Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982

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Physicist.

From the description of Merle Antony Tuve papers, 1901-1982 (bulk 1941-1966). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70979847

Biographical Note

  • 1901, June 27: Born, Canton, South Dakota
  • 1922: B.S., University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, Minn.
  • 1922 - 1923 : Teaching fellow, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, Minn.
  • 1923 - 1924 : Instructor in physics, Princeton University,Princeton, N.J.
  • 1924 - 1926 : Instructor in physics, Johns Hopkins University,Baltimore, Md.
  • 1926: Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University,Baltimore, Md.
  • 1926 - 1946 : Member, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution,Washington, D.C.
  • 1927: Married Winifred Gray Whitman
  • 1940 - 1945 : Director, Section T, Office of Scientific Research and Development
  • 1945 - 1946 : Director, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University,Silver Spring, Md.
  • 1946 - 1966 : Director, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution,Washington, D.C.
  • 1966: Retired
  • 1982, May 15: Died, Bethesda, Md.

From the guide to the Merle Antony Tuve Papers, 1901-1982, (bulk 1941-1966), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Hans Thacher Clarke studied chemistry at University College, London (1896-1905), worked for the Eastman Kodak Co. in Rochester (1914-1928), and was a professor of biological chemistry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University (1928-1956). Among other researches, he was involved in the production of penicillin in the U.S.

Hans Thacher Clarke (1887-1972) was born in Harrow, England. From 1896-1905, he attended University College London School, and went on to enter the University as a student of chemistry. There he studied under William Ramsey, J. N. Collie and Samuel Smiles. He also attended courses in physiological chemistry taught by R.H. A Plimmer and physiology with E. H. Starling, but found these studies boring at the time. After receiving his B.Sc. in 1908, Clarke continued to do research at University College under the direction of Smilesand A.W. Stewart. In 1911, he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Scholarship which he used to spend three semesters with Emil Fischer in Berlin and one semester with A.W. Stewart at Queen's College, Belfast. On his return he was granted the D.Sc. from London University in 1913.

Clarke's father had long been associated with Eastman Kodak Company as European representative. George Eastman occasionally consulted Hans on chemical matter and, at the beginning of World War I, when the company was forced to produce photographic chemicals which they had previously imported from Germany, they turned to Hans for help. Clarke moved to Rochester, N.Y. in 1914 only to discover that he was the sole organic chemist there! The correspondence retained from these years consists largely of requests for chemicals, arrangements for visits, and reports of Clarke's consultancy work which involved scanning the chemical literature (a task which continued to occupy him for two days a week until 1969!) [Box 3, 3 files, c.60 items, 191-1963]

At the suggestion of his friend Henry D. Dakin, Clarke accepted a position offered him as Professor of Biological Chemisty at Columbia's College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1928. When he first took on the post he received much advice from his friend and mentor, A.W. Stewart on how to start one's own academic department (Box 7, c. 20 items, 1926-1935). While at Columbia, Clarke took a personal interest in graduate students, of whom he demanded rigorous qualifications prior to admission (a list of the PhD.s granted from 1913 to 1957, with their positions as of 1955, is in Box 2, "Biochemistry at Columbia"). As time went on, Clarke found less and less time to devote to his own research. Other responsibilities interrupted his work, including the 1953 memorial lectures for his friend Henry Dankin, and subsequent arrangements for this event at Adelphi College every year to 1965 (Box 1, Adelphia Colege, 3 files, 1957-1965).

In 1956, Clarke retired from Columbia, but continued his research and some lecturing and conducting student seminars at the Biochemical Laboratories of the Graduate School of Yale University, to which he had been invited by Joseph Fruton. This arrangement was disrupted when the Medical School needed the space Clarke was occupying in the laboratory to accommodate newly appointed members of its staff in 1964 (Box 5, Dean Vernon W. Lippard). Clarke was able to continue his research at the Children's Cancer Research Foundation Center in Boston until 1970, when ill health forced him to retire.

