Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963

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W. E. B. Du Bois was an American sociologist, socialist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. Educated at Fisk University, he did graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate. Du Bois became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Due to his contributions in the African-American community he was seen as a member of a Black elite that supported some aspects of eugenics for blacks. Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.

Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists that wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington; instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the Talented Tenth, a concept under the umbrella of Racial uplift, and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership.

Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment. His cause included people of color everywhere, particularly Africans and Asians in colonies. He was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for the independence of African colonies from European powers. Du Bois made several trips to Europe, Africa and Asia. After World War I, he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread prejudice and racism in the United States military.

Du Bois was a prolific author. His collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk, is a seminal work in African-American literature. Black Reconstruction in America, pbulished in 1935, challenged the prevailing orthodoxy that blacks were responsible for the failures of the Reconstruction Era. Borrowing a phrase from Frederick Douglass, he popularized the use of the term color line to represent the injustice of the separate but equal doctrine prevalent in American social and political life. His 1940 autobiography Dusk of Dawn is regarded in part as one of the first scientific treatises in the field of American sociology, and he published two other life stories, all three containing essays on sociology, politics and history. In his role as editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis, he published many influential pieces. Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, and he was generally sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life. He was an ardent peace activist and advocated nuclear disarmament. The United States' Civil Rights Act, embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life, was enacted a year after his death.

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referencedIn Booker T. Washington Papers, 1853-1946, (bulk 1900-1915) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Scarborough, W. S. (William Sanders), 1854?-1926. William Sanders Scarborough letters received, 1894-1921. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Rubinstein, Annette T. (Annette Teta), 1910-2007. Papers, 1937-1994 (bulk 1946-1975). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Johnson, Charles Spurgeon, 1893-1956. Charles Spurgeon Johnson records, 1858-1956. John Hope and Aurelia E. Franklin Library. Special Collections & Archives
referencedIn United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Federal surveillance of African Americans, 1920-1984 [electronic resource]. University of California, Irvine. Library. Department of Special Collections
referencedIn Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. William Stanley Braithwaite collection, 1899-1939. Morgan State University
referencedIn Davis, Allison. Papers, 1932-1984 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn The Daily Worker and The Daily World Photographs Collection, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
creatorOf Smythe, Hugh H. (Hugh Heyne), 1913-. Hugh H. Smythe papers, 1942-1963. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Lewis Gannett papers, 1681-1966 (inclusive) 1900-1960 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Neighborhood Union (Atlanta, Ga.). Lugenia Burns Hope files, 1908-1933. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Papers, 1874-1945 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Rockwell Kent papers, circa 1840-1993, bulk 1935-1961 Archives of American Art
referencedIn Additional papers of Eve Merriam, ca.1930-1992 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Luscomb, Florence, 1887-. Additional papers of Florence Luscomb, 1888-1988 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Kentucky State University. Office of the President. Lyceum Committee minutes, 1933-1946. Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives, Kentucky Guide Project Office
referencedIn Ella Barksdale Brown Papers, 1885-1952, 1906-1926 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949 Houghton Library
referencedIn Johnson, Charles Spurgeon, 1893-1956. Papers. 1866-1965. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn The Daily Worker and The Daily World Photographs Collection, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Socialist Party (U.S.) New York (N.Y.) Letter Books, Bulk, 1911-1914, 1907-1914, (Bulk 1911-1914) Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf Emergency Peace Campaign (U.S.). Records, 1935-1941 bulk, 1936-1937. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Brown, Elmer Ellsworth, 1861-1934. Elmer Ellsworth Brown administrative records, 1900-1937. New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938. James Weldon Johnson and Grace Nail Johnson papers, circa 1850-2005 (bulk 1900-1976). