Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963

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W. E. B. Dubois secured his position as one of the key voices in the argument over the role of the black man in modern America through his seemingly endless works of social activism. He was an educator (at Fisk University and Atlanta University), a founder of the Niagara Movement (which later merged into the NAACP), the long-time editor of the NAACP publication, The Crisis, a lecturer, political activist, and prolific writer. His works include: The Souls of Black Folk, Dusk of Dawn, and an Autobiography (published posthumously).

From the guide to the W. E. B. Du Bois Collection, 1889-1970, (Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library)

Du Bois's interest in the production of an Encyclopaedia Africana began in 1909 when he attempted to launch the enterprise while teaching at Atlanta University, and he participated in another abortive attempt begun at Howard University in the 1930s.

From the description of Encyclopaedia Africana plans and address, and letter to Daniel Walden, 1961-1967. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 35745737

African American college teacher, author, and Pan-Africanist.

From the description of W.E.B. Du Bois collection, 1909-1918. (Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center). WorldCat record id: 70941305

W. E. B. Du Bois was a writer, educator, editor of the NAACP publication, The Crisis, lecturer, and political activist.

From the description of W. E. B. Du Bois Collection, 1889-1970. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80561309

From the description of W. E. B. Du Bois Collection, 1889-1970. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702148306

Author, editor, and educator.

From the description of Papers of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1803-1965. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71069271

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963) was an African-American scholar, an early leader in the 20th-century African-American protest movement, and an advocate of pan-Africanism. Shirley Graham Du Bois (1896-1977) was a teacher and author and also the wife of W.E.B. Du Bois. Anna Melissa Graves (1875-1964) was a leftist writer, teacher, and world traveler.

From the description of Letters to Anna Melissa Graves, 1953-1961. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612769558

Black sociologist, spokesman for Black liberation and civil rights action, and editor of the NAACP's The Crisis.

From the description of W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1803 (1877-1963) 1999. (University of Massachusetts Amherst). WorldCat record id: 49300100

Author, educator.

From the description of Reminiscences of W. E. B. Dubois : oral history, 1960. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309744079

African American scholar and activist.

From the description of W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1880-1963. (Fisk University). WorldCat record id: 70971644

W.E.B. Du Bois, 1907

The activist, writer, and intellectual William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, was born in the rural western Massachusetts town of Great Barrington on February 23, 1868, his New England roots extending back before the Revolution and including ancestors of French, Dutch, and African American heritage. From early in life, Du Bois was recognized for his extraordinary intellectual talents. Educated in the local public schools, he graduated as valedictorian of his high school class in 1884, and with the financial assistance of friends and family, entered Fisk University as a sophomore in 1885. Thoroughly a northerner, Du Bois' experiences in Nashville were crucial in galvanizing his understanding of American race relations. To earn additional money for his education, Du Bois taught in country schools in Tennessee during the summer months, where he saw firsthand the bitter influence of segregation and the harshest expressions of American racism. The more subtle discrimination he had faced in Massachusetts coupled with this more menacing aspect encouraged Du Bois to take a more aggressive stance against social injustice.

After receiving his bachelor's degree from Fisk in 1888, Du Bois continued his studies at Harvard, enrolling as a junior and receiving his second bachelor's degree in 1890, followed by his MA in 1891 and PhD in 1895. As he had in Great Barrington and Nashville, Du Bois distinguished himself in Cambridge as a scholar. Like most Americans at the time intent upon an academic career, Du Bois enhanced his scholarly credentials by studying abroad. At the University of Berlin between 1892 and 1894, Du Bois was introduced to contemporary German social scientific theory and, more generally, he internalized the German scholarly tradition of a synthetic approach to social issues, blending history, philosophy, economics, and politics in the study of human social relations. Enamored of German culture, Du Bois also began to recognize the international dimensions of the struggle for racial justice and the connections between racial oppression and imperialist domination.

