Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Frank G. Speck was an anthropologist.

From the description of Naskapi scenes, [ca. 1930]. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523446

From the guide to the Naskapi scenes, [ca. 1930], Circa 1930, (American Philosophical Society)

Frank Gouldsmith Speck was an anthropologist.

From the description of Delaware Indian material, 1928. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122440271

From the description of Catawba texts, [ca. 1934]. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122608853

From the guide to the Delaware Indian material, 1928, (American Philosophical Society)

From the guide to the Catawba texts, [ca. 1934], Circa 1934, (American Philosophical Society)

F.G. Speck was an anthropologist and conducted fieldwork among North American Indians. He taught at the University of Pennsylvania from 1900 to 1950.

From the description of Papers, 1903-1950. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 154298131

A.B., Columbia, (1904); A.M., Columbia, (1906); Ph.D., U. of Pennsylvania, (1908); professor, Dept. of Anthropology, U. of Pennsylvania (1909-1950).

From the description of Papers, 1925-1937. (University of Pennsylvania). WorldCat record id: 122592229

Frank Gouldsmith Speck was an anthropologist, linguist and ethnologist. He was educated at Columbia University (A.B., 1904; M.A., 1905), and at the University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D., 1908), where he remained for the rest of his professional career.

From the guide to the Manuscripts on Native Americans, 1913-1946, 1913-1946, (American Philosophical Society)

F. G. Speck was an anthropologist.

From the description of Collection of notes and diaries in the Cherokee syllabary, 1840-1932. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 86155678

From the guide to the Collection of notes and diaries in the Cherokee syllabary, 1840-1932, 1840-1932, (American Philosophical Society)

Frank Gouldsmith Speck was an anthropologist, linguist and ethnologist. He was educated at Columbia University (A.B., 1904; M.A., 1905), and at the University of Pennsylvania (Ph. D., 1908), where he remained for the rest of his professional career.

From the description of Manuscripts on Native Americans, 1913-1946. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122608901

Captain Bernier was leader of an Arctic expedition for Canada aboard the government steamship S. S. Arctic.

Alfred Tremblay was a geologist and explorer who served with Bernier on the S. S. Arctic.

Noo-kud-la was an Eskimo sorcerer and head-man at Pond's Inlet, 1923.

From the description of Explanation of an Eskimo map, 1924. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 64063282

The United States Indian School at Carlisle, Pa., was founded in 1879 by Gen. Richard Henry Pratt, a Civil War veteran and former commander of the Buffalo soldiers of the 10th Cavalry. Through his experiences in the far west, Pratt developed a loathing for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which he regarded as hopelessly inefficient and corrupt, and he was led to develop his own solutions to the "Indian problem." After being appointed commander at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Fla., guarding over Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Arapaho hostages who refused to live on reservations, he had his first opportunity to act on his theories, which were intended as an alternative to extermination for both pacifying Indians and alleviating their social conditions.

Pratt's thoughts on Indian education drew upon disparate sources. Influenced by Quaker educators, who had eighty years of experience in attempting to instill white values in Indians, Pratt latched onto the idea of using boarding schools as a means of separating Indians from their native cultures and socializing them into "civilized" life, while preparing them for work in industrial and manual labor. Given new white names to replace their Indian ones, the students were prohibited from speaking their native languages, were instructed in Christianity, and were fed, clothed, and housed under strict military discipline.

For his first foray into Indian education, Pratt arranged for 17 Kiowa and Cheyenne prisoners at Fort Marion to enroll at the newly founded Hampton Institute, a school dedicated to providing a vocational, industrial education for freed slaves and Indians. At the same time, he lobbied the government to allow him to establish his own vocational school, receiving permission from the Department of the Interior during the summer of 1879 to use the abandoned barracks at Carlisle, Pa., for that purpose. That September, he recruited 82 Lakota students from the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Agencies, including five of Spotted Tail's sons, a daughter, and a granddaughter. Two of his Hampton students recruited other students among the Kiowa and Cheyenne, and on October 6, 1879, the first students of the Carlisle Training School took residence.

Over the course of its 39 years, over 10,000 students were enrolled at the Carlisle School drawn from tribes all across the continent. Until it closed in 1918, Carlisle served as a model for dozens of other boarding schools who adopted the concept of "civilizing the Indian" by stripping away Indian identity.

From the guide to the Speck-Choate Photograph Collection, 1879-1881, (American Philosophical Society)

The ethnographer Frank Gouldsmith Speck was unusual among the students of Franz Boas in choosing to study the Indian cultures of the eastern United States that he believed were in severe decline. As one of Boas' first graduate students at Columbia, Speck worked extensively in the state of Connecticut, attempting to "salvage" what remained of the native cultures, recording, for example, the Mohegan Pequot language from one of its last native speakers, Fidelia Hoscott Fielding. After completing his degree in 1908, Speck became Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, becoming one of the best know re his research among the Algonquian peoples of the northeast.

