjutant General's Office chiefly handled Army orders, correspondence, and other records, and it received final custody of virtually all records concerned with the military establishment.

From the guide to the John Shaw Billings Papers, in the Adjutant General's Office Records (RG 94) in the National Archives, 1861-1895, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)

John Shaw Billings (1838-1913) was an American surgeon, hospital planner and librarian. He served as a U.S. Army surgeon and was responsible for creating the nation's foremost medical library, now the National Library of Medicine. He served as special advisor to the trustees of Johns Hopkins Hospital in planning and organizing that institution. After retiring from the Army in 1895, Billings was named the first Director of the New York Public Library. He helped create the NYPL by combining the Astor and Lenox Libraries into a public research library and building a branch library system for three of the boroughs of New York City (Manhattan, Staten Island and the Bronx). He also planned and oversaw the construction of the Central Library building which was opened to the public in 1911.

From the guide to the John Shaw Billings papers, 1862-1913, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Epithet: Editorial director of Life magazine

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001186.0x000134

Surgeon, hospital planner, librarian.

From the description of John Shaw Billings Papers at New York Public Library, 1854-1913 [microform]. (National Library of Medicine). WorldCat record id: 257349449

Librarian, surgeon.

From the description of Letters to S.S. McClure, 1891. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 48823349

Epithet: medical lecturer at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001439.0x000150

John Shaw Billings (1838-1913) was an American surgeon, hospital planner and librarian.

He served as a U.S. Army surgeon and was responsible for creating the nation's foremost medical library, now the National Library of Medicine. He served as special advisor to the trustees of Johns Hopkins Hospital in planning and organizing that institution. After retiring from the Army in 1895, Billings was named the first Director of the New York Public Library. He helped create the NYPL by combining the Astor and Lenox Libraries into a public research library and building a branch library system for three of the boroughs of New York City (Manhattan, Staten Island and the Bronx). He also planned and oversaw the construction of the Central Library building which was opened to the public in 1911.

From the description of John Shaw Billings papers, 1862-1913. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122346189

John Shaw Billings, MD, was born in Indiana in 1838. He graduated from Miami University in 1857 and then attended the Medical College of Ohio and obtained his degree in 1860. Billings enlisted in the Union Army on April 16, 1862. He was commission an officer in the Regular Army Medical Staff Infantry Regiment. By the end of the Civil War, Billings had been promoted to Brevet Lt. Colonel.

In 1865, Billings was appointed Director of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office. In the thirty years he spent in that position, he was instrumental in expanding their collection of medical resources and compiling an index for the collection to aid in research.

Sources: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/pdf/john.pdf

From the guide to the John Shaw Billings Letters, 1880, (Special Collections, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Va.)

John Shaw Billings (1838-1913) was born in Allensville near Vevay, Indiana. He graduated from Miami University and the Medical College of Ohio. In 1862 he joined the U.S. Army Medical Department. During the American Civil War he organized hospitals in Washington, D.C. He served in the field at the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, during the Wilderness Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg.

Staying in the Army Medical Corps after the war, Billings organized the Library and Museum of the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Army and other army records. This organizational work led to his service with the United States Census. He was also active with the National Board of Health during this period.

Known as an expert in planning hospitals, Billings was asked to plan the hospital for Johns Hopkins University. Later he planned the six other medical institutions and was a professor of Hygiene at the University of Pennsylvania. He was chairperson of the Board of the Carnegie Institution for ten years.

Best known for his work in libraries and bibliographies Billings built the collection of the Office of the Surgeon into the world renowned National Library of Medicine; supervised the publication of the Index Catalogue of the Library of the Office of the Surgeon General and Index Medicus, parent of the computer medical index MEDLINE; and planned the New York Public Library.

Excerpted from: http://www.medlib.iupui.edu/hom/billings.html.

From the guide to the John Shaw Billings Papers, 1841-1975, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)

John Shaw Billings (1838-1913) was born in Allensville near Vevay, Indiana. He graduated from Miami University and the Medical College of Ohio. In 1862 he joined the U.S. Army Medical Department. During the American Civil War he organized hospitals in Washington, D.C. He served in the field at the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, during the Wilderness Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg.