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Hugh H. Smythe and Mabel M. Smythe Papers, circa 1895-1997, (bulk 1960-1990) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Woodward, C. Vann (Comer Vann), 1908-1999. C. Vann Woodward papers, 1804-2004 (inclusive), 1804-2000 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Robert C. Ogden Papers, 1843-1913, (bulk 1890-1913) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. Reminiscences of W. E. B. Dubois : oral history, 1960. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn James Aronson - W. E. B. Du Bois Collection MS 292., 1946-1983 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Rubin, Louis Decimus, 1923-. Louis Decimus Rubin papers, 1945- (Series 1.1.1 D-H) [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Joel E. Spingarn Collection, 1910-1947 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Annette T. Rubinstein Papers, Bulk, 1946-1975, 1937-2007 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Negatives Collection, Bulk, 1968-1990, 1930-2001 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf Pound, Roscoe, 1870-1964. Papers, 1888-1964. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
referencedIn National Emercency Civil Liberties Committee Records, 1951-1985. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. Papers of William Stanley Braithwaite [manuscript], 1882-1970. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Karamu House. Karamu House records, 1914-1979. Western Reserve Historical Society, Research Library
referencedIn Sadie P. Delaney papers, 1921-1958 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Laidlaw, H. B. (Harriet Burton), b. 1874. Papers: Series V-VII, 1906-1947 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Curtis, Austin W., 1911-. Austin W. Curtis papers, 1896-1971. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Caroline Bond Day papers Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
creatorOf W.E.B. Dubois Collection, 1909-1910, 1918 Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University
referencedIn Bumstead, Horace, 1841-1919. Horace Bumstead papers, 1886-1907. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Papers, 1856-1987 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Gibbs, James Lowell,. James Lowell Gibbs collection of African-American documents, 1865-1918. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971. Rockwell Kent papers, [ca. 1840]-1993 (bulk ca. 1935-1961). Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B(William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. W. E. B. Du Bois Collection, 1889-1970. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Witter Bynner papers, 1829-1965. Houghton Library
referencedIn Tamiment Library. Tamiment Library manuscript files collection relating to individuals and organizations associated with radicalism, the labor movement, and progressive social action in the United States, 1950-2001 (bulk 1910-1965). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Callis, Henry Arthur, 1887-1974. Henry A. Callis papers, 1888-1974 (bulk 1905-1974). Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
referencedIn Whiting, Helen Adele Johnson, 1885-1929. Helen Adele Johnson Whiting papers, 1929-1982 (bulk 1929-1950). Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System, Central Library
referencedIn Arthur B. Spingarn Papers, 1850-1970, (bulk 1920-1955) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Brownell, Baker, 1887-1965. Baker Brownell Papers, 1904-1965. Northwestern University
referencedIn Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell records, 1946-1969. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn New Yorker records, ca.1924-1984 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1932. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Horace Mann Bond Papers, 1830-1979, 1926-1972 Special Collections and University Archives, UMass Amherst Libraries
referencedIn George S. Schuyler Papers, 1912-1976. Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
creatorOf Aronson, James,. James Aronson/W.E.B. Du Bois collection, 1946-1983. University of Massachusetts Amherst, W.E.B. Du Bois Library
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. [Charts and graphs showing the conditions of African Americans in 1900] [microform] / compiled and prepared by W.E.B. Du Bois for the Negro Exhibit of the American Section of the Exposition universelle, Paris, 1900. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Texas Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History Collection 86-91; 86-249; 87-085, 87-077; 87-158., 1984-[ca.1986] Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Avery Research Center,. Avery photograph collection, circa 1890s-2008. College of Charleston, Marlene and Nathan Addlestone Library
referencedIn Edward K. Welsh Papers, Bulk, 1960-1969, circa 1930-1974 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
creatorOf Spingarn, Arthur B. (Arthur Barnett), 1878-1971. Papers, 1914-1971. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
referencedIn Curti, Merle (Merle Eugene), 1897-1996. Papers, 1908-2000. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn John and Lugenia Hope papers, 1888-1947. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn James, Anna Louise, 1886-1977. Papers, 1874-1991 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn John Collier papers Yale University Library
referencedIn Society for the Preservation of Weeksville and Bedford-Stuyvesant History. Miscellaneous photographs and documents, [ca. 1870]-1932. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Katherine Bell Banks Papers MS 429., 1926-1960 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Starr, Frederick, 1858-1933. Papers, 1868-1935 (inclusive), 1892-1923 (bulk). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Papers, 1897-1930. Houghton Library
