Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832

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French naturalist.

From the description of Letter signed : Paris, to C. F. Hammer, at the University of Strasbourg, 1825 Mar. 13. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270537914

From the description of Letter signed : Paris, to the Chevalier Brunacci, 1813 Oct. 18. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270537948

From the description of Autograph letter signed : postmarked Paris, to M. Coquerel, 1828 Oct. 8. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270527192

Naturalist.

From the description of baron Georges Cuvier papers, 1820-1832. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79450096

Georges Cuvier was a French zoologist.

From the description of Correspondence, 1799-1829. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122440143

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) was a French zoologist, paleontologist and historian of science. A committed empiricist, Cuvier opposed theories, arguing that scientists should limit themselves to describing. In zoology his work depended upon his dominant position at the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, which was the largest scientific research institution of the era. French government expeditions brought specimens from distant lands to build its collections. Upon his arrival at the Museum Cuvier rearranged its comparative anatomy collections, assembled at the end of the seventeenth century by Claude Perrault and in the middle of the eighteenth century by Louis Jean Marie Daubenton. Although Cuvier traveled little, he published three works of general zoology: Tableau élémentaire de l’histoire naturelle des animaux (1797), Leçons d’anatomie comparèe with C. Duméril and G. Duverney (1800, 1805) and Le règne animal (1817) arranged according to his new system of classification. Perhaps his greatest contribution was the Histoire des poisons, begun in Normandy and continuing after his death, which provided the basis of modern ichthyology.

Cuvier was born at Montbéliard in Württemberg on August 23, 1769, the son of a poor (but still middle class) soldier who was a retired French officer married to a woman twenty years his junior. He was born with a delicate constitution and enjoyed drawing as a child, but also demonstrated a precocious intellectual development and an astonishing memory. Among his childhood accomplishments was to master the entire corpus of Buffon’s works by the age of twelve, to begin a natural history collection and to found a scientific society with some friends. Montbéliard, originally part of Burgundy, had been subject to the duke of Württemberg and adopted the Lutheran faith during the Reformation. Cuvier’s parents intended that he become a Lutheran minister like his uncle, but he was unable to obtain a scholarship to study theology at Tübingen. Instead, the wife of the governor of Montbéliard recommended him to attend the Caroline University. He entered the University in 1784 at the age of fifteen and after two years of general studies, during which he learned German. Cuvier specialized in administrative, juridical and economic sciences, but the curriculum included a considerable amount of natural history. Cuvier’s zoology teacher the gifted twenty-year-old Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer became one of the founders of the German school of Naturphilosophie. Kielmeyer taught Cuvier the art of dissection, and probably also comparative anatomy, taught in Tübingen by J.F. Blumenbach.

After three years in 1787, Cuvier won the golden cross of chevaliers, which allowed him to live and learn with children of the aristocracy, and sometimes with the Duke Württemberg himself. Cuvier finished his studies in 1788, and since there were no vacant positions at court, he was forced to accept a position as private tutor in Normandy with an affluent Protestant aristocratic family named d’Héricy. Despite the beginnings of the French Revolution in 1789, his duties as tutor over the next six years kept him away from the radical events and influences of the Revolution. Instead, his life in Caen gave him access to a rich library and botanical garden. In the spring and summer months he accompanied the d’Héricy family to the Château of Fiquainville near the fishing port of Fécamp. There he had an opportunity to dissect many marine animals and shorebirds. He began keeping notes nearly every day together with sketches in large notebooks. Following Carl Linnaeus, he called these his Diarium zoologicum and Diarium botanicum.