Staying in the Army Medical Corps after the war Billings organized the Library and Museum of the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Army and other army records. This work lead him to work on the United States Census. He was also active with the National Board of Health during this period.

Known as an expert in planning hospitals, Billings was asked to plan the hospital for Johns Hopkins University. Later he planned the six other medical institutions and was a professor of Hygiene at the University of Pennsylvania. He was chairperson of the Board of the Carnegie Institution for ten years.

Best known for his work in libraries and bibliographies Billings built the collection of the Office of the Surgeon into the world renowned National Library of Medicine; supervised the publication of the Index Catalogue of the Library of the Office of the Surgeon General and Index Medicus, parent of the computer medical index MEDLINE; and planned the New York Public Library. from: http://www.medlib.iupui.edu/hom/billings.html

From the guide to the John S. Billings documents and letters in the National Archives, 1861-1895, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Lake, Ann. Papers of ann Lake, 1820-1872. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf John S. Billings documents and letters in the National Archives, 1861-1895 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn William Gilman Thompson autograph collection, 1771-1924 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Carnegie Corporation of New York. Correspondence, 1899-1943, bulk (1901-1912). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Edward Everett Hale miscellany, 1847-1901 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Charaka Club. Minutes, 1902-1934; correspondence and related papers, 1950-1983. New York Academy of Medicine
referencedIn Curran, Jean Alonzo, 1893-. Papers, [186?], 1893-1976. Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Ohio. Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Ohio female ward records, 1860-1861. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Hays, I. Minis (Isaac Minis), 1847-1925. Correspondence, ca. 1880s-1925. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Record cards of correspondence of the Library and Museum Division of the U.S. Surgeon-General's Office, 1889-1894. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn George Washington papers, 1694-1932 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Correspondence, 1899-1943, 1901-1912 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Record cards of correspondence of the Library and Museum Division of the U.S. Surgeon-General's Office, 1889-1894 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. General correspondence June 1862-Oct. 1901 [microform]. Miami University Libraries, King Library
referencedIn Mitchell, S. Weir (Silas Weir), 1829-1914. Correspondence, 1851-1928. College of Physicians of Philadelphia
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John Shaw Billings papers, 1862-1913. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Ohio Female Ward Records, 1860-1862 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf John Shaw Billings Correspondence Collection, 1862-1912 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn John Shaw Billings Centennial Collection, 1964-1965 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company contracts, 1831-1979 (inclusive) 1880-1940 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Edward Hand papers, 1775-1801 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Sir James Paget correspondence, 1784-1932, 1784-1932 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Treasurer records, 1895-1985, 1895-1901 The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Archives.
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John Shaw Billings U. S. National Board of Health correspondence and scrapbooks, 1879-1883. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf [John Shaw Billings, biographical materials]. University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Papers in the University of South Carolina Library, 1856-1966 [microform]. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Cooper, Astley, Sir, 1768-1841. Surgical lectures by Astley Paston Cooper : [London] / notes taken by E.G. Ludlow, 1822. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf John Shaw Billings Letters, 1880 Special Collections, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Va.
creatorOf John S. Billings correspondence in the New York Public Library, 1866-1913 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn New York Public Library. Board of Trustees. Board of Trustees records, 1895- New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Chadwick, James R. (James Read), 1844-1905. Papers of James Read Chadwick, 1830-1909 (inclusive). Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Office of the Librarian. Records, 1855-1909. College of Physicians of Philadelphia
creatorOf Fanetti, Joannes Hieronymus. De laudibus Sanctorii Sanctorii : oratio habita in collegio medicorum ven. IV. Kal / Joannes Hieronymus Fanetti, 1752 Dec. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. Correspondence, 1784-1932. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn James A. Garfield collection, 1863-1882 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf John Shaw Billings Papers, 1841-1975 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn New York Public Library. Central Administration. Director's Office. John Shaw Billings records, 1885-1915. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn New York Public Library. Board of Trustees. Executive Committee. Executive Committee records, 1895- , 1897-1930 (bulk). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Executive Committee records, 1895-, 1897-1930 The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Archives.