Beginning in the 1920s, Speck began to expand the scope of his research to include Indian piopulations in the mid-Atlantic states and the southeast. In his studies of the North Carolina Cherokee, Speck's primary consultant and collaborator was Will West Long. Born in Big Cove, N.C., on January 25, 1870, Long was raised in traditional Cherokee. At 25, he studied at Hampton Institute in Virginia, and spent five years after that working in Massachusetts before returning to Big Cove during the fall of 1904. For 28 years he was a member of the Cherokee tribal council, and served as clerk for an additional two, but Long played a key role in collecting and tramsitting information about traditional Cherokee culture to younger generations, passing on knowledge about Cherokee medicine, carving, music and dance, and language. Long, who died in 1947, was listed a co-author of Speck's and Leonard Bloom's on Cherokee Dance and Drama (Norman, Okla.: 1951).

From the guide to the Frank Gouldsmith Speck Cherokee Collection, 1880-1948, (American Philosophical Society)

Anthropologist and ethnographer Frank Gouldsmith Speck was unique among Franz Boas' early graduate students at Columbia University. Unlike other ethnographers of his time who focused their studies on the Western Indian tribes, Speck chose to study the cultures of the Eastern Woodland Indians. Becoming the self-appointed salvage ethnographer for those tribes, Speck was regularly with the Indians he studied collecting all aspects of their culture.

Although he spent the majority of his career in the field, Speck did not come from a rural background. Born in Brooklyn, NY on November 8, 1881 Speck spent the first seven years of his life in the city, a fragile and sickly child. As was common at the time, Speck's parents felt that a rural environment would be better for their son's health, and in 1888 placed him in the care of family friend Fidelia Fielding, living in Mohegan, CT. Fielding was a widow, a Native American, and the last speaker of her tribal language in New England. While with Fielding the seeds for many of Speck's professional interests were laid as she tutored him in nature, natural history, English literature, and Mohegan language and literature. At age fourteen Speck returned to his family, now living in Hackensack, NJ.

When Speck entered Columbia University at the turn of the century, he had not settled on a career - though he was leaning towards the ministry. That changed when he enrolled in a language course with the eminent linguist John Dyneley Prince. During the class Prince became fascinated by Speck's ability to provide first hand information on Native American languages long thought to be dead - particularly Pequot-Mohegan and Delaware-Mohican. Before graduating, Speck and Prince co-authored three articles. Prince also introduced Speck to anthropologist Franz Boas, who had begun his tenure at the helm of Columbia's anthropology department less then a decade earlier. Through Boas and Prince's encouragement Speck decided to pursue a career in anthropological linguistics, and after receiving his A.B. in 1904 started his graduate work under Boas. Speck was one of Boas' first graduate students and was one of a generation of anthropologists (along with Margaret Mead, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Paul Raden, and Ashley Montagu) to learn and promote the Boasian approach to anthropology. Under Boas, Speck began his fieldwork among the Yuchi Indians of Oklahoma in 1904, receiving his M.A. from Columbia a year later. Speck initially planned to continue with graduate studies at Columbia with Boas until he was awarded a George Leib Harrison Research Fellowship from the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in 1907. Leaving Columbia for the University Museum, Speck received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1908 and remained in Philadelphia for the rest of his career.

When Speck first arrived at Penn he was appointed as an instructor and assistant in general ethnology, working and teaching out of the Museum. Since the University did not have an independent department of anthropology at that time, courses were taught either out of the University Museum or the Department of Religion. During these early years Speck continued with his field work, which eventually put him at odds with the Museum's director, George Byron Gordon. Gordon wanted Speck to focus less on fieldwork and more on public and social functions important to fundraising at the museum. The feud between Gordon and Speck led to a number of incidents, including the confiscation of Speck's Penobscot manuscript (which was eventually published in 1940 as Penobscot Man ). Finally in 1911 Speck was fired from the University Museum, only to be hired by the University as an assistant professor to replace Daniel Garrison Brinton. Two years later Speck became acting chair of the new Department of Anthropology, and chair in 1925.

It was not long after arriving in Philadelphia that Speck began his study of the Algonkians of the Eastern Woodlands. Speck went on to study the Algonkians of Delaware, the tribes of tidewater Virginia, the Cherokee in the Southeast, and the Iroquois, especially their ceremonialism. Speck's work among the Eastern tribes was indicative of his efforts to record dying languages and cultures. In many regards Speck was ahead of his time with his efforts to document the ways of life for relatively acculturated tribes, an idea which many anthropologists disdained. The eastern tribes had been overrun by European settlers during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries and were largely destroyed by war, famine, and disease. Those who had survived were pushed westward and were absorbed by other tribes. As a result the majority of information regarding these tribes was historical not ethnographic. However, Speck viewed ethnology as a fluid field that was unlimited, and not a fixed study of past cultures. Further, he was never overly concerned with high-level generalizations or interpretations of his subject but focused more on recording well-attested facts. During his research Speck looked for variations that would turn up as he collected empirical data, and then would modify his original concept. To that end, Speck was not satisfied with providing a generalized picture of a tribe. He studied a tribe's language, technology, decorative art, myths and tales, religious belief, ceremonialism, social organization, music, and hunting territories. Speck also chose to focus on a tribe's link to nature, with ethnobiology, material culture, and uses of the environment playing major themes in his work.

