Socialist Party (U.S.)

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The Socialist Party (U.S.) was founded in 1901, bringing together moderate socialists from the Social Democratic Party, and dissident members of the Socialist Labor Party. In 1936 the ongoing differences between the “Old Guard” and “Militant” factions, resulted in a split, with the Militant group retaining the SP name and much of the membership, while the Old Guard faction retained most of the organizational and financial assets.

From the guide to the Socialist Party (U.S.) Minutes, 1900-1936, (Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives)

The Socialist Party of America was established on 29 July 1901 as a result of a merger between the moderate wing of the Socialist Labor Party and the Social Democratic Party. For most of its turbulent history, the Socialist Party has been reformist in its political attitudes and democratic in its organization. Until the mid 1950s, the Socialist Party advocated trade unionism, supported an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary conversion to socialism, and endorsed progressive as well as socialist candidates for public office.

Between 1901 and 1912, the party's membership grew from 10,000 to 118,000 and the votes cast for socialist Presidential candidates increased proportionately from 100,000 to 900,000. By advocating reform of the political and economic system, the party was able to enlist the support of many orthodox socialists and many heterogeneous elements remaining from such progressive movements as the Greenbackers, Populists, and "Single Taxers". The result was a broad based party, particularly strong in the West, which was prepared to sacrifice ideological purity for numbers and revolutionary gains for immediate political success. Evidence of this policy was demonstrated in the fact that in 1912 there were 56 socialist mayors, over 300 socialist aldermen, many socialist state legislators, and one socialist member of the House of Representatives.

This success, however, was short lived. Throughout the 1910s and 1920s, the Socialist Party suffered from the same external pressures which caused other progressive movements to stagnate. The party also suffered from numerous internal crises as well. Three major conflicts which caused the party to decline in this period were: (1) the expulsion of its revolutionary wing in 1912 1913; (2) the party's official opposition to World War I, which not only alienated the conservative membership of the party but also led to the trial and imprisonment of such important party figures as Eugene V. Debs and Victor Berger; and (3) the Russian Revolution of 1917, which encouraged the left wing of the party to demand a more militant program and, when this was not forthcoming, to secede from the party in 1919 and establish the Communist Party.

Following a brief resurgence in the late 1920s and early 1930s under the strong leadership of Norman Thomas, the Socialist Party was once again plagued with internal conflicts. The principal divisions within the party at this time were generational, geographical, and ideological in nature. These divisions were manifested in three major factions within the party. First, there was the "Old Guard" which was composed largely of middle aged and elderly members who had been in the party since its early years. The Old Guard occupied most of the party's leadership positions, including the office of national chairman and the National Executive Committee. Geographically, the old Guard was strongest in Pennsylvania, New York, and Connecticut, but it also controlled many of the state offices across the country.

Opposing the Old Guard were the "Militants" who were young, doctrinaire Marxists and the "Progressives" who were young, radical nonMarxists. The Militants, who resided primarily in New York City, were not communists. In fact, they were opposed to the Communist Party and they were critical of the Soviet Union's denial of civil liberties. The Progressive faction in the Socialist Party, also from New York City, was not so powerful as the Old Guard, but it was larger in size than the Militants. The Progressives, for the most part, were not Marxists. Instead, their goal was to organize a farmer labor party which would be based on principal rather than political expediency.

These three factions did not bring their differences of opinion into public focus until the 1932 Socialist Party convention in Milwaukee. During this convention, however, the groups clashed over the re election of Morris Hillquit as national chairman and two resolutions concerning the Soviet Union and trade unionism.

The conflict intensified during the New York City fur workers dispute in 1933. In the fur industry of New York City there were two rival unions, one controlled by the Old Guard and the other led by the Communist Party. During the dispute over which union should represent all of the fur workers, the Militants charged that the Old Guard was attempting to subvert the communist union in its quest for total control despite the fact that most of the workers supported the communists. Norman Thomas concurred in this view and demanded that the Old Guard cease its activities against the communist union members. The Old Guard union responded to these charges by obtaining a labor injunction against the communist union. Eventually, the fur workers dispute was resolved when members of both unions negotiated a settlement.

