Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942

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Thomas J. Mooney was born on December 8, 1882 in Chicago, Illinois and raised in Indiana and Massachusetts. A molder by trade, Mooney first came to California in 1908, permanently settling in San Francisco in 1910. There he became involved in the work of the Socialist party and various labor organizing activites. In 1916, Mooney and Warren K. Billings were wrongfully convicted of the Preparedness Day bombing of July 22. Mooney's plight became a cause amongst labor until his eventual release and pardon in 1939. Mooney died only a few years after his release on March 6, 1942.

From the description of Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1887-1949 (bulk 1930-1942). (University of California, Berkeley). WorldCat record id: 80279585

Tom Mooney was sentenced to life imprisonment for the bombing in 1916 of San Francisco's Preparedness Day Parade.

From the description of Papers, 1916-1939. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122377010

Thomas Joseph Mooney (1882-1942) was an American labor leader. Mooney's conviction with Warren K. Billings for exploding a bomb during a San Francisco preparedness day in 1916 caused worldwide controversy. Mooney's sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1918.

From the guide to the Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1916-1924, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Thomas Joseph Mooney (1882-1942) was an American labor leader.

Mooney's conviction with Warren K. Billings for exploding a bomb during a San Francisco preparedness day in 1916 caused worldwide controversy. Mooney's sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1918.

From the description of Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1916-1924. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122615882

Biography

Thomas J. Mooney (1882-1942) was a labor activist convicted of murder for a bombing that occurred at the San Francisco Preparedness Day Parade on July 22, 1916. The bombing killed ten and injured forty parade bystanders and Mooney swore that he had not committed the crime. The parade was intended as a planned demonstration of the country's war-readiness during World War I, however, there was a strong undercurrent of isolationism and anti-militarism, particularly by certain elements of labor and from pacifist groups. Pamphlets circulated in the city threatening violence and counter-demonstrations in the days leading up to the parade.

By most accounts, the trial of Mooney was mired in anti-socialist and anti-anarchist hysteria. Mooney and co-defendant Warren K. Billings were both convicted of murder. Allegations that certain key witnesses had perjured themselves or had been coerced to testify against Mooney later arose. Eventually the death sentences of Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings were commuted to life in prison in 1918 following a commission of inquiry established by President Woodrow Wilson. After 22 years of agitation and litigation, Mooney successfully secured a pardon from Governor Culbert Olson and was released from San Quentin in 1939. Thomas Mooney died on March 6, 1942.

From the guide to the Thomas J. Mooney legal documents and papers, 1889-1947 (bulk 1916-1935), (University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections.)

Biographical Information

Mooney, Thomas Joseph (8 Dec. 1882-6 Mar. 1942), labor leader, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Bryan Mooney (also called Bernard), a coal miner, and Mary Hefferon (or Heffernan). Mooney lived in Washington, Indiana, until he was ten, when his father died. The family then moved to Holyoke, Massachusetts, where his mother found work in a paper mill as a ragsorter. Mooney left school at fourteen for a job in a local factory and in 1898 entered the iron molding trade. He joined the molders' union, a membership he maintained the rest of his life. With opportunities for employment scarce, he began traveling around the country, doing whatever work he could find. In 1907 his journeys took him to Europe, and there he discovered socialism. Returning home, he began drifting again, this time traveling as far west as Stockton, California. There he joined the Socialist party, worked for the presidential campaign of Eugene V. Debs, and spent a winter in Chicago learning more about the party.

In 1909 Mooney set off again, this time seeking to win a round-the-world trip in a subscription-selling contest sponsored by a socialist magazine. He lost, but so narrowly that the magazine paid his way to attend the International Socialist Congress in Copenhagen in 1910. He then returned to California, this time settling in San Francisco. He belonged briefly to the Industrial Workers of the World, but, finding them too sectarian, he aligned himself with the radical minority of the local Socialist party and served as circulation manager for their short-lived newspaper, Revolt . He ran on the Socialist party ticket for superior court judge in 1910 and for sheriff in 1911. He also helped organize molders for the tiny left-wing Syndicalist League of North America. He was married in 1911 to Rena Ellen Brink Hermann; they had no children.

In 1913 Mooney and Warren Knox Billings, another young radical, became involved in a bitter electrical workers' strike against the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Billings was caught with a suitcase full of dynamite, and although Mooney does not appear to have been involved, he heard that he too was about to be arrested. He went underground for several months, then tried to slip away by boat, but was caught and charged with illegal possession of explosives. Three trials followed, the first two ending in hung juries and the third (1914) in his acquittal. Once released, Mooney resumed his labor activism.