Another integral part of Speck's fieldwork was collecting material culture. His love for collecting artifacts in the field was motivated by the special problems in which he became interested from time to time. Occasionally, Speck's interest in arts and crafts drew him within the borders of archeology. He would also have replicas made by Indians of objects no longer in daily use. Speck kept a number of objects in his office at the University, but most of the artifacts were sold to public museums, arriving heavily annotated as to their context within their culture group. Among the institutions to receive artifacts from Speck were the: Museum of the American Indian (now the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian), American Museum of Natural History, Peabody Museum, Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Denver Art Museum, National Museum of Canada, Royal Ontario Museum, Pitt Rivers Museum - University of Oxford, and Danish National Museum.

What made Speck successful in his research was the method he used in the field. Speck was a "bedside ethnologist," staying with the people all day, eating with them, learning their language, and sleeping in the village. This sense of ease and intimate form of fieldwork allowed Speck to gain the trust of the tribes, facilitating his collection of data. In fact, Speck was much more at ease among Indians, who were as much a part of his private life as his professional life than among Philadelphia society. He was rarely away from Indians for more than a month, going off to conduct field work when the opportunity presented itself, often without notice.

During the later years of his career, Speck began to study Iroquois ceremonialism. He felt that despite the vast material written on the Iroquois, very little was known about the diversity and characteristics of the cultures of the groups that made up the Six Nations. Also in his later years Speck was battling a failing heart and kidney disease, though this did not stop him from going into the field. It was during his trip to Red House, N.Y. in January 1950 to witness the Seneca perform their mid-winter rites that he became seriously ill. After returning to Philadelphia, Speck died at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania on February 6 at the age of 68.