creatorOf John Shaw Billings Papers at New York Public Library [microform], 1854-1913 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn American Medical Association annual meetings collection, 1866-1890. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Letters to S.S. McClure, 1891. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf James F. Drake Inc. Collection of autograph letters and autographs, 1678-1930 (bulk, 1800-1930). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn I. Minis (Isaac Minis) Hays correspondence, ca. 1880s-1925, Circa 1880-1925 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Rogers, Frank B. (Frank Bradway), 1914-1987. Frank Bradway Rogers papers, 1948-1982. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn New York Public Library. Central Administration. Medical Officer. Medical Officer records, 1911-1912. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Wood, H. C. (Horatio C.), 1841-1920. Letter, undated : Philadelphia. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
referencedIn LeConte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883. Papers, 1812-1897. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn John Shaw Billings records, 1885-1915 The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Archives.
referencedIn Radcliffe College. Library. Records, 1895-1955 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Windsor, Thomas. Thomas Windsor notes and correspondence relating to John Arderne, 1893. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn John Shaw Billings Centennial. John Shaw Billings Centennial collection, 1964-1965. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Lenox Library. Lenox Library records, 1866-1915. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIg, 1887-1891 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Washington, George, 1732-1799. George Washington papers, 1694-1932. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Thompson, William Gilman, 1856-1927,. William Gilman Thompson autograph collection, 1771-1924 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Ravenel, Mazyk Porcher. Letter, 20 Dec. 1892 to John Shaw Billings / Mazyck Porcher Ravenel. Medical University of South Carolina Libraries
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company contracts, 1831-1979 (inclusive) 1880-1940 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Henry and Mary Anna Palmer Draper papers, 1859-1914, 1869-1914 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Lenox Library records, 1866-1915 The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Archives.
referencedIn Frank Bradway Rogers Papers, 1949-1981 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Vol. LXVI (ff. 281). Aug. 1874-Dec. 1877.includes:ff. 1, 12 Sir James Ranald Martin, surgeon: Correspondence with Florence Nightingale: 1860-1874.f. 3 Lieutenant Martin Martin, RE; Lieutenant Colonel 1896: Letter to Florence Nightingale: 1874.f. ... British Library
referencedIn Mastin, William McDowell. The correspondence and role of Claudius Henry Mastin and John Shaw Billings in establishing the new Library of the Surgeon General's Office and Armed Forces Medical Museum building / William McDowell Mastin, 1980. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Secretary records, 1895-1928 The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Archives.
creatorOf Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (U.S.). Letter copy book, Aug. 1887-Aug. 1888. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf John Shaw Billings Papers, in the Adjutant General's Office Records (RG 94) in the National Archives, 1861-1895 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Regulations for hospitals, field hospitals and ambulances : [Washington, D.C.] / [John S. Billings], [ca. 1884]. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John Shaw Billings correspondence collection, 1862-1912. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn United States. Adjutant-General's Office. John Shaw Billings papers in the Adjutant General's Office records (R.G. 94) in the National Archives, 1861-1895 [microform]. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Mitchell, S. Weir (Silas Weir), 1829-1914. Biographical project, 1914-1931. College of Physicians of Philadelphia
referencedIn Isaac and I. Minis Hays papers, Circa 1820-1925 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Dorothy M. Schullian Travel Notes, 1955-1987 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. [Medical addresses, and other papers]. Princeton University Library
creatorOf United States. Army Medical Dept. U.S. Army Medical Dept. financial records and appropriation data, 1865-1877. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn New York Public Library. Board of Trustees. Treasurer. Treasurer records, 1895-1985, 1895-1901 (bulk). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Radcliffe College. Library. Records, 1895-1955 (inclusive). Radcliffe College, Archives
referencedIn Autograph File, B, ca.1500-1976. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Hand, Edward, 1744-1802. Edward Hand papers, 1775-1801. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Wood, H. C. (Horatio C.), 1841-1920. Letter, undated, Philadelphia. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
referencedIn Letters received by the Norton family, 1830-1920. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Draper, Henry, 1837-1882. Henry and Mary Anna Palmer Draper papers, 1859-1914, bulk (1869-1914). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Mitchell, S. Weir (Silas Weir), 1829-1914. Autograph letter signed : Philadelphia, Pa., to [the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.?], 1911 Mar. 26. College of Physicians of Philadelphia