By 1916, with World War I in Europe nearly two years old, many Americans were calling for a military build-up. Others, including many labor leaders and radicals, opposed the idea, arguing that it would only hasten the country's entry into what they saw as a corrupt and imperialist war. On 22 July 1916, during the period when Preparedness Day parades were being held throughout the country, a bomb exploded in the midst of San Francisco's parade, killing ten people and wounding forty more. Although there was almost no physical evidence, the press immediately blamed political radicals, while District Attorney Charles M. Fickert concluded that the bomb had been brought to the scene in a suitcase. With encouragement from the private detective at Pacific Gas and Electric who had tracked down Mooney and Billings in 1913, Fickert quickly arrested both men, along with Mooney's wife and several other people.

Billings, who was tried first, was found guilty of second-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. Mooney's trial for first-degree murder followed in January 1917. A rancher named Frank Oxman, who had not appeared in the Billings trial, testified that he had seen both men carrying a suitcase near the bomb scene, and although his statement contradicted other prosecution testimony, Mooney was convicted and sentenced to the gallows. Subsequent investigations discredited Oxman's testimony, but under pressure from local business interests and the Hearst press, Fickert refused to reopen the case. In the meantime, Mooney's wife was tried (without Oxman's testimony) and acquitted.

Until Mooney's conviction, most of his support came from fellow radicals, in addition to a few public-minded lawyers, led by Bourke Cockran. Once the trial was over, however, Mooney's circle of supporters expanded to include a wide array of mainstream labor leaders, civil libertarians, reformers, public officials, and members of the general public. The case attracted worldwide attention, and when mobs in Petrograd stormed the American embassy to protest Mooney's conviction, President Woodrow Wilson urged the governor of California to consider giving Mooney a new trial. Some months later, at the suggestion of Colonel Edward House (Wilson's closest adviser), the case was reviewed by the Wickersham National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, which was studying labor strikes. On the basis of questions raised by the commission, Mooney's sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in November 1918.

Mooney was saved from execution, but he was still in San Quentin Prison, with no new trial on the horizon. For the next twenty years his supporters struggled to maintain public interest in the case and to win his freedom. They encountered innumerable political and legal obstacles, however, and Mooney's irascibility and distrust made their task more difficult. Nevertheless, they persevered; Frank Walsh, Mooney's attorney from 1923 to 1939, is said to have spent $50,000 of his own money in pursuing various appeals. In 1934 Upton Sinclair, running for governor, promised to set Mooney free if elected; this ray of hope disappeared when Sinclair was defeated. A U.S. Supreme Court decision on one of Mooney's appeals (Mooney v. Holohan, 1935) set important new precedents in federal habeas corpus proceedings, but Mooney remained a prisoner.

Mooney failed in a personal appeal to the California state legislature in 1938 and shortly thereafter was rejected for the last time by the U.S. Supreme Court. Finally, in January 1939, Governor Culbert L. Olson granted Mooney a pardon. (Billings was released from prison when his sentence was commuted ten months later, and he was officially pardoned in 1961.) Mooney had a brief tour as a labor hero and then sank into obscurity, burdened with debts, estranged from his wife, and suffering from bleeding ulcers. He died in San Francisco.

Mooney did not become a dissident hero by choice; there is no evidence that he had anything to do with the bombing that sent him to prison. Nor was he a hero by nature; his complaints and resentment strained the loyalty of his supporters almost to the breaking point. Nevertheless, his experience forced him into a hero's role, providing the beleaguered labor movement with a martyr and leading many ordinary citizens to conclude that the American system could be very unjust.

Sandra Opdycke. "Mooney, Thomas Joseph";

http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00485.html;

American National Biography Online Feb. 2000.

Access Date: Tue Mar 29 2011 13:50:12 GMT-0700 (Pacific Daylight Time)

Copyright (c) 2000 American Council of Learned Societies. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy.