From the guide to the Frank G. Speck Papers, 1903-1950, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Prints Collection, 1500-2000 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Snyderman, George Simon, 1908-. Papers, 1758-1995. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967. Papers, ca. 1915-1967. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Explanation of an Eskimo map, 1924. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Eloise Hubbard Linscott collection, 1815-2002, 1932-1955 Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center Library of Congress,http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/folklife.home
creatorOf Frank G. Speck Papers, 1903-1950 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society, 1882-1958 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William N. Fenton Papers, ca. 1933-2000 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Papers, 1925-1937. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn George S. Snyderman Papers, Bulk, 1945-1985, 1758-1995 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Dickson, Frederick Stoever, 1850-1925. Frederick Stoever Dickson papers relating to Abenaki languages, 1883-1923 (bulk 1917-23). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Naskapi scenes, [ca. 1930]. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Penobscot texts, 1908-1914. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. [Penobscot Indian photographs] Raymond H. Fogler Library
creatorOf Speck-Choate Photograph Collection, 1879-1881 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Manuscripts on Native Americans, 1913-1946. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005. Papers, 1635-1994. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Naskapi scenes, [ca. 1930], Circa 1930 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950. Frank G. Speck Papers, n.d. Peabody Essex Museum
creatorOf Frank Gouldsmith Speck Cherokee Collection, 1880-1948 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950. The mutual-aid and volunteer company of the Eastern Cherokees, as recorded in a book of minutes in the Sequoyah syllabary, compared with mutual-aid societies of the Northern Iroquois / F.G. Speck and C.E. Schaeffer. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf Catawba texts, [ca. 1934], Circa 1934 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers, 1920-2000 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Huntington Free Library. Native American biography vertical file [ca.1850-2000.]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Indian Language Field Recordings, Bulk, 1950-1954, 1941, 1945, 1948, 1950-1951, 1954, 1956-1957, 1962, 1964 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Manuscripts on Native Americans, 1913-1946, 1913-1946 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. [Wabanaki Indians : material from collections at the American Philosophical Society] Raymond H. Fogler Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950,. Delaware Indian material, 1928. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Paul A. W. Wallace Papers, 1920-2000 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974. Papers, 1892-1981. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies. Committee on Native American Languages. Franz Boas Collection of Materials for American Linguistics, 1927-1942. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Papers and drawings for Cherokee Indian materials, 1893-1948 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Collection of notes and diaries in the Cherokee syllabary, 1840-1932, 1840-1932 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn John Alden Mason Papers, 1904-1967 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Frank G. Speck Papers, 1903-1950 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wallace, Paul A. W. Papers, [ca. 1920]-1967. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Papers, 1903-1950. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago, 1935-1937 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. Catawba texts, [ca. 1934]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers, 1892-1981 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950,. Collection of notes and diaries in the Cherokee syllabary, 1840-1932. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Delaware Indian material, 1928 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Photographic Archives. Photographs, [ca. 1860]-1987, 1890-1930 (bulk). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950. [United States, Virginia and Maine; Canada, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland; Various North American Indian groups, 1909-1911] [sound recording] / collected by Frank G. Speck, W.H. Mechling, Wilson D. Wallis, and J.G. Warfield. Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith 15. Nipmuc person
associatedWith Abrams, Yendi person
associatedWith Academy of Natural Sciences person
associatedWith Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. corporateBody
associatedWith Adney, E. T. person
associatedWith Adney, E. Tappan (Edwin Tappan), 1868-1950 person
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873 person
associatedWith Aitken, Robert person
associatedWith Alexander, James Evan person
associatedWith Alexander, Matty person
associatedWith American Academy of Political and Social Science. corporateBody
associatedWith American Anthropological Association. corporateBody
associatedWith American Association for the Advancement of Science. corporateBody
associatedWith American Council of Learned Societies. Committee on Native American Languages. corporateBody
associatedWith American Ethnological Society person
associatedWith American Folklore Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Indian Order person