Another incident which pitted the three factions against each other occurred during the debate on the Declaration of Principles at the 1934 Socialist Party convention in Detroit. The Declaration of Principles was drafted by the Progressives and the Militants and included numerous statements on issues which they believed every socialist should advocate. During the debate on this document, the factions argued over the statements pertaining to socialist action in the event of war and the socialist view of democracy. When the delegates finally adopted the Declaration of Principles before the convention adjourned, it clearly demonstrated that the Old Guard was gradually losing control of the party.

The factional strife came to a climax in 1936 when the Old Guard bolted from the Socialist Party after the national convention in Cleveland and organized the Social Democratic Federation. The withdrawal of the Old Guard was a serious loss for the party. Not only did major socialist figures from New York, Connecticut, Maryland, and Pennsylvania leave the party, but they took with them much of the financial support of the party as well. In addition to these developments, two major urban political machines in the Socialist Party Reading, Pennsylvania and Bridgeport, Connecticut joined the Social Democratic Federation.

Following the departure of the old Guard, the Progressives and militants continued the party's infighting by dividing into three groups. The first group was an amalgamation of the old Progressives and the leadership of the Militants. Under the direction of Jack Altman and Paul Porter these moderates supported the American Labor Party and endorsed a more democratic view of socialism. A second group, formerly associated with the Militants, were emerging as the new left wing faction of the party. Calling itself the "Clarity" group after the periodical, Socialist Clarity, this group was led by Frank Trager, Gus Tyler, Robert and Max Delson, and Herbert Zam. Ideologically, the Clarity group was not opposed to labor parties and farm labor coalitions, but they were more insistent than the Altman group that any labor party wanting Socialist Party support should have a wide labor base and should repudiate capitalist reformist politics.

Complicating the situation within the party was an ultra left Trotskyite faction. Known as the Appeal group because of their periodical, Socialist Appeal, the Trotskyites maintained that the Socialist Party should repudiate all labor and farmer labor parties and thus transform itself into a revolutionary party. The Trotskyites also denounced the utilization of democratic means to achieve socialist objectives. From their viewpoint, a revolutionary party needed to resort to violence in order to become a significant political force in America.

These three factions clashed on a variety of issues during the late 1930s. In national convention sessions and local political campaigns, these groups differed over the Socialist Party's attitude toward preventing war, the Socialist Party's affiliation with the American League Against War and Fascism, and socialist cooperation with organized labor. By the end of 1937, the disputes between the various groups were so damaging to the conduct of party business that the National Executive Committee finally took decisive action and expelled the Trotskyite faction.

The Socialist Party never fully recovered from these setbacks, although negotiations were successful in reuniting the Social Democratic Federation with the party in 1957. Nevertheless, despite this encouraging development, the internal conflicts and the emergence of the New Left in the late 1950s and 1960s eventually caused the Socialist Party to lose its influence as an effective political organization.

From the guide to the Socialist Party Correspondence, 1902-1947, (Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives)