Chronology

  • 1882 December 8: Birth of Thomas J. Mooney, Chicago, Illinois
  • 1911: Marriage to Rena Hermann
  • 1916 July 22: Preparedness Day Bombing, San Francisco
  • 1916 July 27: Tom and Rena Mooney arrested
  • 1916 August 2: Tom and Rena Mooney, Billings, Nolan, and Weinberg each indicted on eight counts of murder
  • 1916 September 11: Billings trial begins
  • 1916 September 23: Billings convicted of murder, sentenced to life in prison
  • 1917 January 3: Start of Tom Mooney trial
  • 1917 February 9: Tom Mooney convicted of murder
  • 1917 February 24: Tom Mooney sentenced to death
  • 1917 April 6: Oxman letters published in San Francisco Bulletin
  • 1917 May 11: Mooney death sentence stayed by Governor Stephens
  • 1917 July 27: Rena Mooney acquitted, remains jailed
  • 1917 September 21: Oxman tried and acquitted of subornation of perjury
  • 1917 November: Weinberg tried and acquitted, remains jailed
  • 1917 December 17: Election to recall Fickert fails
  • 1918 March 30: Weinberg and Rena Mooney freed
  • 1918 November 28: Governor Stephens commutes Mooney's sentence to life in prison
  • 1919: National Mooney Congress convenes in Chicago
  • 1932 September 28: Paul Callicotte confesses to Preparedness Day bombing
  • 1939 January 7: Official pardon granted by Governor Culbert L. Olson
  • 1942: Tom Mooney dies in San Francisco

From the guide to the Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1887-1949, bulk 1930-1942, (The Bancroft Library)

Biography

Known worldwide as the scapegoat of anti-unionists, Thomas Joseph Mooney was falsely accused for bombing the Preparedness Day Parade in San Francisco on July 16, 1916. Mooney, a Socialist union activist and organizer, had previously been involved in an ugly strike against the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. This put him under immediate suspicion for the bombing even though it was later proved that he was no where near the actual bomb site during the parade. Mooney's wife, Rena, Warren Billings, Israel Weinberg, and Edward Nolan were also tried for the bombing but only Billings and Mooney were convicted. Mooney received the death sentence in 1917 and spent the next twenty-two years in prison despite outrage from around the world and evidence that many of the witnesses who testified against him had committed perjury, especially F.C. Oxman.

Culbert Olson, governor of California, officially pardoned Thomas Mooney in 1939.