associatedWith American Museum of Natural History. corporateBody
associatedWith American Sociological Society person
associatedWith Ames, Herman Vandenburg, 1865-1935 person
associatedWith Amsden, Charles Avery, 1899-1941 person
associatedWith Archaeological Society of North Carolina person
associatedWith Bailey, A. G. person
associatedWith Baily, A. G. person
associatedWith Ball, Carl C. person
associatedWith Banks, Joseph, Sir, 1743-1820 person
associatedWith Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969. person
associatedWith Bates, George Joesph, 1891- person
associatedWith Battles, Frank person
associatedWith Bear Child, Lewis person
associatedWith Beatty, Willard W. (Willard Walcott), 1891-1961 person
associatedWith Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1848 person
associatedWith Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948. person
associatedWith Bennett, Foster person
associatedWith Bernier, J. E., 1852-1934. person
associatedWith Beston, Elizabeth Coatsworth person
associatedWith Beston, Henry, 1888-1968 person
associatedWith Beston, Henry and Elizabeth Coatsworth Beston person
associatedWith Bever, Marion G. person
associatedWith Billiot, Anthony person
associatedWith Billiot, Maurice person
associatedWith Billiot, Maurice and Anthony person
associatedWith Bingham, M person
associatedWith Birch, William Russell, 1755-1834 person
associatedWith Birket-Smith, Kaj, 1893-1977 person
associatedWith Blackwood, Beatrice person
associatedWith Blakeley, A. W. person
associatedWith Bloom, Leonard, 1927- person
associatedWith Blowsnake, Jasper person
associatedWith Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. person
associatedWith Bodmer, Karl, 1809-1893 person
associatedWith Bogoras, W. person
associatedWith Bogoras, Waldemar, 1865-1936 person
associatedWith Bond, Charles E. person
associatedWith Brimley, C. S. (Clement Samuel), 1863-1946 person
associatedWith Britten, Marian Hale person
associatedWith Brooks, Jr., R. C. person
associatedWith Broom, Leonard person
associatedWith Buck, Chief John person
associatedWith Buck, John, Jr. person
associatedWith Buck, John Lossing, 1890-1975 person
associatedWith Buck, Joshua person
associatedWith Buffalo Museum of Science person
associatedWith Bull Child, George person
associatedWith Bureau of American Ethnology person
associatedWith Bureau of American Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution) person
associatedWith Burgesse, J. Allan person
associatedWith Butler, Eva L. person
associatedWith Butler, Sadie person
associatedWith Cabot, W. B. person
associatedWith Cadwalader, John person
associatedWith Calhoun, Morgan person
associatedWith Calhoun, Morgan person
associatedWith Calhoun, Morgan. person
associatedWith Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011. person
associatedWith Chase, Fannie S. person
associatedWith Chester, Allan G. (Allan Griffith), 1900- person
associatedWith Child, C. G. person
associatedWith Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902 person
associatedWith Circumboreal corporateBody
associatedWith Clark, Evangeline person
associatedWith Cobb, Rodney Dale, 1907- person
associatedWith Cole, Fay-Cooper, 1881-1961. person
associatedWith Collio Huaiquilaf, J. Martin person
associatedWith Columbia University. corporateBody
associatedWith Comas, Juan person
associatedWith Comas, Juan, 1900- person
associatedWith Committee for International Research in Arctic Ethnology corporateBody
associatedWith Concha, Eliseo person
associatedWith Congdon, Charles (Allegheny) person
associatedWith Congdon, Charles E., (Charles Edwin), b. 1877 person
associatedWith Cook, Mrs. A. M. person
associatedWith Cooper, John M., (John Montgomery), 1881-1949 person
associatedWith Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839 person
associatedWith Cornplanter, Jesse J. person
associatedWith Coues, Elliott, 1842-1899 person
associatedWith Crawford, J. W. person
associatedWith Crow Court, The person
associatedWith Crozier, Archibald. person
associatedWith Crozier, Archibald. person
associatedWith Crozier, Archibald. person
associatedWith Cruikshank, Allan D. person
associatedWith Curry, Ed person
associatedWith Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832 person
associatedWith Dahl, Richard S. person
associatedWith Daniel, W. B. M. person
associatedWith Darlington, H. S. person
associatedWith Darlington, William, 1782-1863 person
associatedWith Davidson, Thomas, 1817-1885 person
associatedWith Day, Gordon M. person
associatedWith Deardorff, Merle H., d. 1971 person
associatedWith Delabarre, Edmund Burke, b. 1863 person
associatedWith De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004 person
correspondedWith Delaware Indian Big House Ceremony. Correspondence regadring person
associatedWith Department of Justice, Canada person
associatedWith Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs person
associatedWith Deskaheh, Alexander General person
associatedWith Diamond Jenness person
associatedWith Dickson, Frederick Stoever, 1850-1925. person
associatedWith Dimmick, Edgar R. person
associatedWith Dixon, Joseph K. person
associatedWith Dodge, Ernest Stanley person
associatedWith Dodge, Raymond, 1871-1942 person
associatedWith Dorrance, Frances, b. 1877 person
associatedWith Double Curve Motif corporateBody
associatedWith Douglas, Frederic H. and Frances Raynolds person
associatedWith Douglas, Frederic Huntington, 1897-1956 person
associatedWith Dowdy, Herb person
associatedWith Downes, P. G., (Prentice Gilbert), 1909- person
associatedWith Drake, Charley G. person
associatedWith Driver, Wesley person
associatedWith Dunnack, Henry E. person
associatedWith Dutcher, Willena B. person
associatedWith Dutcher, Willena B. and Frederic H. Douglas person
associatedWith Eastman, Seth, 1808-1875 person
associatedWith Echstorm, F. H. person
associatedWith Eckstorm, Fannie Hardy, 1865-1946 person