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referencedIn Krueger, Maynard C., 1906-1991. Papers, 1923-1952 and n.d. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Jacobs, Joseph, 1908-. Joseph Jacobs oral history interview, 1991 July 12. Georgia State University
referencedIn Reynolds, Stephen Marion. Papers, 1849-1948. Indiana Historical Society Library
referencedIn Southern Tenant Farmers' Union. Southern Tenant Farmers' Union records, 1934-1970. [microform] Cornell University Library
referencedIn Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968. Letters, [1932] July 16 and [July 16?], [n.p.], to [Samuel Johnson] Woolf, [New York?]. University of Michigan
referencedIn Weaver, John C., 1896-1985. Weaver social history collection, 1913-1970. University of Pittsburgh
referencedIn Lane, Layle, 1893-1976. Layle Lane papers, 1933-1951. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Weintraub, Hyman. Collection of Socialist Party material, ca. 1924-1946. University of California, Los Angeles
referencedIn Marx Lewis Papers, 1907-1988. Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Jugoslovanska Socialistična Zveza (Jugoslav Socialist Federation) (Chicago, Ill.). Records, 1905-1952. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
referencedIn Breitman, George. Papers, 1928-1986 (bulk 1945-1980). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Marquart, Frank, 1898-. Oral history interview with Frank Marquart, 1968. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Arthur Ernest Morgan papers concerning Edward Bellamy, 1912-1944. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Crosswaith, Frank Rudolph, 1892-1965. Frank R. Crosswaith papers, 1917-1965 (bulk 1923-1939). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Socialist Party (New Haven, Conn.). Socialist Party of New Haven records, 1909-1945 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Socialist Party (U.S.). Papers: state and local, Washington. 1911-1959. University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Taylor, Philip H. (Philip Hector), 1902-1986. Papers, 1923-1974. Raymond H. Fogler Library
referencedIn Pamphlets relating to labor and the state in Minnesota, 1891- Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf Socialist Party (U.S.). Records, 1900-1976. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Benjamin Stolberg Papers, 1914-1951. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Unger, C. W. Papers, 1675-1936, bulk dates 1820-1870. Winterthur Library
referencedIn Schilling, George A., b. 1850. Papers, 1887-1936 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Providence Plantation (Miss.). Delta and Providence cooperative farms papers, 1925-1963. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Southern Tenant Farmers' Union. Southern Tenant Farmers' Union papers, 1934-1970 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn George, David Gordon, 1910-1976. David Gordon George papers, [ca. 1922]-1976. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Schilling, George A., Papers, 1887-1936 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Nolte, Raymond J. Just a plain fellow, 1953-1978. American Primers
referencedIn Eugene V. Debs Photographs, [ca. 1895]-1923 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Labor Research Association (U.S.). Records, 1914-1981. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Sherman, Benjamin, 1896-. Interview, 1982-1983. Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies Library
referencedIn Thompson, Fred, 1900-1987. Frederick W. Thompson papers, 1912-1986, (bulk 1962-1985). Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Lee, Algernon. Papers, 1896-1954. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Morris Hillquit Papers, 1906-1959 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Vogel, Virgil J. Collection, 1903-1980 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Rochester Joint Board minutes, 1919-1966, bulk 1919-1932. [microform]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Hillquit, Morris, 1869-1933. Papers, 1886-1944. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Hillquit, Morris, 1869-1933. Morris Hillquit miscellanea, 1924-1934. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Fanny Simon Papers, undated Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Fred D. Warren Papers., 1899-1917 Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Center.
referencedIn Southern Tenant Farmers' Union records, 1934-1970. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
referencedIn Red Falcons of America Records, 1932-1938 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Socialist Labor Party. Convention. Proceedings of the 10th annual convention of the Socialist Labor Party [microform] : held in the Common Council Chamber, at the City of Rochester, N.Y. January 27th, 1900, to February 2nd, 1900 ; Proceedings of Socialist Unity Convention : held at Indianapolis, Indiana beginning July 29, 1901. University of Wyoming, William R. Coe Library