Also during this period Cuvier corresponded with his friend and closest disciple Christian Heinrich Pfaff at the Caroline University, in order to keep in touch with the University and ducal administration and to provide political intelligence. Cuvier feigned sympathy for the Revolution, since he ran the risk that his mail might be opened by the police; however, he often later expressed his fear and disapproval of the revolutionary regime in which he asserted “the populace made the law.” The Cuvier-Pfaff correspondence is doubly important to the historian of science because during the five-year period between his nineteenth and twenty-third birthdays he acquired the basic scientific ideas he would develop over the course of his career-a “chain of being,” and an uncompromising empiricism divorced from theory. He wrote to Pfaff in 1788: “I wish everything that experience shows us to be carefully disassociated from hypotheses . . . . [S]cience should be based upon facts, despite systems.” In his first publication, a study of wood lice that appeared in the Journal d’histoire naturelle, he appears to have affirmed the notion of a complex chain of being, when he stated, “Here, as elsewhere, nature makes no jumps . . .therefore, the descent is by degrees from crayfish to Squilla, from Squilla to Asellidae, then to lice, to Armadilladiidae and to galley worms. All of these genera must be related to a single class.”

Cuvier became a French citizen in 1793, as a result of the French annexation of Montbéliard. Consequently, he sought recognition within Parisian scientific circles. At the suggestion of agronomist H.A. Tessier he sent a selection of his unpublished scientific works to Professor Ètienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. The youthful Saint-Hilaire enthusiastically encouraged Cuvier to come to Paris, which he did in 1795. Shortly after his arrival, Cuvier drew upon the observations of earlier dissections that he had performed in Normandy and presented a paper that represented a new stage in the study of invertebrates. Much later in 1829 he testified that “Before me modern naturalists divided all nonvertebrate animals into two classes, insects and worms. I was the first . . . to offer another division . . . in which I pointed out the characteristics and limits of mollusks, crustaceans, insects, worms, echinoderms and zoophytes.” Cuvier’s new classifications proved so influential that Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in the introduction to his zoology course decided “to follow to a very great extent [the classification] devised by the learned naturalist Cuvier.” Saint-Hilaire and Cuvier worked together for about a year, during which the former, no doubt, influenced by his new associate, dropped his hostility and affirmed the notion of a chain of being. In a jointly published paper on tarsiers [the smallest of primates], they suggested the genus might be considered a link between quadrumana and Chiroptera or bats. In another paper on orangutans, they boldly proposed the theory that the origin of species was from a single type. Cuvier’s Histoire des poisons, begun in Normandy was a work that he gradually improved and published in collaboration with Achille Valenciennes. The volumes began appearing in 1828 and continued long after Cuvier’s death, only stopping with the twenty-second volume in 1849 with Valenciennes’s passing. Cuvier’s classifications of fishes were so solid that they established the bases of modern ichthyology; many of his classes becoming orders or suborders in the current classification system.

Cuvier was also famous for his paleontological reconstructions, which had the living creatures as their point of departure. Taking a holistic perspective, he said the living being constitutes “a unique closed system, all parts of which mutually correspond and concur in the same definitive action through a reciprocal reaction. None of these parts can change without changing others, as well . . . .” So, for example, a carnivore ought to have intestines capable of digesting meat, as well as sharp claws and teeth to seize its prey and powerful jaws and muscles appropriate to the osseous structure. As a result, Cuvier asserted that every well preserved piece of bone potentially allows the zoologist to determine the class, order, genus and (even) species from which the specimen came. In addition to his general zoological works and his work on fishes and mollusks, Cuvier made important contributions to the history of science. As permanent secretary of the Academy, Cuvier had to write and deliver periodic reports on the progress of French research in the sciences, reports bound in four volues in 1828 and five volumes again in 1833. He also had responsibility for composing elegies for deceased members of the Academy. Finally, he wrote articles for Michaud’s Biographie universelle on Aristotle, Buffon, Daubenton, Linnaeus, Pliny and Vicq d’Azyr among others.

