Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954

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Enrico Fermi was a physicist.

From the description of Letters, 1918-1926, to Enrico Perisco. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 173466015

From the guide to the Enrico Fermi letters, 1918-1926, to Enrico Perisco, 1918-1926, (American Philosophical Society)

Physicist.

From the description of Papers of Enrico Fermi, 1919-1954. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71068165

Physicist (slow neutrons, artificial radioactivity, beta-ray emission, statistical models of the atom, chain reaction). On the physics faculty at Universita di Roma, 1927-1938; Columbia University, 1939-1944; University of Chicago, 1945-1954; director, Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, 1946-1954.

From the description of Physics at Columbia University: the genesis of the nuclear-energy project; transcript of an informal speech, January 30, 1954. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83717796

Physicist (slow neutrons, artificial radioactivity, beta-ray emission, statistical models of the atom, chain reaction). On the physics faculty at Università di Roma, (1927-1938); Columbia University (1939-1944); and University of Chicago (1945-1954), director, Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago (1946-1954).

From the description of Papers, 1926-1930. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79891362

Physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1938).

From the description of Papers, 1910-1954 (inclusive), 1942-1954 (bulk). (University of Chicago Library). WorldCat record id: 52250177

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of Physics at the University of Chicago, and 1938 Nobel Prize winner in physics, is best known to the general public for his leadership of the Manhattan Project team, which succeeded in obtaining the first controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This experiment, which was carried out at the University of Chicago on December 2, 1942, made possible the development of the atomic bomb. Fermi was also among those who developed the bomb, at Los Alamos, New Mexico, to operational level. Even after his acceptance of a professorship of physics at the University of Chicago at the close of the war, he continued to work in an advisory capacity for the Atomic Energy Commission, the Office of Naval Research, and related bodies.

Fermi was born in Rome, Italy, on September 29, 1901, the third child of Alberto and Ida (de Gattis) Fermi. Alberto was employed by the Italian railroads as an administrator; Ida had been a school teacher prior to her marriage. While still a teenager, Fermi developed a strong interest in mathematics, which, under the guidance of Adolfo Amidei, an engineer colleague of Alberto’s, developed into an interest in physics too. Also during his adolescence, Fermi, along with his close friend and future physicist Enrico Persico, spent many of his days designing and conducting scientific experiments, including one to determine the precise density of Rome’s drinking water. According to Amidei and to the evidence of an early research notebook in this collection, Fermi was a prodigy as a theoretical physicist. In November 1918, just after he turned seventeen, Fermi began his higher education at the Scuola Normale Superiore at Pisa on a scholarship. Less than four years later he received the degree of Doctor of Physics, magna cum laude, from the University of Pisa, based on experimental work that he had conducted on X-rays.

Following his studies in Pisa, Fermi used a fellowship from the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction to study at Göttingen, a university then at the height of its fame in physics. He worked there with Professor Max Born and was a fellow student of Werner Heisenberg, who was to make some of his most important contributions to the field of theoretical physics within the next two years. During the subsequent academic year, Fermi taught at the University of Rome and then, in 1924, at Leyden in Holland, where he worked with Professor Ehrenfest and his pupils, who included Sam Goudsmit. During the next two academic years, Fermi held an appointment at the University of Florence, where he began work on what would later come to be known as the “Fermi-Dirac statistics.” The Fermi-Dirac statistics enabled not only a deeper understanding of the conduction of electricity in metals, but also the development of a widely used statistical atom model.

Fermi was appointed Professor of Physics at the University of Rome in 1926, where he lectured until 1938. From 1926 to 1932, he joined other European physicists in working primarily on the theory of atomic structure, which Fermi helped to complete in the form that it is known today. By 1932 his attention shifted to the growing fields of theoretical and experimental nuclear physics. Soon thereafter, he developed his theory of -ray emission, in which he gave mathematical evidence for the existence of the neutrino. This proved to be one of his major achievements in physics. Working with several collaborators at the University of Rome, including Edoardo Amaldi and Bruno Pontecorvo, Fermi then went on to study the slowing down of the neutron, another recently discovered atomic particle, in hydrogenous materials. By capturing the slow neutron in atomic nuclei, he made a comprehensive study of a big class of artificially radioactive substances. His work on neutron physics was recognized in 1938 when he received the Nobel Prize for Physics. The techniques and theories that he worked out during this period were also those that he later used in the “exponential pile” experiments which led to the development of the first controlled uranium-graphite reactor.

During this remarkably productive period scientifically, Fermi was finding the political situation in Italy increasingly intolerable. In 1928 he had married Laura Capon, the daughter of a respected Jewish family in Rome. While Fermi, like many of his colleagues in this period, was a member of the Fascist Party for reasons of professional necessity, Italy’s enactment of anti-Semitic racial laws in 1938 caused him to consider emigration as a protection for his family. That family now included two children, Nella and Giulio. Recognizing the occasion of his family’s travel to Stockholm for the Nobel awards ceremony in 1938 as an opportunity for escape, Fermi and his family departed for the United States from the ceremony. Shortly thereafter he was appointed to a professorship of physics at Columbia University.