One of the jobs Clarke valued most was his position, in 1951-1952, as Science Attache to the American Embassy in London. His post permitted him to work closely with Sir Robert Robinson, with whom he had edited a major book on research in penicillin in 1949, after prior government service as Assistant Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development in 1944 placed him in charge of coordinating penicillin production in the U.S. (Box 4, Paul D. Foote, and Box 6, 1959-1960, concern a controversy on patenting of production methods in U.K. and U.S. which casts light on Clarke's role in the penicillin production effort).

Clarke's activities int he NAS, including records of his receipt of the King's medal in 1948 and vitae of nominees from 1942 to 1971 have been retained (Box 6). His activity as chairman of the Rochester section of the American Chemical Society (1921), of the New York section (1946) and of the Organic Chemisty Division (1924-25) as well as his work on the Committee on Professional Training, and the Garvin Award Committee, are well documented (Box 1, 6 files). Clarke was also the president of teh American Society of Biological Chemists in 1947, but the collection contains very little of interest in this regard (Box 2, 5 files, 50 items, c. 1942-1963).

Clarke's activity on grants allocation committees is well documented. As a member of teh Otological Society he served on a grants committee from 1956-1962 (Box 1, 9 files). As Chairman of the Merck Fellowship Board of the National Academy of Sciences in 1957, Clarke retained such interesting correspondence as a letter from Warren Weaver to A.N. Richards recommending the use of the Merck money for two or three research professorships at $15,000 p.a. rather than only for post-doctoral research, and a letter from Kenneth B. Raper at Wisconsin approving of this proposal which was passed on to the Merck Board in March 1957 (Box 5).

Clarke was in much demand for his talents as a lucid writer and was called on to serve as editor or referee throughout his career. He served on the editorial board of Organic Synthesis from 1921 to 1932 (Box 6, 3 files), of the Journal of Biological Chemistry from 1937 to 1951, and as associate editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society from 1928 to 1938 (JBC, Box 4, 8 files up to 1960, also, Box 3, Clarke's 50th Anniversary article on the Journal).