associatedWith Edgerton, Franklin, 1885-1963 person
associatedWith Edison, Thomas A., (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931 person
associatedWith Edwards, Edgar Van W. person
associatedWith Edwards, William Waller person
associatedWith Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955 person
associatedWith Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977. person
associatedWith Eiseley, Loren P. person
associatedWith Eisenberger, E. person
associatedWith Elm, Ray person
associatedWith Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, 1903-1988 person
associatedWith Eskew, James W. person
associatedWith Eskimo corporateBody
associatedWith Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 person
associatedWith Fairchild, Louis person
associatedWith Farabee, William Curtis, 1865-1925 person
associatedWith Farrand, Livingston, 1867-1939 person
associatedWith Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005 person
associatedWith Ferris, R. H. person
associatedWith Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930 person
associatedWith Fewkes, Vladimir J. person
associatedWith Fewkes, Vladimir J. and Joseph R. Caldwell person
associatedWith Field, Clark person
associatedWith Finkelstein, Elsie person
associatedWith Fitch, John person
associatedWith Ford, C. Desmond, (Charles Desmond) person
associatedWith Forde, C. Daryll (Cyril Daryll), 1902- person
associatedWith Fry, Nat P. person
associatedWith Gamio, Manuel, 1883-1960 person
associatedWith Gandy, Ethel person
associatedWith Garner, Alfred B. person
associatedWith Gauthier, E. S. person
associatedWith General, Alexander J. (Deskaheh after 1925) person
associatedWith Genth, F. A., (Frederick Augustus), 1820-1893 person
associatedWith Geographical Society of Philadelphia. corporateBody
associatedWith Geyelin and Company person
associatedWith Gibson, Simeon person
associatedWith Giger, Leona E. person
associatedWith Gilliam, Charles Edgar person
associatedWith Gilmore, Melvin R., (Melvin Randolph), 1868-1940 person
associatedWith Gisriel, Stewart W. person
associatedWith Gloucester Safe Deposit and Trust Co. person
associatedWith Godcharles, Frederic Antes, 1872- person
associatedWith Goddard, Pliny Earle, 1869-1928 person
associatedWith Goldenweiser, Alexander, 1880-1940 person
associatedWith Goldfrank, Esther person
associatedWith Gordon, G. B., (George Byron), 1870-1927 person
associatedWith Gourds in the Southeast person
associatedWith Gray, Asa, 1810-1888 person
associatedWith Great Northern Railway Company person
associatedWith Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872 person
associatedWith Greywacz, Kathryn B. person
associatedWith Griffin, James B. person
associatedWith Gusinde, Martin, 1886-1969 person
associatedWith Haddon, Alfred C. (Alfred Cort), 1855-1940 person
associatedWith Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974. person
associatedWith Hallowell, Dorothy Kern person
associatedWith Hammond, R. person
associatedWith Hara, Hiroko, 1934- person
associatedWith Hardenbrook, Louise person
associatedWith Harding, Warren G. person
associatedWith Harkins, Lee F. person
associatedWith Haskell Institute person
associatedWith Hassrick, Royal B. person
associatedWith Hawkes, Ernest William, 1883- person
associatedWith Hayne, Hayward person
associatedWith Hecote, Ellen person
associatedWith Hellmer, Joseph person
associatedWith Herris, R. H. person
associatedWith Heye, George Gustav, 1874-1957. person
associatedWith Heye Museum, The person
associatedWith Hicks, Charles person
associatedWith Hiller, Wesley R. person
associatedWith Hill, Jasper Big White Owl person
associatedWith Holden, James E. person
associatedWith Holmer, Nils M. person
associatedWith Honigmann, John J. person
associatedWith Howells, W. W., (William White), 1908-2005 person
associatedWith Howley, James Patrick, 1847-1918 person
associatedWith Huaiquilaf, J. Martin Collio person
associatedWith Hudson's Bay Company person
associatedWith Huntington Free Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Imsick, Roy C. person
associatedWith Indiana University, Bloomington. Archives of Traditional Music. corporateBody
associatedWith International Congress of Americanists XXII person
associatedWith International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences corporateBody
associatedWith Ioma, John person
associatedWith Isserman, Ferdinand M., (Ferdinand Myron), 1898- person
associatedWith Jacob, John Ely person
associatedWith Jimerson, Avery person
associatedWith Jimerson, Danny person
associatedWith Jimerson, Lester person
associatedWith Johnny John, Amos person
associatedWith Johnny John, Chauncey person
associatedWith Johnny John, Richard person
associatedWith Johns, Albert person
associatedWith John, Samuel person
associatedWith Johnson, Danny person
associatedWith Johnson, Fred person
associatedWith Johnson, Frederick person
associatedWith Jones, Albert person
associatedWith Jones, Louis C., (Louis Clark), 1908-1990 person
associatedWith Jones, Volney H. person
associatedWith Jones, Volney H. (Volney Hurt), 1903- person
associatedWith Journal of American Folklore. person
associatedWith Kaye, S. A. person
associatedWith Kendall, W. C. person
associatedWith Kidder, Alfred Vincent, 1885-1963. person
associatedWith Kissell, Mary Lois person
associatedWith Kiwanis International. New Jersey District person
associatedWith Kremens, Jack person
associatedWith Kroeba, A. person
associatedWith Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. person
associatedWith Krouse, Theodore B. person
associatedWith Kurath, Gertrude Prokosch person
associatedWith Lagore, Eli person
associatedWith Lagore, Margaret C. (Eli) person
associatedWith Laidlaw, G. E. person
associatedWith Lampe, M. Willard, (Matthew Willard), 1883-1969 person
associatedWith Lang, Tom person
associatedWith La Rue, Mabel G. person