Returning from Germany, Du Bois entered an extraordinarily busy and productive period of life. In 1894, he accepted an appointment on faculty of Wilberforce University; in 1895, he completed his dissertation; and in 1896, he got married -- to Nina Gomer (d.1950), with whom he had two children, Burghardt (1898-1900) and Yolande (1901-1960) -- and published his first book, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States, 1638-1870, the first volume published in the Harvard Historical Series (1896), was a landmark in social and historical analysis, concluding with a phrase that reflected Du Bois' growing commitment to social action:

It behooves the United States, therefore, in the interest both of scientific truth and of future social reform, carefully to study such chapters of her history as that of the suppression of the slave-trade. The most obvious question which this198 study suggests is: How far in a State can a recognized moral wrong safely be compromised? And although this chapter of history can give us no definite answer suited to the ever-varying aspects of political life, yet it would seem to warn any nation from allowing, through carelessness and moral cowardice, any social evil to grow. No persons would have seen the Civil War with more surprise and horror than the Revolutionists of 1776; yet from the small and apparently dying institution of their day arose the walled and castled Slave-Power. From this we may conclude that it behooves nations as well as men to do things at the very moment when they ought to be done.

W.E.B. Du Bois, ca.1950

In 1896, Du Bois also moved to an appointment as assistant instructor in sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, undertaking an intensive analysis of the African American population of Philadelphia. The resulting publication, The Philadelphia Negro (1899), is often considered his most original and compelling scholarly contribution, and it is a foundational work in the field of urban sociology. It is distinguished not only as an exhaustive study of one population, but as a sensitive portrait of a population responding actively to social stresses and to the demands of urban life, rather than seeing them either as passive victims or social cancer.

Moving next to Atlanta University to teach history and economics, from 1897 to 1910, Du Bois built a Department of Sociology with a national reputation. Perhaps the key to this reputation was the series of annual conferences Du Bois established in 1896. Each year, he and his colleagues focused on a single issue confronting African Americans, publishing the results in the Atlanta University Publications series . They planned, too, to return to each subject at regular intervals to build the basis for the longitudinal study of social problems. Although the Atlanta studies were not of uniformly high quality and were hampered by insufficient funding, taken together they offer a significant empirical basis for social analysis of the African American community at the turn of the turn of the twentieth century.

Not all of Du Bois' work was purely academic. He wrote numerous articles for the popular press and his book The Souls of Black Folk (1903) brought him national attention. In retrospect, it may be his most enduring work, having become part of the canon of African American literature. Among other things, the book spotlights the growing tensions in the African American community between the accommodationism of Booker T. Washington and Du Bois' more radical demand for full and immediate equal rights. Although Du Bois found some common ground with his rival -- precious little -- he was unrelenting in his criticism of Washington's willingness to work slowly toward equality by demanding only what whites were willing to cede. "So far as Mr. Washington apologizes for injustice, North or South," Du Bois wrote, "does not rightly value the privilege and duty of voting, belittles the emasculating effects of caste distinctions, and opposes the higher training and ambition of our brighter minds, -- so far as he, the South, or the Nation, does this, -- we must unceasingly and firmly oppose them."

Creating the institutional basis to build and sustain this agenda, Du Bois helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905. While the group never had a large membership, it did pave the way for the establishment in 1909 of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial organization based upon similar, though somewhat less radical principles.

With activism consuming much of his energy, Du Bois left Atlanta University in 1910 to become director of research and publicity for the NAACP. A natural writer with previous experience editing The Moon (1906) and Horizon (1907-10), Du Bois was also appointed editor of the monthly journal of the NAACP, The Crisis . His numerous articles and editorials in Crisis solidified his position as a major spokesman for African American rights.

Freed of his purely academic commitments, he also continued to write for the popular press, publishing a number of highly regarded books, including The Negro (1915), Darkwater (1920), The Gift of Black Folk (1924), and the novels The Quest of the Silver Fleece (1911) and Dark Princess (1928). Among his most ambitious projects was a pageant of Black history and Black consciousness, The Star of Ethiopia, written both to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation and to provide a counterweight to the racist Hollywood cinematic epic, Birth of a Nation . A poet, novelist, and playwright himself, Du Bois had a deep interest in African American literature, from folk music to the writing of the Harlem Renaissance. Du Bois even helped established a theatre troupe in 1924, the Krigwa Players, in which "Negro actors before Negro audiences interpret Negro life as depicted by Negro artists."

During the first three decades of the twentieth century, one can discern two general trends in Du Bois's thought. First, he began increasingly to extend his analysis of the color bar beyond the borders of the United States to the world scene. A vice-president of the first Pan-African Conference in 1900, Du Bois helped organize a series of Pan-African Congresses between 1919 and 1927 that recognized the solidarities of people of color around the world and the need to combat racial oppression and imperial domination of underdeveloped countries.