Cuvier’s rapid rise to fame resulted both from the significance of his scientific work and his abilities as a teacher and administrator. Typically, after only a few minutes of preparation, he was able to deliver a logically constructed lecture in a confident manner; and without pausing illustrated his ideas in blackboard drawings that were clear and accurate. In April 1796, at only twenty-six years of age he became a member of the Class of Physical Sciences at the Institut de France. Four years later in 1800 he succeeded the celebrated naturalist Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton as a professor at the Collège de France, and was given the administrative responsibility for reorganizing the lycèes of Bordeaux, Nice and Mareseilles. In 1803 Cuvier assumed the well-paid duties of permanent secretary for the physical sciences at the Institut. In 1808, after the Empire had replaced the Consulate, Napoleon appointed Cuvier university counselor. In this position he contributed greatly to the organization of the new Sorbonne. Afterward, he was sent on missions to Italy, the Netherlands and southern Germany to reorganize their systems of higher education. In recompense he received the title and endowment of chevalier in 1811. Cuvier fared equally well under the Bourbons of the restored monarchy in 1814. Although supportive of the exercise and growth of Protestantism in an era of ultraroyalist hostility, he became a devoted servant of the French kings. He was director of Protestant universities, and in 1814 became councilor of state. From 1819 until his death he presided over the Council of State, and daily at eleven o’clock attended to the business of the council of state or the council of public instruction. Monday afternoons he set aside for the Institute.

Cuvier was always busy, always in a hurry. He had an immense workload of scientific and administrative duties, and as he grew older, he grew busier. He was open to flattery, and easily irritated. A nepotist, he obtained positions for friends and relatives. He was very secretive and very authoritarian. Nevertheless, he was kind to aspiring young persons, both assisting and advising them.

A proponent of enlightened despotism, Cuvier seemed to fare well under every political regime. He was short, and during the Revolution very thin. He grew stout during the Empire, and enormously fat after the restoration. Nicknamed “Mammoth,” he appeared as a sort of bishop of science. In February of 1804 he married Mme. Davaucelle, a devout Protestant widow with four children, who bore him four more. She was a kind, energetic and outspoken spouse, who saw to everything, including the naturalist’s favorite Montbèliard chitterling sausages that were never missing from the table. Nevertheless, his happiness was darkened by the death of his four children, and he tried to overcome his grief by incessant toil. One evening in May, 1832 Cuvier experienced a slight paralysis and contraction of his esophagus. He became weaker over the next few days, and died on May 13.

A major source of Cuvier’s strength as a scientist, teacher and administrator lay in his powerful memory. He had 19,000 volumes in his library, as well as thousands of pamphlets, the contents of which he had committed to memory and could retrieve within seconds as needed.