associatedWith Laulin, Gladys person
associatedWith Laulin, Redge person
associatedWith Laulin, Redge and Gladys Laulin person
associatedWith Launer, Philip person
associatedWith Leach, Henry Goddard, 1880-1970 person
associatedWith Learmouth, D. H. person
associatedWith Learn, Martha person
associatedWith Lenape Club person
associatedWith Lesser, Alexander, 1902- person
associatedWith Lewis, Tom person
associatedWith Light, Richard person
associatedWith Lilly, Eli, 1885-1977. person
correspondedWith Linscott, Eloise Hubbard corporateBody
associatedWith Linton, Ralph, 1893-1953 person
associatedWith Lippincott, Joseph Wharton, 1887-1976 person
associatedWith Lips, Julie E. person
associatedWith Literary Masterworks Inc person
associatedWith Logan, Joseph person
associatedWith Long, Will West person
associatedWith Lowie, Robert Harry, 1883-1957 person
associatedWith Luongo, James M. person
associatedWith MacDonald, Ada S. person
associatedWith MacLeod, William Christie person
associatedWith MacLeod, William Christie. Phases of Primitive Culture person
associatedWith Mad Wolf, Cheyenne Chief person
associatedWith Manning, E. W. person
associatedWith Man on Cloud, Cheyenne Chief person
associatedWith March, Douglas D. H. person
associatedWith Marriott, Alice Lee, 1910-1992 person
associatedWith Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967. person
associatedWith McCaskill, J. C. person
associatedWith McKern, W. C., (Will Carleton), 1892- person
associatedWith McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977 person
associatedWith Mechling, W.H. (William Hubbs) person
associatedWith Mechling, William H. person
associatedWith Meier, Emil F. person
associatedWith Menzie, Decker V. person
associatedWith Messurier, William L. person
associatedWith Milais, J. J. person
associatedWith Miller, Samuel James person
associatedWith Milling, Chapman J., (Chapman James), 1901- person
associatedWith Mistenapeo, Jerome person
associatedWith Moe, Henry Allen, 1894-1975 person
associatedWith Montour, Josiah person
associatedWith Mook, Maurice O. person
associatedWith Mooney, James, family
associatedWith Mooney, James, person
associatedWith Mooney, James, 1861-1921 person
associatedWith Moorehead, Warren King, 1866-1939 person
associatedWith Moses, Jesse, and Nick Peters person
associatedWith Moses, Jesse, Jr. person
associatedWith Moulton, F. R. person
associatedWith Moulton, F. R. (Forest Ray), 1872-1952 person
associatedWith Mueller, Werner person
associatedWith Murrow, Glenn R. person
associatedWith Museum of the American Indian. person
associatedWith Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Photographic Archives. corporateBody
associatedWith Musser, Paul Howard person
associatedWith Myers, John L. person
associatedWith Nassau, Robert Hamill, 1835-1921 person
associatedWith National Academy of Sciences person
associatedWith National Geographic Society corporateBody
associatedWith National Research Council person
associatedWith Nature Beauty Near By person
associatedWith Needahbeh person
associatedWith Neitzel, Stuart person
associatedWith Nelson, Dorothy M. person
associatedWith Nelson, Roland person
associatedWith Newcomb, Simon person
associatedWith Newhouse, Seth person
associatedWith New Sweden Tercentenary Pageant to Tour Country person
associatedWith Newton, Isaac, Sir, 1642-1727 person
associatedWith New York Zoological Society person
associatedWith Nicholas, Louis person
associatedWith Night-wind person
associatedWith Ninham, John Alexander person
associatedWith Noo-kud-la. person
associatedWith Northern Arizona Society of Science and Art person
associatedWith Norton, Jeannette Young person
associatedWith Norvell, E. B. person
associatedWith Oak, Liston M. person
associatedWith Obermaier, Anna person
associatedWith O'Brian, G. W. (Mrs.) person
associatedWith Occom, Rev. Sansom person
correspondedWith Oklahoma Delaware Ceremonies, Feasts and Dances. Correspondence regarding person
associatedWith Oklahoma Delaware Indians corporateBody
associatedWith Olbrechts, Frans M., 1899-1958 person
associatedWith Opler, Morris Edward, 1907-1996 person
associatedWith Orchard, W. C. person
associatedWith Osgood, Cornelius, 1905- person
associatedWith Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. person
associatedWith Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 person
associatedWith Parks, J. A. person
associatedWith Penniman, Josiah Harma, 1868-1941 person
associatedWith Pennsylvania, State of person
associatedWith Penobscot Man person
associatedWith Penobscot Man and other publications, letters regarding person
associatedWith Penobscot Man, letters regarding person
associatedWith Peters, Irma person
associatedWith Peters, Nick person
associatedWith Photographs person
associatedWith Picard, L. P. O. person
associatedWith Pitan, Pien person
associatedWith Pitt River Museum person
associatedWith Plume Trading and Sales Co. Inc. person
associatedWith Poinsett, Joel Roberts, 1779-1851 person
associatedWith Pollard, E. B. person
associatedWith Poole, Earl E. person
associatedWith Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924 person
associatedWith Preston, Jack person
associatedWith Prince, J. Dyneley person
associatedWith Prince, John Dyneley, 1868-1945 person
associatedWith Quimby, George person
associatedWith Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000 person
associatedWith Raynolds, Frances person
associatedWith Redeye, Clara person
associatedWith Redeye, Nelson person
associatedWith Red Thunder Cloud, 1919- person
associatedWith Reed, Ira S. person
associatedWith Rehnstrand, Jane, 1884- person
associatedWith Reirmann, Jacques person
associatedWith Review List for Memoir VII Ameri. Phil. Soc. person
associatedWith Revillon Freres person
associatedWith Revillon FrèresTrading Company. person
associatedWith Reynolds, A. G. person
associatedWith Riggs, Bob person