Secondly, while the NAACP and Du Bois both insisted upon the full integration of Blacks into the mainstream of American life, the onset of the Great Depression in 1929 and the intransigence of whites on racial matters gradually led him toward a Black nationalist solution of the race problem, stressing Black control of businesses, cooperatives, and other similar institutions as the key to Black survival. In this position, Du Bois began to depart from the mainstream of the leadership within the NAACP, resulting in Du Bois' resignation from the organization in 1934 and his departure from the editorship of Crisis.

Returning to Atlanta University, Du Bois resumed teaching duties and the scholarly life. His Black Reconstruction (1935) ran directly counter to the predominantly white historiography of the Reconstruction period by emphasizing the contributions of African Americans in the South during the years immediately after the Civil War. Although the book was criticized by Marxists and Non-Marxists alike, its basic interpretation was to become widely accepted by historians. He also wrote Black Folk, Then and Now (1939) and Dusk of Dawn (1940), and in 1940, he founded Phylon, a quarterly social science journal. With support from the Phelps-Stokes Fund, he also became involved in the preparation of an Encyclopedia of the Negro, a work that saw only a preparatory volume published.

Still remarkably active and productive in his seventies, Du Bois retired from Atlanta University in 1944. He soon returned to the NAACP, where his duties revolved around special research projects, especially relating to the place of the African colonies in the postwar world, and where he served as consultant for the NAACP to the United States delegation at the founding meeting of the United Nations. The old rifts, however, were not so easily healed. In 1948 Du Bois was dismissed after continuing disagreements with other officials over NAACP policies.

In his later years, Du Bois served as a co-chair of the Council on African Affairs and chair of the Peace Information Center and the American Peace Crusade. In 1950, he made his first and only foray into formal politics, running for the U.S. Senate from New York on the American Labor Party ticket. Ironically, perhaps, this brush with formal politics was paired with a less congenial one. During the anti-Communist hysteria of 1951, Du Bois's activities on behalf of the Peace Information Center led to an indictment against him and four associates as unregistered foreign agents. Although the charges were dismissed as groundless later that year, the attack by an arm of his own government was a bitter experience. Du Bois nevertheless continued his work in peace and international affairs, visiting Russia and China.

Du Bois became a member of the Communist Party of the United States in 1961. That same year, at the age of ninety-three, he moved to Ghana at the invitation of President Kwame Nkrumah to serve as editor of an Encyclopedia Africana . Although poor health limited his work, Du Bois continued to study and write. He took Ghanaian citizenship and on August 27, 1963, died in Accra at the age of ninety-five. Du Bois was survived by his second wife, the writer Shirley Graham Du Bois, whom he had married in 1951.

Over his lifetime Du Bois wrote or edited more than three dozen books and hundreds of articles. His accomplishments were many. As an activist and organizer, Du Bois helped usher in the modern civil rights movement by founding and building the Niagara Movement and NAACP, and he helped create periodicals that became important voices for Black identity. As a scholar and founder of American sociology, he contributed early and important works in the literature of demography, race sociology and research methodology, he helped define the continuous social survey and the fields of social stratification and race relations. As a writer, his work earned him election to the National Institute of Arts and Letters. Although Du Bois's reputation suffered among white Americans during the McCarthy era, and although he died in 1963 before the reputations of McCarthy victims were rehabilitated, his impact and influence were international in scope. A generation after his death, Du Bois remains a potent figure internationally, and a source of inspiration for millions.

From the guide to the W. E. B. Du Bois Papers MS 312., 1803-1999, 1877-1963, (Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries)

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was an influential intellectual, professor, editor, writer and Pan-Africanist. Born in 1868, he received a bachelor's degree from Fisk University in 1888, and by 1895 he had received three degrees from Harvard University, culminating with the Ph. D.; the first African American to do so. Du Bois taught economics and history at Atlanta University (1897-1910).

This civil rights leader/scholar founded the Niagara Movement in opposition to the conservative policies of Booker T. Washington. One of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, Du Bois served as that organization's director of publications and editor of Crisis magazine until 1934. From 1944-1948 he headed the NAACP's special research department. He authored a great number of books, articles and essays. In 1961 he joined the Communist Party in the United States and that same year emigrated to Ghana. There he became editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia Africana. Du Bois died in Accra in 1963 at the age of 95.

From the description of W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1906-1966, 1942-1948 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122485428

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was an influential intellectual, professor, editor, writer and Pan-Africanist. Born in 1868, he received a bachelor's degree from Fisk University in 1888, and by 1895 he had received three degrees from Harvard University, culminating with the Ph.D.; the first African American to do so. Du Bois taught economics and history at Atlanta University (1897-1910).