From the guide to the Georges Cuvier, baron, correspondence, 1799-1829, 1799-1829, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Fabbroni, Giovanni Valentino Mattia, 1752-1822. Papers, ca. 1770s-1875. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832. Letter signed : Paris, to C. F. Hammer, at the University of Strasbourg, 1825 Mar. 13. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. [Letters]. American Museum of Natural History
creatorOf Edwards, Henri Milne. Les Zoophytes. University of Manchester Library, Main Library
referencedIn Caspar Wistar Papers, 1794-1817 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Sir James Paget correspondence, 1784-1932, 1784-1932 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Manuscrits de la bibliothèque municipale de Lyon 1346-1964. Bibliothèque municipale de Lyon
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. [Letters] [manuscript] / G.Cuvier. Royal Ontario Museum
referencedIn Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844. Papers, ca. 1811-1844. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Portrait collection, 1882-1963, 1882-1937 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Museum of Comparative Zoology collection of historical manuscripts, 1736-1908 (inclusive), 1810-1870 (bulk). Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
referencedIn Edward Piggott letterbook, 1802-1806, 1802-1806 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Giovanni Valentino Mattia Fabbroni papers, ca. 1770s-1875, Circa 1770-1875 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. Letter, [1831?, n.d., Paris], to an unidentified person. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, 1739-1817. Papers, 1769-1831. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Louis Agassiz correspondence and other papers, 1821-1877. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832. Letter signed : Paris, to the Chevalier Brunacci, 1813 Oct. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Piggott, Edward, fl. 1758-1807. Letterbook, 1802-1806. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Camper, Adrian Gilles, 1759-1820. Letter. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore, 1805-1861. Génération continue des races actuelles par les séries animales et végétales: memoir, autograph manuscript draft, 1834, August 18. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832. Documents and notes, some signed (7) : Paris, 1827-1828. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Étienne Geoffroy Saint Hilaire Collection, 1811-1844 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. Letters : Paris, 1820 May 17 and 1828 Oct. 27. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832. Autograph letter signed : postmarked Paris, to M. Coquerel, 1828 Oct. 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Fabbroni, Giovanni Valentino Mattia, 1752-1822. Correspondence, 1775-1863. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. Letter, 26 Nov 1822. Michigan State University Libraries, Main Library
creatorOf Laennec, R. T. H. (René Théophile Hyacinthe), 1781-1826. Papers, 1825-1826. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. Correspondence, 1799-1829. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Giovanni Valentino Mattia Fabbroni papers, ca. 1770s-1875, Circa 1770-1875 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Université de France. Conseil royal de l'instruction publique. Diplôme de bachelier ès-lettres, au nom du roi, 1822 June 20 / Université de France. Conseil royal de l'instruction publique. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Hassenfratz, J. H. (Jean-Henri), 1755-1827. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Robert Owen Collection, 1805-1858 National Co-operative Archive
creatorOf Bowdich, T. Edward (Thomas Edward), 1791-1824. Letter. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 1752-1840. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. baron Georges Cuvier papers, 1820-1832. Library of Congress
referencedIn Breschet, G. (Gilbert), 1784-1845. Gilbert Breschet papers, 1825-1831, and undated. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
referencedIn Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. Correspondence, 1784-1932. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Schumacher, Heinrich Christian, 1780-1850. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1808-1888. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Wistar, Caspar, 1761-1818. Letters, 1794-1817. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Georges Cuvier, baron, correspondence, 1799-1829, 1799-1829 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Laplace, Pierre Simon, marquis de, 1749-1827. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Cuvier, Georges, baron, 1769-1832. Recherches anatomiques sur les reptiles regardés encore comme douteux par les naturalistes, faites à l'occasion de l'axolotl, rapporté par m. de Humbolt du Mexique / par m. Cuvier. American Museum of Natural History