Soon after his arrival in the United States, Fermi became instrumental in sparking the U. S. government’s interest in developing atomic energy for military purposes. Working with other physicists at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago, which had been established for precisely this reason, he led a team to design and construct an exponential pile in an empty room under one of the university’s athletics fields. The first-ever controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction took place in that pile on Decmber 2, 1942. During the subsequent two years, Fermi conducted various experiments using the reactor, as well as assisted in the development of a larger reactor at the nearby Argonne Laboratory. On July 11, 1944, Enrico and Laura Fermi were naturalized as citizens of the United States.

Following a brief period during which he worked primarily with the DuPont Company developing plutonium on an industrial scale, Fermi moved his family in August 1944 to Los Alamos, New Mexico, where the War Department’s top-secret Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb was already well underway. As Associate Director of the project, he oversaw all experimental physics projects already in progress, conducted a few experiments on neutron cross section measurments, and observed the first test of the bomb at Alamogordo, New Mexico. Fermi then served as one of four scientific consultants to President Truman’s advisory Interim Committee, which, after lengthy deliberation, recommended that the bomb be used for military purposes. Fermi received many citations and awards for his contributions to the war effort, including the Congressional Medal for Merit in 1946.

Resuming his academic work in 1946 at the University of Chicago as the Charles H. Swift Distinguished Professor of Physics, Fermi became a member of the newly formed Institute for Nuclear Studies at the university (the present Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies). During the subsequent eight years of professional activity, he assisted in the development of Chicago’s 450 Mev synchrocyclotron and of several electronic calculating machines. He worked in an advisory capacity to the Atomic Energy Commission and its associated laboratories, served as the President of the American Physical Society in the early 1950s, delivered many lectures, taught several university courses, and published numerous papers on various theoretical and experimental topics in physics. These papers included studies of neutron diffraction by crystals, of analogies between the properties of neutrons and optical waves, of the physics of mesons, of the origin of cosmic rays, and, in the last year of his life, of the polarization of proton beams on scattering.

Fermi spent the summer of 1954 in France, Germany, and Italy where he toured, delivered lectures, and reunited with various European friends, relatives, and colleagues. He was already in the final stages of an incurable cancer. Returning to Chicago in September 1954, he spent the last two months of his life visiting with friends and family and undergoing various medical procedures. Just days before he died, the Atomic Energy Commission created a special award for Fermi in recognition of his distinguished service to the nation as a scientist.

Enrico Fermi died in his sleep at his Chicago home on November 29, 1954.