referencedIn Brown, Ella Barksdale, 1871-1966. Ella Barksdale Brown papers, 1885-1952 (bulk 1906-1926). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Graves, John Temple. Magazine clipping : Atlanta race riot, 1906. Temple University, Blockson Afro-American History Collection
referencedIn Rogovin, Milton, 1909-2011. Milton Rogovin papers, 1928-2006 (bulk 1960-2003). Library of Congress
referencedIn Curti, Merle (Merle Eugene), 1897-1996. Papers, 1917-1968. Wisconsin Historical Society
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Johnson, Guy Benton, 1901-1991. Guy Benton Johnson papers, 1830-1987. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. Papers. Princeton University Library
creatorOf Pound, Roscoe, 1870-1964. Roscoe Pound papers, 1888-1964. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
referencedIn Garvey, Amy Jacques. Amy Garvey memorial collection on Marcus Garvey, 1776-1971. John Hope and Aurelia E. Franklin Library. Special Collections & Archives
referencedIn James W. Ford Papers and Photographs, 1920s-1989 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Clara E. Sipprell Papers, 1915-1970 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Belfrage, Cedric, 1904-. Papers, 1922-1990 (bulk 1945-1985). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Childress, Alice. Alice Childress papers, 1937-1997. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Manny, Frank Addison, 1868-1954. Frank Addison Manny papers, 1890-1955. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn James E. Jackson and Esther Cooper Jackson Photographs Collection New York University, Tamiment Library
referencedIn Hudlin, Edward W. The philosophy of W.E.B. Du Bois : an interpretation / by Edward W. Hudlin. Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville - Lovejoy Library, Lovejoy Library
referencedIn Spingarn, Joel Elias, 1875-1939. Joel E. Spingarn Collection, 1910-1947. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Roscoe Pound Papers Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
referencedIn Cullen, Countee, 1903-1946. Papers. 1921-1979. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn Greene, Lorenzo J. (Lorenzo Johnston), 1899-1988. Papers, 1680-1988 (bulk 1933-1972). Library of Congress
referencedIn Hugh H. Smythe and Mabel M. Smythe Papers, circa 1895-1997, (bulk 1960-1990) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Martin, Charles Douglass, 1873-1942. Charles D. Martin collection, 1889-1942. North Carolina Central University, James E. Shepard Memorial Library
creatorOf Burton, Marion Le Roy, 1874-1925. Marion LeRoy Burton papers, 1895-1925. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn James Lowell Gibbs collection of African-American documents, 1865-1918 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Pruitt, Ida. Papers, 1850s-1992 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Austin W. Curtis Papers, 1896-1971 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. Du Bois notebooks, 1905-1934 [microform] Princeton University Library
referencedIn Partington, Paul G. W.E.B. Du Bois bibliography / Paul G. Partington. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963. Melville Herskovits Papers, 1906-1963. Northwestern University
referencedIn Johnson, Arnold Samuel, 1904-1989. Papers, 1926-1989. 1951-1979 (bulk). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Milton Rogovin Papers, 1928-2006, (bulk 1960-2003) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Neal, Eva Bell, 1888-1972. Eva Bell Neal papers, 1881-1974. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
referencedIn Spence, Mary E. (Mary Elizabeth), 1865-1962,. Spence family collection, 1812-1961. John Hope and Aurelia E. Franklin Library. Special Collections & Archives
referencedIn Harvard University. Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Boylston Prize Speaking Committee. Form and evaluation sheet from the Boylston Prize Committee, 1889 Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Winter, Ella. Papers, 1913-1978. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Florence Luscomb Papers, 1856-1987 Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Dodd, Martha. Papers, 1898-1990 (bulk 1950-1990). Library of Congress
referencedIn Broderick, Francis L. W.E.B. Du Bois research material, n.d. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Hugh H. Smythe papers, 1942-1963 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Arthur Alfonso Schomburg papers, 1724-1938, 1904-1938 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. [Letter] August 16, 1928, Editorial rooms of The Crisis, N.A.A.C.P., 69 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. [to] Rev. William P. Schell, Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. of America, New York, N.Y. / W.E.B. DuBois Presbyterian Historical Society, PHS
creatorOf Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. William Stanley Braithwaite papers, 1898-1979. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn African American photograph collection, 1918-1951. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Rosey Pool Collection, 1945-1974; also some earlier published items. University of Sussex Library
referencedIn Wright, Richard, 1908-1960. Untitled speech, on African-American literature [manuscript] / by Richard Wright, undated. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Durham Fact-Finding Conference Records, 1929-1930 and 1942-1945 North Carolina Central University. James E. Shepard Memorial Library.