creatorOf Laennec, R. T. H. (René Théophile Hyacinthe), 1781-1826. [Letter] 1826 May 18, Paris [to] Baron Cuvier, Royal Gardens / Laennec. University of California, Los Angeles
referencedIn Autograph File, C, 1554-2002. Houghton Library.
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associatedWith Castries, Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix, marquis de, 1727-1800 person
associatedWith Cattell, Abraham Gilmore & Co. person
associatedWith Cauchy, Augustin Louis, Baron, 1789-1857 person
associatedWith Causten, James Hyman, 1818-1856 person
associatedWith Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.) person
associatedWith Chambers, Robert, 1802-1871 person
associatedWith Chambrun, René de, 1906- person
associatedWith Channing, William Ellery, 1780-1842 person
associatedWith Charles II, King of England, 1630-1685 person
associatedWith Charleston Museum (Charleston, S. C.) person
associatedWith Charlesworth, Edward P., 1813-1893 person
associatedWith Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873 person
associatedWith Chase, Samuel, 1741-1811 person
associatedWith Cheatham, Benjamin Franklin, 1820-1886 person
associatedWith Cherokee Nation person
associatedWith Chew, Benjamin, 1758-1844 person
associatedWith Cheyney, Edward Potts, 1861-1947 person
associatedWith Childs, George William, 1829-1894 person
associatedWith Childs & Smith. Architects. corporateBody
associatedWith Chrétien, de Troyes, 12th cent. person
associatedWith Christie, William Henry Mahony, Sir, 1845-1922 person
associatedWith Ch'un, P'an person
associatedWith Churchman, J. (Joseph), 1767-1837 person
associatedWith Churchman, John, 1753-1805 person
associatedWith Claiborne, Richard person
associatedWith Clarkson, Matthew person
associatedWith Clark, William person
associatedWith Clay, Joseph person
associatedWith Clayton, John, 1657-1725 person
associatedWith Cleaveland, Parker, 1780-1858 person
associatedWith Clemson, Thomas G. person
associatedWith Cleveland, William J. person
associatedWith Clodd, Edward, 1840-1930 person
associatedWith Clymer, George, 1739-1813 person
associatedWith C. M. M. person
associatedWith Coats, Thomas person
associatedWith Cock, Allan Geoffry person
associatedWith Cohaw, J. W. person
associatedWith Colden, Cadwallader, 1688-1776 person
associatedWith Colden, Jane, 1724-1766 person
associatedWith College of Physicians of Philadelphia person
associatedWith Colle, Henry person
associatedWith Collier, Charles B. person
associatedWith Collin, Nicholas, 1746-1831 person
associatedWith Collins, Isaac, 1746-1817 person
associatedWith Collins, Mary person
associatedWith Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768 person
associatedWith Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences . corporateBody
associatedWith Columbian Society of Artists person
associatedWith Columbia University person
associatedWith Combe, Cecilia, 1794-1868 person
associatedWith Combe, George, 1788-1858 person
associatedWith Commerson, Philibert, 1727-1773. person
associatedWith Compagnie des Indes person
associatedWith Compton, Arthur Holly, 1892-1962 person
associatedWith Condon, Edward Uhler, 1902-1974 person
associatedWith Condorcet, Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de, marquis de, 1743-1794 person
associatedWith Congregational Church (Charleston, S. C.) person
associatedWith Conklin, Edwin Grant, 1863-1952 person
associatedWith Conkwright, P. J. (P. Jefferson) person
associatedWith Connelly, Thomas, 1792- person
associatedWith Conrad, C. and A., and company person
associatedWith Conybeare, William Daniel, 1787-1857 person
associatedWith Cooke, Josiah P. person
associatedWith Cooper, James Graham, 1830-1902 person
associatedWith Cooper, Thomas, 1759-1839 person
associatedWith Cope, Thomas D. (Thomas Darlington) person
associatedWith Copley, John Singleton, 1738-1815 person
associatedWith Copway, George person
associatedWith Coquerel, Athanase, 1795-1868, person
associatedWith Cornell University. Agassiz club person
associatedWith Correia da Serra, José Francisco, 1750-1823 person
associatedWith Corwin, Thomas, 1794-1865 person
associatedWith Couch, Jonathan, 1789-1870 person
associatedWith Coues, Elliott, 1842-1899 person
associatedWith Coulet du Gard, René person
associatedWith Coxe, John Redman, 1773-1864 person
