Allison, Samuel King, 1900-1965

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Physicist. S.B., University of Chicago, 1921; Ph. D., 1923. National Research Fellow, Harvard University, 1923-1925. Research associate, Carnegie Institution, 1925-1926. Instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, University of California, Berkeley, 1926-1930. Associate professor of physics, University of Chicago, 1930-1942; professor, 1942-1959; Frank P. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor, 1959-1965. Member of Manhattan Project, 1942-1945. Director of Enrico Fermi Institute (originally called Institute for Nuclear Studies), 1945-1958, 1963-1965.

From the description of Papers, 1920-1965 (inclusive). (University of Chicago Library). WorldCat record id: 52250083

Samuel King Allison was born in Chicago on November 13, 1900. In 1917 he entered the University of Chicago and received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1921 and his doctorate in 1923. Following his graduation, he became a fellow of the National Research Council at Harvard University (1923-1925); a fellow at the Carnegie Institute (1925-1926); and a member of the faculty at the University of California (1926-1930). In 1930 Allison returned to the University of Chicago, and, from that time until his death in September 1965, continued to be associated with the University.

During his career at the University of Chicago, Allison was not only active as a teacher and a research scientist, but also as an administrator and a civil servant. In the 1930s, Allison conducted experiments with X-rays, and published his results in a book, X-rays in Theory and Experiment. In the 1940s he began work on the liberation of nuclear energy, and was a member of the team working under Enrico Fermi which achieved the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction on December 2, 1942. Between 1943 and 1944 Allison served as director of the "Metallurgical Laboratory" which was developing a method for producing plutonium.

In November, 1944 Allison joined the Manhattan Project and was chairman of the Technical and Scheduling Committee at the Los Alamos Laboratory. He returned to the University of Chicago in 1945 to become the first director of the newly-formed Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies. While director of the Institute, Allison encouraged the exchange of scientific information, free from military control. Allison also helped to found The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, and visited Spain and South America as guest lecturer and advisor.

In order to devote all of his time to research projects, Allison resigned as director of the Fermi Institute in 1958. He continued to travel, however, and was appointed by the Organization of American States to a "Direct Technical Assistance Field Mission" to the Centro Atomico, San Carlos de Variloche. From 1960 to 1963 Allison also served as Chairman of the Physics Section of the National Academy of Sciences.

When Herbert L. Anderson, Allison's successor at the Fermi Institute, resigned in 1963 to continue his research with a new particle accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory, Allison resumed his duties as director. Two years later, on September 1, 1965, Allison died while attending the Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research Conference held in Culham, England.