referencedIn Ernie Lazar FBI FOIA Files on Anti-Communism and Right Wing Movements, 1934-1986 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Felix S. Cohen Papers Addition, 1927-1960, 1931-1953 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Riseman, Harry. Harry Riseman papers, 1930-1936. Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs
referencedIn Whitehead, Carle. Papers, 1930-1943. Denver Public Library, Central Library
referencedIn Abraham I. Shiplacoff Papers and Photographs, Bulk, 1915-1934, 1895-1962 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
creatorOf Socialist Party (U.S.) Minutes, 1900-1936 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf Socialist Party (U.S.). Records of the Socialist Party (U.S.), 1897-1976. Library of Congress
referencedIn Siitonen, Harry A. Papers, [ca. 1952-1976]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Berger, Victor L., 1860-1929. The Victor Berger papers, [1882-1929] microform. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn August Claessens Papers, 1906-1963 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Bloor, Ella Reeve, 1862-1951. Ella Reeve Bloor Papers, 1890-1979 (bulk 1910-1940). Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf Lloyd, George, 1913-1998. Georgia Lloyd papers, 1915-1994 (bulk 1930-1990). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Debs, Eugene V. (Eugene Victor), 1855-1926. Debs, Eugene Victor, papers, 1884-1941. University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn McReynolds, David. David McReynolds papers, 1943-1978. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Young People's Socialist League. Records, 1926-1962. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Finnish Socialist Organizations Collection, 1904-1967 University of Minnesota Libraries. Immigration History Research Center [ihrc]
referencedIn Kester, Howard, 1904-1977. Howard Kester papers, 1923-1972. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Allard, Gerry, 1908-1965. person
associatedWith Altman, Jack. person
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. General Secretary-Treasurer. corporateBody
associatedWith Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Rochester Joint Board. corporateBody
associatedWith Amberson, William Ruthrauff, b. 1894. person
associatedWith American Civil Liberties Union of Washington corporateBody
associatedWith Bedacht, Max, 1883-1972. person
associatedWith Bell, Daniel, 1919- person
associatedWith Berenberger, David B. person
associatedWith Berger, Victor L., 1860-1929. person
associatedWith Bloor, Ella Reeve, 1862-1951 person
associatedWith Bohn, William E. person
associatedWith Brandeis University. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Breitman, George. person
associatedWith Brewer, George, d. 1967. person
associatedWith Brooks, William Eugene, 1874-1958. person
associatedWith Browne, Lewis, 1897-1949. person
associatedWith Burns, Thomas Joseph person
associatedWith Burns, Thomas Joseph. person
associatedWith Callery, Philip Henry, 1880-1954. person
associatedWith CARE (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Carey, George V. person
associatedWith Caylor, George Nathan, 1885-1973. person
associatedWith Chetta, Samuel F. person
associatedWith Claessens, August, 1885-1954. person
associatedWith Coggins, Herbert Leonard, 1881- person
associatedWith Cohen, Felix S., 1907-1953. person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Coody, Archibald Stinson, b. 1883. person
associatedWith Coolidge, Albert Sprague, 1894-1977 person
associatedWith Cousens, Leon A., 1910-1955. person
associatedWith Crosswaith, Frank Rudolph, 1892-1965. person
associatedWith Debs, Eugene V. (Eugene Victor), 1855-1926. person
associatedWith De Ford, Miriam Allen, 1888-1975 person
associatedWith De Leon, Solon, 1883- person
associatedWith Democratic Party (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Dolgoff, Sam, 1902- person
associatedWith Duffy, William. person
associatedWith Ellison, John W. person
associatedWith Engdahl, J. Louis. person
associatedWith Farmer-Labor Association of Minnesota. corporateBody
associatedWith Feldman, Paul. person
associatedWith Finnish Socialist Federation. National Executive Committee (Chicago, Ill.). Eastern District Committee (Fitchburg, Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith Finnish Socialist Organizations. West Coast Chapters. corporateBody
associatedWith Fleischman, Harry. person
associatedWith Friedman, Esther. person
associatedWith Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980. person
associatedWith Furlong, John R., 1855-1941. person
associatedWith George, David Gordon, 1910-1976. person
associatedWith Gerber, Julius, 1862-1916 person
associatedWith Germer, Adolph. person
associatedWith Ghent, William J. (William James), 1866-1942 person