associatedWith Coxe, Tench, 1755-1824 person
associatedWith Cox, John Lewis, 1777-1856 person
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associatedWith Croghan, George, d. 1782 person
associatedWith Croker, John Wilson, 1780-1857 person
associatedWith Crookes, William, 1832-1919 person
associatedWith Crow, William person
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associatedWith Cunningham, W. (William), 1849-1919 person
associatedWith Curie, Marie, 1867-1934 person
associatedWith Currie, William, 1754-1828 person
associatedWith Curzon, Edward person
associatedWith Cushing, Harvey, 1869-1939 person
associatedWith Cutbush, Edward, 1772-1843 person
associatedWith Cuvier, Frédéric, 1773-1838 person
associatedWith Cuvier, Georges, Baron, 1769-1832 person
associatedWith Dalrymple, John, Sir, 1726-1810 person
associatedWith Dana, James Dwight, 1813-1895 person
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associatedWith Darwin, Emma person
associatedWith Darwin, Erasmus, 1731-1802 person
associatedWith Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912 person
associatedWith Darwin, Leonard, 1850-1943 person
associatedWith Darwin, Robert Waring, 1766-1848 person
associatedWith Davidson, Chalmers Gaston, 1907-1994 person
associatedWith Davidson, George, 1825-1911 person
associatedWith Davis, Charles Henry, 1807-1877 person
associatedWith Davis, John, 1761-1847 person
associatedWith Davis, John Edward, 1815-1877 person
associatedWith Davis, John Philip, 1784-1862 person
associatedWith Davis, William person
associatedWith Davy, Humphry, Sir, 1778-1829 person
associatedWith Davy, John, 1790-1868 person
associatedWith Deane, Silas, 1737-1789 person
associatedWith Dearborn, Benjamin person
associatedWith Deblève, Monsieur. person
associatedWith De Butts, Elisha, 1773-1831 person
associatedWith DeHorsey, Algernon Frederick Rous, Sir, 1827- person
associatedWith De La Beche, Henry T., (Henry Thomas), 1796-1855 person
associatedWith De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004 person
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associatedWith Delaplaine, Joseph, 1777-1824 person
associatedWith De la Rue, Warren, 1815-1889 person
associatedWith Delay, I. B. person
associatedWith Denham, Thomas, d. 1728 person
associatedWith Derby, Mrs. person
associatedWith De Saussure, Henry William, 1763-1839 person
associatedWith Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867 person
associatedWith Des Moulin, Charles. person
associatedWith Destouches, Jean-Louis person
associatedWith Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude, comte, 1754-1836 person
associatedWith De Witt, Simeon, 1756-1834 person
associatedWith D'Hericy, Achille person
associatedWith D'Hericy, Achille. person
associatedWith Dibner, Bern, person
associatedWith Dick, Elisha Cullen, 1762-1825 person
associatedWith Dickerson, Mahlon, 1770-1853 person
associatedWith Dickinson, John, 1732-1808 person
associatedWith Diehl, John person
associatedWith Diemer, John person
associatedWith Dillenius, Johann Jakob, 1687-1747 person
associatedWith Dillwyn, Lewis Weston, 1778-1855 person
associatedWith Dingle, Herbert person
associatedWith Dixon, John person
associatedWith Dixon, Joseph person
associatedWith Dobson, Jessie person
associatedWith Dod, Daniel, 1788-1823 person
associatedWith Dodd, John M. person
associatedWith Dollond, George, 1774-1852 person
associatedWith Dollond, John, 1706-1761 person
associatedWith Dollond, Peter person
associatedWith Dollond, Peter, 1730-1820 person
associatedWith Dolman, Charles E. person
associatedWith Donath, Joseph, 1750? -1829 person
associatedWith Donders, Franciscus Cornelis, 1818-1889 person
associatedWith Donlevy, Andrew, 1694? -1761? person
associatedWith Dorlodot, Albert de person
associatedWith Dorsey, R. R. person
associatedWith Dowling, James, and Sons person
associatedWith Drabier, Jacques person
associatedWith Dreher, Eugen, 1841-1900 person
associatedWith Duane, Margaret B person
associatedWith Du Bois, Patterson, 1847-1917 person
associatedWith Dudley, Paul, 1675-1751 person
associatedWith Duffield, Samuel, 1732-1814 person
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associatedWith Duméril, C. (Constant), 1774-1860. person
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associatedWith Dunglison, Robley, 1798-1869 person
associatedWith Dunn, L. C. (Leslie Clarence), 1893-1974 person
associatedWith Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, 1739-1817. person
associatedWith Dupuy, John person
associatedWith Du Simitière, Pierre Eugène, ca. 1736-1784 person
associatedWith Dvoĭchenko-Markova, E. M. person