creatorOf Locke, Alain LeRoy, 1886-1954. Alain LeRoy Locke photograph, and funeral orations brochure, 1952-1954. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Johnson, Alvin Saunders, 1874-. Alvin Saunders Johnson papers, 1902-1969 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1803 (1877-1963) 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst, W.E.B. Du Bois Library
creatorOf Curry, J. L. M. (Jabez Lamar Monroe), 1825-1903. Pamphlet collection, 1788-1902. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn William Stanley Braithwaite papers, 1898-1979 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Communist Party of the United States of America Records, Bulk, 1950-1990, 1892-2009 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Nance, Ethel Ray, 1899-1992. A man most himself : typescript, 1922-1997. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf New York World's Fair (1939-1940). New York World's Fair Negro Week records, 1940. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Moorland, Jesse Edward, 1863-1940. Papers, ca. 1790-ca. 1939. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
referencedIn Loren Miller papers, 1876-2003, 1932-1966 Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery
creatorOf Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971. Rockwell Kent papers, [circa 1840]-1993 (bulk 1935-1961). Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Constitutionalism in American Life Conference MS 140., 1986 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Jordan, David Starr, 1851-1931. David Starr Jordan papers, 1861-1964. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. Booker T. Washington papers, 1903-1916. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Carter Godwin Woodson Papers, 1736-1974, (bulk 1915-1950) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Atlanta Life Insurance Company. Advertisement. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
Role Title Holding Repository
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associatedWith Adams, E. A. (Eugene Avery), 1886-1958. person
associatedWith Andrews, Regina person
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associatedWith Aronson, James, collector person
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correspondedWith Banks, Katherine Bell person
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correspondedWith Beals, Carleton, 1893-1979. person
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associatedWith Birtwell, Lorna R. F., person
associatedWith Blaine, Anita McCormick. person
associatedWith Bond, Horace Mann, 1904-1972 person
associatedWith Bontemps, Arna, 1902-1973 person
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correspondedWith Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962 person
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associatedWith Brown, Charlotte Hawkins, 1883-1961. person
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correspondedWith Bruce, Roscoe Conkling, 1879-1952. person
associatedWith Bumstead, Horace, 1841-1919. person
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correspondedWith Bynner, Witter, 1881-1968 person
correspondedWith Caliver, Ambrose, 1894-1962. person
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associatedWith Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs. corporateBody
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associatedWith Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943. person
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correspondedWith Cheyney University of Pennsylvania. corporateBody
associatedWith Childress, Alice. person
correspondedWith Chippey, Arthur Peter, d. ca. 1962. person
associatedWith City Club of Cleveland. corporateBody
associatedWith Clark, Dorothy Kneeland, 1906- person
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Columbia University Oral History Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. corporateBody
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Constitutionalism in American Life Conference corporateBody
correspondedWith Cook, Geo. Wm. (George William) person
correspondedWith Cook, Vivian Elma Johnson, 1889-1977. person
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associatedWith Davis, Allison, 1902- person
associatedWith Davis, Allison, 1902-1983. person
associatedWith Davis, Ossie person
associatedWith Delaney, Sadie P., 1889-1958. person
correspondedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. person
associatedWith Dickerson, Earl N. person
correspondedWith Dodd, Martha. person
associatedWith Dodd, Martha. person
associatedWith Dorothy Kneeland Clark, 1906- person
associatedWith Dover, Cedric. person
associatedWith Du Bois, Shirley Graham, 1896-1977. person
associatedWith Du Bois, W. E. B., 1868-1963 person
associatedWith Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Durham Fact-Finding Conference. person
associatedWith Durham Fact-Finding Conference. corporateBody
associatedWith Ekroth, Nels S. person
correspondedWith Emanuel, James A. person
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alumnusOrAlumnaOf Fisk University corporateBody
associatedWith Fisk University. Library. corporateBody
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alumnusOrAlumnaOf Harvard university corporateBody
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correspondedWith Houston, Charles Hamilton, 1895-1950 person
correspondedWith Houston, William LePre. person
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associatedWith Hutchins, Harry B. (Harry Burns), 1847-1930 person
associatedWith Ingersoll, William T., person
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