associatedWith Goldberg, Louis Palatnik, b. 1888. person
associatedWith Granbery, John C. person
associatedWith Guthrie, Milo. person
associatedWith Halushka, Mendel V., 1904-1958 person
associatedWith Hardman, J. B. S. (Jacob Benjamin Salutsky), 1882-1968 person
associatedWith Harrington, Michael, 1928-1989. person
associatedWith Harris, Abram Lincoln, 1899-1963. person
associatedWith Harvey, Jack. person
associatedWith Hayes, Max S. (Maximilliam Sebastian), 1866-1945. person
associatedWith Hertzberg, Sidney person
associatedWith Hertzberg, Sidney. person
associatedWith Hibner, George F. person
associatedWith Hickey, Thomas A., 1869-1925 person
associatedWith Hicks, Mildred, 1880-1961. person
associatedWith Hillquit, Morris, 1869-1933. person
associatedWith Hillquit, Nina Eugenia. person
associatedWith Hoan, Daniel W. (Daniel Webster), 1881-1961 person
associatedWith Hoopes, Darlington, 1896- person
associatedWith Howard, Asher, 1877-1945 person
associatedWith Hunt, George W. P., 1859-1934. person
associatedWith Illinois. Office of Secretary of State. corporateBody
associatedWith Illinois. State Board of Elections. corporateBody
associatedWith International Council of Social Democratic Women. corporateBody
associatedWith International Fur Workers Union of the United States and Canada. corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Assistant President corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Assistant President. corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Local 155 (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. New York Cloak Joint Board. corporateBody
associatedWith International Solidarity Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Jacobs, Joseph (1908-),) corporateBody
associatedWith Jacobs, Joseph, 1908- person
associatedWith Jugoslovanska Socialistična Zveza (Jugoslav Socialist Federation) (Chicago, Ill.) corporateBody
associatedWith Kemble, Penn. person
associatedWith Kenyon, Dorothy, 1888-1972 person
associatedWith Kester, Howard, 1904-1977. person
associatedWith Kibler, James Luther, 1867-1953. person
associatedWith Kingsbury, Chester H. person
associatedWith Korngold, Ralph, 1882-1964. person
associatedWith Krueger, Maynard C., 1906-1991. person
associatedWith Labor Research Association (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Laidler, Harry Wellington, 1884-1970. person
associatedWith Lane, Layle, 1893-1976. person
associatedWith Lee, Algernon. person
associatedWith Leonard, George B., 1872-1956. person
associatedWith Lever, Emil John, 1894- person
associatedWith Levinson, Edward, 1901-1945. person
associatedWith Lewis, Alfred Baker, 1897- person
associatedWith Lewis, Lena Morrow. person
associatedWith Lewis, Marx, 1897-1990 person
associatedWith Lewis, Marx, b. 1897. person
associatedWith Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974. person
associatedWith Lloyd, George, 1913-1998. person
associatedWith Lloyd, Georgia, 1913- person
associatedWith Loeb, James I. (James Isaac), 1908- person
associatedWith Lopatin, Harry person
associatedWith MacDonald, James Ramsay, 1866-1937. person
associatedWith Mailly, Bertha Howell. person
associatedWith Mailly, William, 1871-1912 person
associatedWith Manson, Jules J. person
associatedWith Marquart, Frank, 1898- person
associatedWith Maynard, R. A. person
associatedWith McCallister, Frank, 1908-1970. person
associatedWith McReynolds, David. person
associatedWith Miller, E. Merton. person
associatedWith Miller, J. L. (John Leonard) person
associatedWith Minnesota Woman Suffrage Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Mitchell, Broadus, 1892-1988. person
associatedWith Morey, R. Hunter, 1940- . person
associatedWith Morgan, Angela, 1874-1957. person
correspondedWith Morgan, Arthur Ernest, 1878-1975 person
associatedWith Morgan, Thomas J., 1847-1912 person
associatedWith Morgan, Thomas John, 1847-1912. person
associatedWith National Education Committee for a New Party. corporateBody
associatedWith Negro Labor Committee corporateBody
associatedWith Newman, Pauline. person
associatedWith Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1892-1971. person
associatedWith Nilva, Daniel. person
associatedWith Nolte, Raymond J. person
associatedWith Nolte, Raymond J. person
associatedWith Norris, Joe Lester, 1906- person
associatedWith Oneal, James, 1875-1962. person
associatedWith Oneal, James, b. 1875 person
associatedWith Ostrow, Alice Scardino, 1915-2001 person
associatedWith Ostrow, Pierson, 1914-1967 person
associatedWith Pacchina, Saverio. person
associatedWith Papanek, Ernst, 1900-1973. person
associatedWith Parrish, Richard, 1914- person
associatedWith Pickens, William, 1881-1954. person
associatedWith Ramp, Floyd Cleveland, 1882-1984. person
associatedWith Randolph, A. Philip 1889- person
associatedWith Raoul family. family
associatedWith Red Falcons of America. person
associatedWith Red Falcons of America (Organization) corporateBody
correspondedWith Reed, John, 1887-1920 person