associatedWith Eastburn, Benjamin person
associatedWith Eaton, Amos, 1776-1842 person
associatedWith Eddy, George Simpson person
associatedWith Edison, Thomas A., (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931 person
associatedWith Edwards, Henri Milne. person
associatedWith Edwards, Joseph person
associatedWith Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955 person
associatedWith Eisenhart, Churchill. person
associatedWith Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler, 1876- person
associatedWith Elbert, Samuel, 1740-1788 person
associatedWith Eliot, John, 1604-1690 person
associatedWith Ellicott, Andrew, 1754-1820 person
associatedWith Elliott, James B. person
associatedWith Elliott, Stephen, 1771-1830 person
associatedWith Elmslie, John person
associatedWith Entomological Society of Philadelphia person
associatedWith Ericsson, John, 1803-1889 person
associatedWith Ettwein, John, 1721-1802 person
associatedWith Euclides, B. C. 2nd Century person
associatedWith Evans, Cadwallader, 1762-1841 person
associatedWith Evans, Peter person
associatedWith Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 person
associatedWith Ewing, John, 1732-1802 person
associatedWith Eyerly, Jacob person
associatedWith F. A. person
associatedWith Fabbroni, Giovanni Valentino Mattia, 1752-1822. person
associatedWith Fairmount Microscopical Society of Philadelphia person
associatedWith Falconer, Alexander Pytts person
associatedWith Falconer, Thomas, 1805-1882 person
associatedWith Faraday, Michael, 1791-1867 person
associatedWith Farquharson, John person
associatedWith Ferrer, José Joaquin de, ca. 1764-1818 person
associatedWith Few, Joseph person
associatedWith First Society of Unitarian Christians in the City of Philadelphia person
associatedWith Fischer, Friedrich Ernst Ludwig, 1782-1854 person
associatedWith Fishburn, Junius M. person
associatedWith Fisher, George, 1794-1873 person
associatedWith Fisher, Miers, 1748-1819 person
associatedWith Fitch, John person
associatedWith Fitch, John, 1743-1798 person
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associatedWith Fitzroy, Robert, 1805-1865 person
associatedWith FitzSimons, Thomas, 1741-1811 person
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associatedWith Folger, Reuben person
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associatedWith Ford, Paul Leicester, 1865-1902 person
associatedWith Foreman, E. person
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associatedWith Foster, Francis Apthorp, 1872-1966 person
associatedWith Fothergill, A. (Anthony), 1732? -1813 person
associatedWith Fothergill, John, 1712-1780 person
associatedWith Fowler, Henry Weed, 1878-1965 person
associatedWith Fowler, John, 1826-1884 person
associatedWith Fox, Edward person
associatedWith Fox, William Darwin, 1805-1880 person
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associatedWith France. Bureau général des Poudres & Salpétres à Marseille person
associatedWith France. Comité de salut public de la convention national. corporateBody
associatedWith France. Laws, statutes, etc person
associatedWith Francis, Anne person
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associatedWith Franck, Maximilien person
associatedWith Franklin & Hall corporateBody
associatedWith Franklin Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.). corporateBody
associatedWith Franklin, James person
associatedWith Franklin, John, 1690-1756 person
associatedWith Franklin, John, Sir, 1786-1847 person
associatedWith Franklin, Josiah, 1658-1745 person
associatedWith Franklin Statue Committee corporateBody
associatedWith Frank Webster Jay Collection (University of Chicago. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Frazer, John Fries, 1812-1872 person
associatedWith Freehauff, Daniel person
associatedWith Freeland, L. S., (Lucy Shepard), 1890-1972 person
associatedWith Freeman, Gage Earle, 1820-1903 person
associatedWith Fridenberg, Robert person
associatedWith Fries, Waldemar H., b. 1889 person
associatedWith Froriep, Ludwig Friedrich von, 1779-1847 person
associatedWith Fulton, Robert, 1765-1815 person
associatedWith Furness, William Henry, 1802-1896 person
associatedWith Gaither, Henry, 1751-1811 person
associatedWith Gallatin, Albert, 1761-1849 person
associatedWith Galloway, Joseph, 1731-1803 person
associatedWith Galton, Francis, Sir, 1822-1911 person
associatedWith Gamkrelidze, Thomas V. person
associatedWith Garanger, Lewis person
associatedWith Garcia, Antonio person
associatedWith García, Manuel, 1775-1832 person
associatedWith Garden, Alexander, 1730-1791 person
associatedWith Gardiner, John, 1737-1793 person
associatedWith Gardner, John