From the guide to the Allison, Samuel King. Papers, 1920-1965, (Special Collections Research Center University of Chicago Library 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn University of Chicago. Institute for Nuclear Studies. Cyclotron records, 1946-1952 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Libby, Willard F. Oral history interview with Willard Frank Libby, 1979 April 12 and 16. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Pauling, Linus, 1901-1994. Oral history interview with Linus Carl Pauling, 1964 March 27. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Robert R. Wilson papers, 1936-2000. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Loeb, Leonard B. (Leonard Benedict), 1891-. Oral history interview with Leonard B. Loeb, 1962 August 7. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Dempster, Arthur Jeffrey. Papers [microform], 1945-1950. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Wilson, Robert R., 1914-2000. Robert R. Wilson papers, 1936-2000. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993. Personal papers, 1948-1992. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn University of Chicago. Institute for Nuclear Studies. Cyclotron. Records, 1946-1952 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Archive for the History of Quantum Physics, 1898-1950 (bulk), 1898-1950 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Yang, Chen Ning, 1922-. Oral history interview with Chen Ning Yang, 1980 November 1. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Allison, Samuel King, 1900-1965. Papers, 1920-1965 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Louis A. Slotin Memorial Fund. Records, 1946-1962. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Allison, Samuel King. Papers, 1920-1965 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Slotin, Louis Memorial Fund. Records, 1946-1962 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
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associatedWith Abraham, Max, 1875-1922 person
associatedWith Amaldi, Edoardo, 1908-1989 person
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Physical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Physical Society and American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Andrade, E. N. da C., (Edward Neville da Costa), 1887-1971 person
associatedWith Back, Ernst, 1881-1959 person
associatedWith Bauer, Edmond, 1880-1963 person
associatedWith Becquerel, Jean, 1878-1953 person
associatedWith Benedicks, Carl Axel Fredrik, 1875-1953 person
associatedWith Berliner, Arnold, 1862-1942 person
associatedWith Birge, Raymond T., (Raymond Thayer), 1887-1980 person
associatedWith Bohr, Niels Henrik David, 1885-1962 person
associatedWith Born, Max, 1882-1970 person
associatedWith Breit, Gregory, 1899-1981 person
associatedWith Broglie, Louis de, 1892-1987 person
associatedWith Cockcroft, John, Sir, 1897-1967 person
associatedWith Compton, Arthur Holly, 1892-1962 person
associatedWith Coster, Dirk, 1889-1950 person
associatedWith Darwin, Charles Galton, Sir, 1887-1962 person
associatedWith Debye, Peter J. W., (Peter Josef William), 1884-1966 person
associatedWith Dempster, Arthur Jeffrey. person
associatedWith Dieke, Gerhard Heinrich, 1901-1965 person
associatedWith Dirac, P. A. M., (Paul Adrien Maurice), 1902-1984 person
associatedWith Eddington, Arthur Stanley, Sir, 1882-1944 person
associatedWith Ehrenfest, Paul, 1880-1933 person
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associatedWith Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954 person
associatedWith Fokker, A. D., (Adriaan Daniel), 1887-1972 person
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associatedWith Franck, James, 1882-1964 person
associatedWith Gerlach, Walther, 1889-1979 person
associatedWith Goudsmit, Samuel Abraham, 1902-1978 person
associatedWith Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993. person
associatedWith Haber, Fritz, 1868-1934 person
associatedWith Heisenberg, Werner, 1901-1976 person
associatedWith Hilbert, David, 1862-1943 person
associatedWith Joliot-Curie, Frédéric person
associatedWith Jordan, Pascual, 1902-1980 person
associatedWith Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike, 1853-1926 person
associatedWith Kapitsa, P. L., (Petr Leonidovich), 1894-1984 person
associatedWith Kayser, H., (Heinrich), 1853-1940 person
associatedWith Kemble, Edwin C., (Edwin Crawford), 1889-1984 person
associatedWith Klein, Oskar, 1894-1977 person
associatedWith Kramers, Hendrik Anthony, 1894-1952 person
associatedWith Ladenburg, Rudolf Walter, 1882-1952 person
associatedWith Langevin, Paul, 1872-1946 person
associatedWith Laue, Max von, 1879-1960 person
associatedWith Libby, Willard F. person
associatedWith Loeb, Leonard B. (Leonard Benedict), 1891- person
associatedWith London, Fritz, 1900-1954 person
associatedWith Louis A. Slotin Memorial Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Manhattan Project (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith McLennan, J. C., (John Cunningham), 1867-1935 person
associatedWith Meitner, Lise, 1878-1968 person
associatedWith Mie, Gustav, 1868-1957 person
associatedWith Millikan, Robert Andrews, 1868-1953 person
associatedWith Mulliken, Robert Sanderson, 1896-1986 person
associatedWith Nishina, Yoshio, 1890-1951 person
associatedWith Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967 person
associatedWith Paschen, F., (Friedrich), 1865-1947 person
associatedWith Pauling, Linus, 1901-1994. person
associatedWith Pauli, Wolfgang, 1900-1958 person
associatedWith Planck, Max, 1858-1947 person
associatedWith Rosenfeld, L., (Leon), 1904-1974 person
associatedWith Rosseland, Svein, 1894-1985 person
associatedWith Rubens, Heinrich, 1865-1922 person
associatedWith Runge, Carl, 1856-1927 person
associatedWith Rutherford, Ernest, 1871-1937 person
associatedWith Scheel, Karl, 1866-1936 person
associatedWith Schrödinger, Erwin, 1887-1961 person
associatedWith Sommerfeld, Arnold, 1868-1951 person
associatedWith Stark, Johannes, 1874-1957 person
associatedWith Thomson, J. J., Sir, (Joseph John), 1856-1940 person
associatedWith Uhlenbeck, George Eugène, 1900-1988 person
associatedWith University of Chicago. Dept. of Physics corporateBody
associatedWith University of Chicago. Dept. of Physics. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Chicago. Institute for Nuclear Studies. corporateBody
associatedWith Van Vleck, J. H., (John Hasbrouck), 1899-1980 person
associatedWith Voigt, Woldemar, 1850-1919 person
associatedWith Von Neumann, John, 1903-1957 person
associatedWith Warburg, Emil Gabriel, 1846-1931 person
associatedWith Weisskopf, Victor Frederick, 1908-2002 person
associatedWith Wilson, Robert R., 1914-2000. person
associatedWith Yang, Chen Ning, 1922- person
associatedWith Zeeman, Pieter, 1865-1943 person
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X-rays
Physics
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Birth 1900-11-13

Death 1965-09-15

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