From the guide to the Hans Thacher Clarke Papers, Circa 1903-1973, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mid-Century Convocation on the Social Implications of Scientific Progress records, 1949, 1999 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn Taylor, Lauriston S. (Lauriston Sale), 1902-2004. From the cupboards of Lauriston S. Taylor, 1985. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Shankland, Robert S., 1908-. Oral history interview with Robert S. Shankland, 1974 August 20 and 21. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Atoms for Peace Awards records, 1944-1972 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn MacDonald, Gordon J. (Gordon James), 1929-2002. Oral history interview with Gordon J. MacDonald, 1993-1995. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Edmondson, Frank K. (Frank Kelley), 1912-. Oral history interview with Frank K. Edmondson, 21 April 1977 and 2 February 1978. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Records, 1953-1974 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Roe, Anne, 1904-1991. Papers, 1949-1971 (bulk). American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Bethe, Hans A. (Hans Albrecht), 1906-2005. Gregory Breit Symposium [sound recording] / 1968 May 3. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Clarke, Hans Thacher, 1887-1972. Papers, ca. 1903-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Bowen, Ira Sprague, 1898-1973. Oral history interview with Ira Sprague Bowen, 1968 August 9 and 26 August 1969. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Chadwick, James, 1891-1974. Oral history interview with James Chadwick, 1969 April 15 to 20. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Anne Roe papers, 1949-1974 (bulk), 1949-1974 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics. Selected papers, 1933-1947. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Greenstein, Jesse L. (Jesse Leonard), 1909-2002. Oral history interview with Jesse Leonard Greenstein, 1974 July 31. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Cockcroft, John, Sir, 1897-1967. Oral history interview conducted with Sir John Cockcroft, 1967 March 28. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982. Merle Antony Tuve papers, 1901-1982 (bulk 1941-1966). Library of Congress
creatorOf Hans Thacher Clarke Papers, Circa 1903-1973 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Fowler, William A. Oral history interview with William Alfred Fowler, 1972 June 8, 1973 Feb. 5, 1974 May 30. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Office of the President, records of Karl Taylor Compton and James Rhyne Killian, 1930-1959 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Herbert Friedman Papers, 1940-2000 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Beams, Jesse W. (Jesse Wakefield), 1898-1977. Selected correspondence, 1945-1949. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982. Oral history interview with Merle Antony Tuve, 1982 January 13 and 5 February. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Crane, H. R. (Horace Richard), 1907-2007. Oral history interview with H. R. Crane, 1973 March 28 and 18 June 1974. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. Nuclear physics program records, 1927-1963 1933-1955. Carnegie Institution of Washington DTM-Geophysical Laboratory
referencedIn Sachs, Robert Green, 1916-. Letters concerning Merle Tuve's and Raymond Herb's physics research at Johns Hopkins University and the Univerity of Wisconsin, 1983-1984. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Wheeler, John Archibald, 1911-2008. Oral history interview with John Archibald Wheeler, 1967 April 5. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Beams, Jesse W. (Jesse Wakefield), 1898-1977. Papers of Jesse W. Beams [manuscript], 1926-1977. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Gregory Breit papers, 1917-1991 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Merle Antony Tuve Papers, 1901-1982, (bulk 1941-1966) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Breit, Gregory, 1899-1981. Gregory Breit papers, 1929-1980 (inclusive), 1960-1970 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Bush, Vannevar, 1890-1974. Oral history interview with Vannevar Bush, 1964. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Lauritsen, Charles Christian. 1892-1968. Oral history interview with Charles Christian Lauritsen, 1966 June 27. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Fraser, Lorence. Oral History interview with Lorence Fraser, 1983 March 9. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. Monthly reports of Merle A. Tuve, 1928-1940. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Gentner, Wolfgang, 1906-. Oral history interview with Wolfgang Gentner, 1971 November 15. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Breit, Gregory, 1899-. Gregory Breit papers, 1929-1980 (inclusive), 1960-1970 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982. Oral history interview with Merle Antony Tuve, 1967 March 30. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982. Oral history interview with Merle Antony Tuve, 1967 May 6. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Livingston, M. Stanley (Milton Stanley). Oral history interview with Milton Stanley Livingston, 1967 August 21. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Amaldi, Edoardo. person
associatedWith American Chemical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Otological Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Society of Biological Chemists. corporateBody