associatedWith Rights, Douglas L., (Douglas LeTell), 1891-1956 person
associatedWith Ritchie, W. A. person
associatedWith Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796 person
associatedWith Rivard, E. M. person
associatedWith Roberts, Helen H., (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985 person
associatedWith Robinson, Roy H. person
associatedWith Rohrbaugh, H. L. person
associatedWith Rolland, Ann person
associatedWith Rousseau, Jacques person
associatedWith Rowell, Mary person
associatedWith Running Crane, Geneva person
associatedWith Running Crane, John person
associatedWith Rush, Benjamin, 1746-1813 person
associatedWith Rutter, Charles A. person
associatedWith Ryan, Mrs. Charles person
associatedWith Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939. person
associatedWith Sargent, R. W. person
associatedWith Satterthwaite, Linton, Jr.. person
associatedWith Saville, Marshall H., (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935 person
associatedWith Schaeffer, Claude E. person
associatedWith Schenadoah, Rodney person
associatedWith Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 person
associatedWith Selby, J. S. person
associatedWith Sequin, Robert Lionel person
associatedWith Seybert, Adam, 1773-1825 person
associatedWith Shafer, A. E. person
associatedWith Shenk, Hiram H., (Hiram Herr), 1872-1954 person
associatedWith Shoemaker, Henry W., (Henry Wharton), b. 1880 person
associatedWith Siebert, Frank T. (Frank Thomas), 1912-1998 person
associatedWith Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925 person
associatedWith Sky Eagle person
associatedWith Smith, Edgar F. person
associatedWith Smith, Frank E., 1919-1984 person
associatedWith Smith, George person
associatedWith Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940 person
associatedWith Smoke, Percy person
associatedWith Snyderman, George Simon, 1908- person
associatedWith Solenberger, Robert person
associatedWith Sollenberger, R. person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Spaulding, A. C. person
associatedWith Speck, Florence I. person
associatedWith Speck, Frank G. and Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin person
associatedWith Speck, Frank G. and Leonard Broom person
associatedWith Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 person
associatedWith Speck, Frank G., Royal B. Hassrick, and Edmund S. Carpenter person
associatedWith Spinder, Herbert J. person
associatedWith Spotted Tail, Brule Sioux Chief, 1823-1881 person
associatedWith Springer, Ethel M. person
associatedWith Staub, Peter person
associatedWith Stein, Philip person
associatedWith Stein, Philip. person
associatedWith Stern, Theodore, 1917- person
associatedWith Stern, Theodore, and Maurice O. Mook person
associatedWith Stevens, Fannie person
associatedWith Stevens, Henry person
associatedWith Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962 person
associatedWith Sully, Thomas, 1783-1872 person
associatedWith Sundown, Roland person
associatedWith Swadesh, Morris and Charles F. Voegelin person
associatedWith Swales, B. H. person
associatedWith Swales, Bradshaw Hall, 1875- person
associatedWith Swallow, Ben person
associatedWith Swan, Sankey person
associatedWith Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958 person
associatedWith Swarthmore College corporateBody
associatedWith Tantaquidgeon, Gladys person
associatedWith Taylor, Lyda person
associatedWith Thayer, B. W. person
associatedWith Thibodeau, Joe person
associatedWith Thomas, Chief David person
associatedWith Thompson, B. A. person
associatedWith Thomson, Charles, 1729-1824 person
associatedWith Tozzer, Alfred person
associatedWith Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston) person
associatedWith Traynor, Donald P. person
associatedWith Tremblay, Alfred. person
associatedWith Trotter, Spencer person
associatedWith Trotter, Spencer, 1860-1931 person
associatedWith Turner, G. E. S. person
associatedWith Tyler, Dorothy L. person
associatedWith Tyler, Dorothy Louise, 1899-1979 person
associatedWith Unidentified person
correspondedWith Unidentified correspondent person
associatedWith United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania person
associatedWith University of California person
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anthropology person
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. Department of Anthropology. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania - Misc. Material person
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. University Museum. corporateBody
associatedWith Vigneau, C. person
associatedWith Voegelin, Carl and Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin person
associatedWith Voegelin, C. F., and Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin person
associatedWith Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986. person
associatedWith Voeglin, Erminie Wheeler person
associatedWith Walker, Abraham M. person
associatedWith Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923- person
associatedWith Wallace, Paul A. W. person
associatedWith Wallis, Wilson D. (Wilson Dallam), 1886-1970. person
associatedWith Walser, Richard, 1908- person
associatedWith Wampum person
associatedWith War Bowl person
associatedWith Ward, Christopher L. person
associatedWith War Eagle person
associatedWith Warfield, J.G. person
associatedWith Warfield, J. O. person
associatedWith Washington, Fred person
associatedWith Washington, Joe person
associatedWith Waterton, Charles, 1782-1865 person
associatedWith Waugh, F. W., (Frederick Wilkerson), 1872-1924 person
associatedWith Wayne, Anthony person
associatedWith Weaver's Community Shope person
associatedWith Webber, Chief. person
associatedWith Webber, James C. person
associatedWith Weinberg's Aviary and Aquarium person
associatedWith Weitluner, R. J. person
associatedWith Wes person
associatedWith