This civil rights leader/scholar founded the Niagara Movement in opposition to the conservative policies of Booker T. Washington. One of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, Du Bois served as that organization's director of publications and editor of Crisis magazine until 1934. From 1944-1948 he headed the NAACP's special research department. He authored a great number of books, articles and essays. In 1961 he joined the Communist Party in the United States and that same year emigrated to Ghana. There he became editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia Africana. Du Bois died in Accra in 1963 at the age of 95.

From the guide to the W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1906-1966, 1942-1948, (The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.)

  • 1868, Feb. 23: Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
  • 1888: Graduated from Fisk University with an B.A degree.
  • 1890: Received B.A. from Harvard in History
  • 1891: M.A. degree from Harvard, afterwhich he spent two years of study at the University of Berlin on a grant from the Slater fund.
  • 1895: Ph.D. from Harvard in Sociology.
  • 1895 - 1896 : Professor of Greek and Latin at Wilberforce University.
  • 1896 - 1897 : Assistant instructor in sociology, University of Pennsylvania.
  • 1897 - 1910 : Professor of Economics - History at Atlanta University.
  • 1905: One of the founders of the Niagara Movement.
  • 1909: One of the founders of the NAACP.
  • 1910 - 1934 : Editor of The Crisis, the NAACP publication.
  • 1919: Organized the first Pan-African Congress in Paris, and later organized the conferences in 1921, 1923, and 1927.
  • 1933 - 1943 : Professor of Sociology at Atlanta University.
  • 1934: Resigned from the NAACP.
  • 1940 - 1944 : Founded and edited the Phylon.
  • 1944 - 1948 : Returned to the NAACP as the Director of Special Research.
  • 1949 - 1954 : Vice-Chairman of Council on African Affairs.
  • 1958 - 1959 : Extensive journey to the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.
  • 1961: At the invitation of Kwame Nkrumah to Ghana to work on the Encyclopedia Africana.
  • 1963: Granted Ghananian citizenship.
  • 1963, Aug. 27: Died in Ghana.

From the guide to the W.E.B. Dubois Collection, 1909-1910, 1918, (Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Brownell, Baker, 1887-1965. Baker Brownell Papers, 1904-1965. Northwestern University
referencedIn Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell records, 1946-1969. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
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creatorOf Aronson, James,. James Aronson/W.E.B. Du Bois collection, 1946-1983. University of Massachusetts Amherst, W.E.B. Du Bois Library
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creatorOf Graves, John Temple. Magazine clipping : Atlanta race riot, 1906. Temple University, Blockson Afro-American History Collection
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creatorOf Manny, Frank Addison, 1868-1954. Frank Addison Manny papers, 1890-1955. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
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creatorOf Martin, Charles Douglass, 1873-1942. Charles D. Martin collection, 1889-1942. North Carolina Central University, James E. Shepard Memorial Library
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referencedIn James Lowell Gibbs collection of African-American documents, 1865-1918 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Pruitt, Ida. Papers, 1850s-1992 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
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referencedIn Broderick, Francis L. W.E.B. Du Bois research material, n.d. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
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creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. [Letter] August 16, 1928, Editorial rooms of The Crisis, N.A.A.C.P., 69 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. [to] Rev. William P. Schell, Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. of America, New York, N.Y. / W.E.B. DuBois Presbyterian Historical Society, PHS
creatorOf Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. William Stanley Braithwaite papers, 1898-1979. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn African American photograph collection, 1918-1951. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Rosey Pool Collection, 1945-1974; also some earlier published items. University of Sussex Library
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referencedIn Durham Fact-Finding Conference Records, 1929-1930 and 1942-1945 North Carolina Central University. James E. Shepard Memorial Library.
creatorOf Locke, Alain LeRoy, 1886-1954. Alain LeRoy Locke photograph, and funeral orations brochure, 1952-1954. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
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creatorOf Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. W.E.B. Du Bois papers, 1803 (1877-1963) 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst, W.E.B. Du Bois Library
creatorOf Curry, J. L. M. (Jabez Lamar Monroe), 1825-1903. Pamphlet collection, 1788-1902. Alabama Department of Archives and History
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referencedIn Loren Miller papers, 1876-2003, 1932-1966 Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery
creatorOf Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971. Rockwell Kent papers, [circa 1840]-1993 (bulk 1935-1961). Smithsonian Archives of American Art
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