associatedWith Rermer, Adolph. person
associatedWith Reynolds, Stephen Marion. person
associatedWith Riseman, Harry. person
associatedWith Russell, Charles Edward, 1860-1941 person
associatedWith Rustin, Bayard, 1912-1987. person
associatedWith Ryan, William Fitts, 1922-1972. person
associatedWith Schapiro, Theodore. person
associatedWith Schilling, George A., b. 1850. person
associatedWith Seger, Gerhart. person
associatedWith Senior, Clarence Ollson, 1903-1974. person
associatedWith Shachtman, Max, 1903-1972. person
associatedWith Sherman, Benjamin, 1896- person
associatedWith Shiplacoff, A. I. (Abraham Isaac), 1877-1936 person
associatedWith Shiplacoff, A. I. (Abraham Isaac), 1877-1946. person
associatedWith Sibley, Mulford Quickert. person
associatedWith Siitonen, Harry A. person
associatedWith Simon, Fanny, 1903-1989 person
associatedWith Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968. person
associatedWith Social Democratic Federation of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist International. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Labor Party. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Labor Party. Convention. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party (Colo.) corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party (Dover, N.H.) corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party (New Haven, Conn.) corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party New York (State) corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party of New York. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party (U.S.). National Executive Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party (U.S.). Virginia. corporateBody
associatedWith Socialist Party (Wis.) corporateBody
associatedWith Solomon, Charles, 1889-1963 person
associatedWith Southern Tenant Farmers' Union. corporateBody
associatedWith Starr, Mark, 1894- person
associatedWith Stedman, Seymour. person
associatedWith Stokes, James Graham Phelps. person
associatedWith Stolberg, Benjamin, 1891-1951. person
associatedWith Tamiment Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, corporateBody
associatedWith Taylor, Philip H. (Philip Hector), 1902-1986. person
associatedWith The socialist. corporateBody
associatedWith The socialist call. corporateBody
associatedWith Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Thompson, Fred, 1900-1987. person
associatedWith Triay, Frank Charles, 1886-1947. person
associatedWith Unger, C. W. person
associatedWith United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. corporateBody
associatedWith University of New Mexico. Center for Southwest Research. corporateBody
associatedWith Veterans League of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Vladeck, B. (Baruch), 1886-1938 person
associatedWith Vogel, Virgil J. person
associatedWith Vogel, Virgil J., 1918- person
associatedWith Walden, May, 1865-1960. person
associatedWith Waldman, Louis, 1892- person
associatedWith Waldman, Louis, 1892-1982. person
associatedWith Walker, Charles R. (Charles Rumford), 1893-1974. person
associatedWith Walker, James E. (James Edward), 1871-1950. person
associatedWith Warren, Fred D., 1872-1959. person
associatedWith Weaver, John C., 1896-1985. person
associatedWith Weintraub, Hyman person
associatedWith Weintraub, Hyman. corporateBody
associatedWith Whitehead, Carle. person
associatedWith Wilk, Daniel Levinson. person
associatedWith Winger, Richard Lee, 1943- person
associatedWith Workers' Defense League. corporateBody
associatedWith Workers Socialist Publishing Company (Duluth, Minn.). corporateBody
associatedWith Work, John M. (John McClelland), 1869-1961 person
associatedWith Young People's Socialist League. corporateBody
associatedWith Youth Committee for Peace and Democracy in the Middle East. corporateBody
associatedWith Zeidler, Frank P. person
associatedWith Zimmerman, Charles S. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Middle East
Wisconsin
New Jersey
United States
Colorado--Boulder
United States
New York (N.Y.)
New York (N.Y.) |x Politics and government |y 20th century.
United States
United States
United States
United States
New York (State)
Soviet Union
Boulder (Colo.)
California
Washington (State)
United States
Subject
Poverty
Political parties
Farm tenancy--Economic aspects
Peace
Popular fronts--United States
African Americans--Politics and government
Labor unions--Political activity
Women--Employment--United States
World War, 1939-1945--Protest movements
Right and left (Political science)
Socialism
Radicalism
Communism--United States
Civil rights
Socialism--ca. 1909
Conscientious objectors
Labor Day
African Americans--Suffrage
World War, 1914-1918--Protest movements
Jews
Socialism--United States
May Day
Vietnam War, 1961-1975--Protest movements
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1928

Active 1965

Information

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