From the guide to the Thomas J. Mooney Collection, 1917-1918, (Henry Madden Library (California State University, Fresno). Sanoian Special Collections Library.)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Lewis, Austin, 1865?-1944. Austin Lewis papers, 1913-1944. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Papers pertaining to the Mooney case, 1916-1933. California Historical Society
referencedIn Warren K. Billings Papers, 1899-1973, (bulk 1920-1939) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Lewis Graham Hines Papers, 1916-1959, (bulk 1939-1956) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn George Creel Papers, 1857-1953, (bulk 1896-1953) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Frank P. Walsh papers, 1896-1939, 1920-1939 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Liggett, Walter W. (Walter William), 1886-1935. Walter W. Liggett papers, 1896-1932. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
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referencedIn Tamiment Library Manuscript Files, Bulk, 1910-1965, 1749-1988 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Angela Morgan Papers, 1893-1957 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Carey, George V. George Carey papers, 1913-1950. University of Michigan
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referencedIn Blackwell, Alice Stone, 1857-1950. Blackwell family papers, 1759-1960 (bulk 1845-1890). Library of Congress
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referencedIn International Moulders Union of North America, Union no. 23l. Papers, 1888-1970. University of Utah, J. Willard Marriott Library
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creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942. Typed letter signed Tom Mooney, 31921 to: "Dear Friend Jeannette." June 4, 1934. Wellesley College
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referencedIn Marshall, George, 1904-2000. George Marshall papers, 1933-1955. New York Public Library System, NYPL
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creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942. Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1887-1949 (bulk 1930-1942). UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Thomas J. Mooney collection, 1917-1918. California State University, Fresno, Henry Madden Library
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referencedIn International Ladies Garment Workers Union. Charles S. Zimmerman papers, 1919-1958 [bulk 1920-1945]. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, 1896-1964, (Bulk 1937-1964) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
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referencedIn Creel, George, 1876-1953. George Creel papers, 1857-1953 (bulk 1896-1953). Library of Congress
referencedIn American Defense Society. Records, 1915-1942. New-York Historical Society
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creatorOf Duluth Federated Trades and Labor Assembly (Duluth, Minn.). Organization records, 1892-1942. Minnesota Historical Society Library
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referencedIn Cotton, Aylett R. (Aylett Rains), 1874-1965. Aylett Rains Cotton memoirs : ms., 1961-1963. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Ward, Estolv Ethan, 1900-. The gentle dynamiter : a non-fiction historical novel, [196-?]. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board minutes, 1919-1966 [bulk 1919-1932]. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
creatorOf McDevitt, Wm. (William). Wm. (William) McDevitt papers, 1892-1959. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969. Ben Shahn papers, 1879-1990 (bulk 1933-1970). Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Beffel, John Nicholas. Papers, 1909-1970. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn A Collection of material about Thomas J. Mooney, 1916-1935. University of California, Los Angeles
referencedIn Kenny, Robert W. (Robert Walker), 1901-1976. The Rebel Voice: Jesse W. Carter and the Supreme Court of California : n.p. : typescript, 1965. UC Berkeley Libraries
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referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Negatives Collection, Bulk, 1968-1990, 1930-2001 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
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referencedIn Thomas J. Mooney legal documents and papers, 1889-1947 (bulk 1916-1935) University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections.
creatorOf Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1916-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Darcy, Samuel, 1905-. Papers, 1924-1985 (bulk 1930-1945). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Gallagher, Mary E. (Mary Eleanora), 1883-1966. Mary E. Gallagher collection on the I.W.W. and various labor and Socialist leaders, circa 1919-1955. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America records, 1914-1980, 1920-1950 (bulk) Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Thomas J. Mooney records, 1914-1937 (bulk 1914) UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942,. In the Supreme Court of the State of California, the people of the State of California, respondent, vs. Thomas J. Mooney, appellant: Shorthand reporter's transcript on appeal : from the judgment of the Superior Court of the State of California, in and for the City and County of San Francisco, and from an order denying defendant's motion for a new trial. California State University East Bay, Hayward Campus Library
referencedIn Blackwell Family Papers, 1759-1960, (bulk 1845-1890) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Davis, George Thomas, 1907-2006. George T. Davis collection of legal documents related to Thomas J. Mooney and Warren K. Billings, 1916-1971 (bulk 1930-1937). UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Cockran, William Bourke, 1854-1923. William Bourke Cockran papers, 1881-1924. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942. Letters. 1932-1936, to Harold G. Rugg, Hanover, N.H. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Weinberger, Harry, 1888-. Harry Weinberger papers, 1915-1944 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942. Papers, 1916-1939. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Capitol opinions [sound recording] : concerning Tom Mooney, [19--]. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. Papers, 1896-1964 (bulk 1937-1964) Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Jacob Potofsky correspondence, 1930-1946, 1930-1940 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Ward, Estolv Ethan, 1900-. The Gentle Dynamiter, ca. 1980-ca. 1989. University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Jackson, Gardner, 1896-1965. Papers, 1927-1964. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Sanford, Marvin. Papers of Marvin Sanford, 1896-1970. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Smith, Court W. [Collection of legal briefs relating to action of Thomas J. Mooney against Court W. Smith in the Supreme Court of the United States]. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Thomas J. Mooney papers, 1887-1949, bulk 1930-1942 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Rochester Joint Board minutes, 1919-1966, bulk 1919-1932. [microform]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn International Labor Defense records, 1926-1946 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