referencedIn Letters received by the Norton family, 1830-1920. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Letter : Washington, D.C., to Justin Winsor, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1887 Jan. 3. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Tyler, R. O. Extracts from-- Description of posts and stations of troops in the Military Division of the Pacific commanded by Major General John M. Schofield / by R.O. Tyler. Outline descriptions, military posts in the Military Division of the Pacific, 1879 commanded by Major General Irvin McDowell. Barracks and hospitals of the United States Army / John S. Billings. A report on the hygiene of the United States Army with descriptions of military posts / John S. Billings. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn U.S. Army Medical Dept. financial records and appropriation data, 1865-1877 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John Shaw Billings Papers at New York Public Library, 1854-1913 [microform]. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Thomas Windsor notes and correspondence relating to John Arderne, 1893 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. Letter, 1887, Crerar Ms 2 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Autograph collection, 1816-1917, 1816-1917 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (U.S.). Letter copy book, Aug.-Nov. 1888. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Ravenel, Henry William, 1814-1887. Henry William Ravenel papers, 1739-1935, (bulk, 1844-1887). University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Schullian, Dorothy M. (Dorothy May), 1906-1989. Dorothy M. Schullian travel notes, 1955-1987. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Correspondence in the American Philosophical Society Library and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Library, 1878-1916 [microform]. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Lenox Library. Librarian. Lenox Library Librarian records, 1879-1915, 1893-1915 (bulk). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Levi Ankeny letter to J.S. Billings, 1906 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John Shaw Billings letters, 1891, Apr. 13 and May 13, New York City, to W.R. Benjamin. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
referencedIn New York Public Library. Board of Trustees. Secretary. Secretary records, 1895-1928. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf John Shaw Billings Papers at the University of South Carolina, 1856-1966 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John S. Billings correspondence in the New York Public Library, 1866-1913. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Curran, Jean A.,. Glass slides, n.d. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Medical Officer records, 1911-1912 The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Archives.
referencedIn John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. John S. Billings papers, 1841-1913. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn American Medical Association annual meetings collection, 1866-1890 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Letter : Washington, D. C., to Justin Winsor, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1887 Jan. 3. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Papers, [186-?], 1871-1976, 1995. Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. Center for the History of Medicine.
creatorOf John Shaw Billings papers, 1862-1913 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn William Woodville Rockhill papers, 1826-1941. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Vol. iv (ff. 172). Billings, John –Canavaggia, Marie.includes:ff. 1-11 Evelyn Arthur St John Waugh, novelist: John Shaw Billings, Editorial director of 'Life' magazine: Letters to Evelyn Arthur St John Waugh from John Shaw Billings: 1948-1949.f.12... British Library
creatorOf Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Correspondence with Henry Charles Lea, 1884-1899. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
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associatedWith Ravenel, Mazyk Porcher. person
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correspondedWith Rockhill, William Woodville, 1854-1914 person
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associatedWith Rush, Benjamin, 1746-1813 person
associatedWith Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 person
associatedWith Schullian, Dorothy M. (Dorothy May), 1906-1989. person
associatedWith Seybert, Adam, 1773-1825 person
associatedWith Smith, Stephen, 1823-1922. person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Sternberg, George Miller, 1838-1915. person
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associatedWith Washington, George, 1732-1799. person
associatedWith Waterton, Charles, 1782-1865 person
associatedWith Wayne, Anthony person
associatedWith Windsor, Thomas. person
associatedWith Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897. person
associatedWith Wood, H. C. (Horatio C.), 1841-1920. person
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Medicine, Military
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Public health--United States
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Alcoholism
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Hospitals, Military--legislation & jurisprudence
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Alcohol--Physiological effect
Medicine, Military--United States
Science--United States--Societies, etc
Public libraries
Manuscripts, Medical
Communicable diseases
Alcoholic Beverages--adverse effects
Poliomyelitis
Epidemics
Occupation
Surgeons
Librarians
Function

Person

Birth 1838-04-12

Death 1913-03-11

Americans

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6wq01rd

Ark ID: w6wq01rd

SNAC ID: 59452313