associatedWith Ames, Joseph Sweetman, 1864-1943. person
associatedWith Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy corporateBody
associatedWith Beams, Jesse W. (Jesse Wakefield), 1898-1977. person
associatedWith Bohr, Niels, 1885-1962. person
associatedWith Bowen, Ira Sprague, 1898-1973. person
associatedWith Breit, Gregory, 1899-1981. person
correspondedWith Bush, Vannevar, 1890-1974 person
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. corporateBody
associatedWith Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism. corporateBody
associatedWith Chadwick, James, 1891-1974. person
associatedWith Christman, Albert B. person
associatedWith Clarke, Agnes Helfreich person
associatedWith Clarke, Hans Thacher, 1887-1972. person
associatedWith Cockcroft, John, Sir, 1897-1967. person
associatedWith Conant, James Bryant, 1893-1978 person
associatedWith Cornell, Thomas D. (Thomas David). person
associatedWith Crane, H. R. (Horace Richard), 1907-2007. person
associatedWith Du Vigneaud, Vincent, 1901-1978 person
associatedWith Edmondson, Frank K. (Frank Kelley), 1912- person
associatedWith Emerson, Alfred E., (Alfred Edwards), 1896-1976 person
associatedWith Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954. person
correspondedWith Fleming, J. A. (John Ambrose), Sir, 1849-1945 person
associatedWith Fowler, William A. person
associatedWith Fraser, Lorence. person
correspondedWith Friedman, Herbert, 1916-2000 person
associatedWith Fruton, Joseph S., (Joseph Stewart), 1912- person
associatedWith General Electric Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Gentner, Wolfgang, 1906- person
associatedWith George Washington University. corporateBody
associatedWith Gies, William John, 1872-1956 person
associatedWith Greenstein, Jesse L. (Jesse Leonard), 1909-2002. person
associatedWith Hafstad, Lawrence, 1904- person
associatedWith Huxley, Julian, 1887-1975 person
associatedWith Johns Hopkins University. corporateBody
associatedWith Johns Hopkins University. Applied Physics Laboratory. corporateBody
associatedWith Killian, James Rhyne, 1904-1988 person
associatedWith Lauritsen, Charles Christian. 1892-1968. person
associatedWith Lawrence, Ernest Orlando, 1901-1958. person
associatedWith Leggett, M. Bryce person
associatedWith Livingston, M. Stanley (Milton Stanley) person
associatedWith Long, Esmond R., (Esmond Ray), 1890- person
associatedWith Luck, James Murray, 1899- person
associatedWith MacDonald, Gordon J. (Gordon James), 1929-2002. person
associatedWith Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Office of the President corporateBody
correspondedWith Merriam, John C. (John Campbell), 1869-1945 person
associatedWith Mid-Century Convocation on the Social Implications of Scientific Progress (1949 : Massachusetts Institute of Technology) corporateBody
associatedWith Middleton, Dorothy Clarke person
associatedWith Moe, Henry Allen, 1894-1975 person
associatedWith National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith National Radio Astronomy Observatory (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Oliphant, Mark, Sir, 1901- person
associatedWith Planck, Erwin person
associatedWith Princeton University. corporateBody
correspondedWith Provine, William B. person
associatedWith Roe, Anne, 1904-1991. person
associatedWith Rutherford, Ernest, 1871-1937. person
associatedWith Sachs, Robert Green, 1916- person
associatedWith Shankland, Robert S., 1908- person
associatedWith Shockley, William, 1910- person
associatedWith Smiles, Samuel, 1877-1953 person
associatedWith Sperry, Warren Myron, 1900- person
associatedWith Stewart, Alfred W., (Alfred Walter), b. 1880 person
associatedWith Tate, John T. (John Torrence), 1889-1950. person
correspondedWith Tatel, Howard E. (Howard Edwin), 1913- person
associatedWith Taylor, Geoffrey Ingram, Sir, 1886-1975 person
associatedWith Taylor, Lauriston S. (Lauriston Sale), 1902-2004. person
associatedWith United States. National Bureau of Standards. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Navy. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Minnesota. corporateBody
associatedWith Van de Graaff, Robert Jemison, 1901-1967. person
correspondedWith Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950 person
associatedWith Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics. corporateBody
correspondedWith Weatherwax, James Lloyd, b. 1884 person
associatedWith Weiner, Charles, person
associatedWith Wheeler, John Archibald, 1911-2008. person
associatedWith Whitman, Winifred Gray. person
associatedWith Whitman, Winifred Gray. Winifred Gray Whitman papers. 1930-1931 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Washington (D.C.)
Subject
Physics--Washington (D.C.)--Congresses
Radar
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958
Van de Graaff generator
Ionosphere
Fund raising
Penicillin
Radio pulse time modulation
Atomic bomb
Biophysics
Science--Societies, etc
Physics--Congresses
World War, 1939-1945--War work
Geomagnetism
Cosmic rays
Medicine--United States
Geophysics--International cooperation
Astronomy
Biochemistry--United States
World War, 1939-1945--Science
Seismology
Depressions--1929
Nuclear fission
Neutrons
Atmosphere, Upper
Nuclear physics
Biochemistry
Radio
Radio astronomy
Electricity
Physics
Nuclear weapons--Testing
Proximity fuzes
Clarinet
Manhattan Project (U.S.)
Particle accelerators
Nuclear forces (Physics)
Physics--Study and teaching
Defense industries
High voltages
Radiation
Photographic chemistry
Occupation
Physicists
Function

Person

Birth 1901-06-27

Death 1982-05-20

Information

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