creatorOf Bernard, John T. (John Toussaint), 1893-1983. John Toussaint Bernard papers, 1934-1973. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Lena Morrow Lewis Papers, 1899-1951 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Farmer-Labor Association of Minnesota. Farmer-Labor Association of Minnesota records, 1918-1948. Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942. Application for a writ of habeas corpus, 1938. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Mooney, Thomas J., 1882-1942. Typed letter signed Tom Mooney, 31921 to: Miss Marks. March 19, 1935. Wellesley College
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Sidney Hillman papers, 1930-1946, 1935-1945 (bulk). Cornell University Library
creatorOf Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. Typed letter (copy) signed Jeannette Marks to: "Dear Friend" November 12, 1933. Wellesley College
referencedIn Northern Information Bureau (Minneapolis, Minn.). Organization records, 1909-1933 (bulk 1916-1925). Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
referencedIn Mooney Molders' Defense Committee. Thomas J. Mooney ephemera collection. Yale University, Law School Library
referencedIn Social Democratic Federation of America. Records, 1933-1956. Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
referencedIn Alexander Berkman Papers, 1917-1919 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Alexander, Gross W. Letter : Pocatello, Idaho, to John W. Shenk, San Francisco, 1935 May 16. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Cockran, William Bourke, 1854-1923. Papers, 1890-1923. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Thomas J. Mooney legal documents and papers, 1889-1947 (bulk 1916-1935) University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections.
referencedIn Wm. (William) McDevitt Papers, 1892-1959 Bancroft Library
referencedIn John Nicholas Beffel Papers, 1909-1970 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
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referencedIn William Bourke Cockran papers, 1881-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
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Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alexander, Gross W. person
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. corporateBody
associatedWith American Defense Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Beffel, John Nicholas. person
associatedWith Berkman, Alexander, 1870-1936. person
associatedWith Bernard, John T. (John Toussaint), 1893-1983. person
associatedWith Billings, Warren K., 1893-1972. person
correspondedWith Blackwell family family
associatedWith Bobba, Roberta person
associatedWith California. Supreme Court. corporateBody
associatedWith Carey, George V. person
associatedWith Christensen, Otto Augustus, 1851-1918. person
associatedWith Cockran, William Bourke, 1854-1923. person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Cook, Cassius V., 1879-1950. person
associatedWith Cotton, Aylett R. (Aylett Rains), 1874-1965. person
correspondedWith Creel, George, 1876-1953. person
associatedWith Darcy, Samuel, 1905- person
associatedWith Davis, George Thomas, 1907-2006. person
associatedWith Duluth Federated Trades and Labor Assembly (Duluth, Minn.). corporateBody
associatedWith Ellison, John W. person
associatedWith Farmer-Labor Association of Minnesota. corporateBody
associatedWith Finerty, John Frederick, 1885-1967 person
associatedWith Fleming, Jack. person
associatedWith Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley person
associatedWith Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. person
associatedWith Frank, Walter Malte, 1893- person
associatedWith Gallagher, Mary E. (Mary Eleanora), 1883-1966. person
correspondedWith Gulbrandsen, Peter, 1890- person
associatedWith Hines, Lewis Graham, 1888-1960. person
associatedWith International Labor Defense. corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Local 22 (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith International Moulders Union of North America, Union no. 23l. corporateBody
associatedWith Jackson, Gardner, 1896-1965. person
associatedWith Kenny, Robert W. (Robert Walker), 1901-1976. person
associatedWith Lewis, Austin, 1865?-1944. person
associatedWith Lewis, Lena Morrow person
associatedWith Liggett, Walter W. (Walter William), 1886-1935. person
associatedWith Mahoney, William, 1869-1952. person
associatedWith Markham, Edwin, 1852-1940, person
associatedWith Marks, Jeannette Augustus, 1875-1964. person
associatedWith Marshall, George, 1904-2000. person
associatedWith McDevitt, Wm. (William) person
associatedWith McDevitt, Wm. (William)—Archives person
associatedWith Mead, William H. person
associatedWith Miller, Loren person
associatedWith Miller, Loren. person
associatedWith Mooney Molders Defense Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Mooney Molders' Defense Committee. person
associatedWith Mooney, Rena person
associatedWith Mooney, Rena. person
associatedWith Morgan, Angela, 1874-1957 person
associatedWith Northern Information Bureau (Minneapolis, Minn.). corporateBody
associatedWith Online Archive of California. corporateBody
associatedWith Operative Plasterers' and Cement Finishers' International Association of the United States and Canada. Local No. 20 (Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minn.). corporateBody
associatedWith Rugg, Harold Goddard, 1883-1957. person
associatedWith Sanford, Marvin. person
associatedWith Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969. person
associatedWith Social Democratic Federation of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Tamiment Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Thomas J. Mooney. person
associatedWith Tom Mooney Molders' Defense Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Walsh, Frank P. person
associatedWith Ward, Estolv Ethan, 1900- person
associatedWith Weinberger, Harry, 1888- person
associatedWith Zimmerman, Charles S. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
California--San Francisco
California--San Francisco
California
United States
United States
California--San Francisco
Subject
Life imprisonment
Socialism
Parades
bombing
Trials (Murder)--California--San Francisco--Archival resources
Working class--Political activity--United States
Trials (Political crimes and offenses)--California--San Francisco
Trials (Political crimes and offenses)
Labor and laboring classes
Bombings--California--San Francisco
Working class--Political activity
Labor movement--History
Trials (murder)
Hapeas corpus
Trials (Terrorism)
Civil rights
Occupation
Labor leaders
Function

Person

Birth 1882-12-08

Death 1942-03-06

Information

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