From the guide to the Fermi, Enrico. Collection, 1918-1974, (Special Collections Research Center University of Chicago Library 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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referencedIn Goldberger, Marvin L. Oral history interview with Marvin L. Goldberger, 1986 February 12. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Fumi, Fausto Gherardo, 1924-. Oral history interview with Fausto Gherardo Fumi, 1982 November 27. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Franck, James, 1882-1964. Oral history joint interview with James Franck and Hertha Sponer-Franck, 1962 July 9 to 14. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Amaldi, Edoardo. Oral history interview with Amaldi Edoardo, 1969 April 9 and 10. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Medicus, Heinrich, 1918-. International congress for nuclear physics, quantum electrodynamics and cosmic radiation [motion picture] / photographed by Heinrich Medicus. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954. Papers of Enrico Fermi, 1919-1954. Library of Congress
referencedIn Koch, Herman William, 1920-. Oral history interview with Herman William Koch, 1986 September 16 to 10 March 1987. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Amaldi, Edoardo. Papers, ca. 1930-1989. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Beams, Jesse W. (Jesse Wakefield), 1898-1977. Papers of Jesse W. Beams [manuscript], 1926-1977. University of Virginia. Library
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creatorOf Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954. Letters, 1918-1926, to Enrico Perisco. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Szilard, Leo. Papers, 1898-1998. University of California, San Diego, UC San Diego Library; UCSD Library
referencedIn Heisenberg, Werner, 1901-1976. Oral history interview with Werner Heisenberg, 1962 November 30 to 12 July 1963. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Glasstone, Samuel, 1897-. Letters from Arthur Holly Compton, Enrico Fermi, and Christian Møller concerning the origin of the terms nucleon, photon and quantum, 1948-1949. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Bernard Taub Feld papers, 1943-1990 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn History of Indiana University, 1968-1981 Indiana University, Bloomington. Center for the Study of History and Memory
referencedIn Bradbury, Norris Edwin, 1909-1997. Oral history interview with Norris Edwin Bradbury, 1976 February 11. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Smith, Cyril Stanley, 1903-. Oral history interview with Cyril Stanley Smith 1992 Mar. 18 and Apr. 1. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Niels Bohr Library. The Emilio Segrè visual archives, E-J, [ca. 1870]-9999. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Enrico Fermi letters, 1918-1926, to Enrico Perisco, 1918-1926 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn United States. Office of Scientific Research and Development S-1 Files. Bush - Conant File. Enrico Fermi, "Some Remarks on the Production of Energy by a Chain Reaction in Uranium," Columbia University: 6/29/41. National Archives Library, National Archives Records Administration
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referencedIn Goudsmit, Samuel A. (Samuel Abraham), 1902-1978. Oral history interview with Samuel Abraham Goudsmit, 1963 December 5 and 7. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Lamb, Willis E. (Willis Eugene), 1913-2008. Remarks by Willis E. Lamb in a telephone conversation with Ken Ford, 1994. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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referencedIn Kronig, R. (Ralph), 1904-. Oral history interview with Ralph de Laer Kronig, 1962 November 12. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Enrico Fermi and the Beginnings of Nuclear Fission Centennial Conference (2001: New York, NY). Proceedings [sound recording] Papers presented at the Enrico Fermi and the beginnings of nuclear fission Centennial Conference. 2001 November 15 and 16. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Ehrenfest, Paul, 1880-1933. Papers, 1902-1933. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Casimir, H. B. G. (Hendrik Brugt Gerhard), 1909-2000. Oral history interview with Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir, 1963 July 5 and 6. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Fermi, Laura. Papers, 1922-1977 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Wheeler, John Archibald, 1911-2008. Oral history interview with John Archibald Wheeler, 1988 May 4 to November 28. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Spitzer, Lyman, 1914-. Oral history interview with Lyman Spitzer, Jr., 1978 March 15. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Wilkening, Marvin. Papers, 1940-1992 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
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referencedIn Mayer, Maria Goeppert, 1906-1972. Oral history interview with Maria Goeppert Mayer, 1962 February 20. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954. Papers, 1910-1954 (inclusive), 1942-1954 (bulk). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Pocono Conference on Physics. 1948 Mar 30-Apr 1. Conference notes prepared informally and unofficially by John A. Wheeler, 1948. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Records of District Courts of the United States. 1685 - 2009. Naturalization Petition and Record Books. 1906 - 1975. Naturalization File for Enrico Fermi. 1939 - 1944. Declaration of Intention for Enrico Fermi
referencedIn Robert F. Bacher Papers, 1924-1994 California Institute of Technology. Caltech Archives.
referencedIn Wattenberg, Albert, 1917-. Centennial of the birth of Enrico Fermi [colloquium], 29 February 2002. Fermi and associates contributions to the development of the technology of neutron optics, diffraction, and scattering. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954. Fermi's last dictation [sound recording] : for "Angular distribution of pions scattered by hydrogen" / 1953. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954. Physics at Columbia University: the genesis of the nuclear-energy project; transcript of an informal speech, January 30, 1954. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Archive for the History of Quantum Physics, 1898-1950 (bulk), 1898-1950 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn Teller, Edward, 1908-2003. Oral history interview with Edward Teller, 1980 December. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Griffel, Maurice, 1919-. Notebooks, 1940-1948. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Harvard Project Physics. Materials for documentary film: The world of Enrico Fermi, ca. 1930-1968. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Cohen, Morrel H. Oral history interview with Morrel H. Cohen, 1981 March 31 and June 5. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Schwarzschild, Martin. Oral history interview with Martin Schwarzschild, 1977 March 10 to 19 July 1979. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Alfred O.C. Nier papers, 1930-1996 University of Minnesota Libraries. University of Minnesota Archives. [uarc]
referencedIn Dennison, David M. (David Mathias), 1900-1976. Informal moments, Summer Symposia at the University of Michigan [motion picture] / taken by David Dennison ; 1933-1937. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf University of Michigan. Dept. of Physics. Dept. of Physics (University of Michigan) records, 1873-[ongoing]. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Dresselhaus, M. S. Oral history interview with Mildred S. Dresselhaus, 1976 June 7 to 10 September. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Niels Bohr Library. History of physics audio-visual collection, circa 1918-1996, 1960-1988 (bulk). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Urey, Harold Clayton, 1893-1981. Papers, 1929-1981. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Hutchisson, Elmer, 1902-. Oral history interview with Elmer Hutchisson, 1970 October 22. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn John Archibald Wheeler Papers, 1880-2008, 1880-2008 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Bohr, Niels, 1885-1962. Bohr scientific correspondence, supplement, 1910-1962. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Wattenberg, Albert, 1917-. Technical biography of Albert Wattenberg, 2003. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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