Rosenberg, Julius, 1918-1953

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Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were American citizens who were convicted of spying on behalf of the Soviet Union. The couple were accused of providing top-secret information about radar, sonar, jet propulsion engines, and valuable nuclear weapon designs; at that time the United States was the only country in the world with nuclear weapons. Convicted of espionage in 1951, they were executed by the federal government of the United States in 1953 in the Sing Sing correctional facility in Ossining, New York. Other convicted co-conspirators were sentenced to prison, including Ethel's brother, David Greenglass (who had made a plea agreement), Harry Gold, and Morton Sobell. Klaus Fuchs, a German scientist working in Los Alamos, was convicted in the United Kingdom. For decades, the Rosenbergs' sons, Michael and Robert Meeropol and many other defenders maintained that Julius and Ethel were innocent of spying on their country and were victims of Cold War paranoia. After the fall of the Soviet Union, much information concerning them was declassified, including a trove of decoded Soviet cables, code-named VENONA, which detailed Julius's role as a courier and recruiter for the Soviets and Ethel's role as an accessory. In 2008 the National Archives of the United States published most of the grand jury testimony related to the prosecution of the Rosenbergs; it revealed that Ethel had not been directly involved in activities, contrary to the charges levied by the government. In 2014, five historians who had published works based on the Rosenberg case wrote that newly available Soviet documents show that Ethel Rosenberg hid money and espionage paraphernalia for Julius, served as an intermediary for communications with his Soviet intelligence contacts, relayed her personal evaluation of individuals whom Julius considered recruiting, and was present at meetings with his sources. They support the assertion that Ethel persuaded her sister-in-law Ruth Greenglass to travel to New Mexico to recruit her husband David Greenglass as a spy. Other historians, though, argue that this evidence demonstrates only that Ethel knew of her husband's activities and chose to keep quiet.
Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Crane, Henry Hitt, 1890-1977. Henry Hitt Crane papers, 1902-1969 (bulk 1938-1958). University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Communist Party of Canada. Miscellaneous collection of posters, booklets, broadsides, and other ephemera relating to political issues and meetings, Toronto, Ont., 1917-1954. University of Guelph
referencedIn Archer, James H., 1882-1973. Papers, 1953-1976 (bulk 1968-1970). Cascade County Historical Society, Archives
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 17, Bank deposit slip and ledger for the account of Ruth Greenglass
referencedIn Records of the Agency for International Development. 1948 - 2003. Moving Images Relating to International Development Programs and Activities
referencedIn Cheuse, Alan. Papers of Alan Cheuse [manuscript], 1983, 2004-2005. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 9a and 9b, Passport photographs of Ruth and David Greenglass and their children
referencedIn Reuben, William A. William Reuben papers, ca. 1946-2000. University of Michigan
creatorOf Benjamin, Gilbert G. The Gilbert G. Benjamin collection on subversive activities. California State University, Northridge
referencedIn Erwin Edelman Typescript: The Suppressed Facts of the Rosenberg Case, undated Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Selected newsreel scenes
referencedIn Fine, Alvin I., 1916-. Alvin I. Fine papers, 1848-1962. Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, Rabbi Morris Goldstein Library
referencedIn Crane, Henry Hitt, 1890-1977. Henry Hitt Crane papers, 1902-1977 (bulk 1938-1958). University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 6, Lens Mold Sketch
referencedIn Michigan State University. Libraries. American Radicalism Collection. Rosenberg family : file of clippings and miscellanea. Michigan State University Libraries, Main Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 24A and 24B, Airline tickets and passenger manifests for trips under the names N. Sand and Morton Solt
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 10, brown paper wrapper which contained $4,000 Julius Rosenberg gave to David Greenglass to leave the country
referencedIn Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell records, 1946-1969. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Kaufman, Irving R. (Irving Robert), 1910-1992. Papers, 1934-1992 (bulk 1949-1992). Library of Congress
referencedIn Farmer, Fyke. Fyke Farmer papers, 1875-1997 (bulk 1945-1953). Library of Congress
referencedIn Alman, David, 1919-. David and Emily Alman collection, 1915-2000. Boston University. School of Medicine
referencedIn Cedric Belfrage Papers, Bulk, 1945-1985, 1922-1990, (Bulk 1945-1985) Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 13, Photographs and mug shots of Ruth and David Greenglass, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 14, Shipping form and Receiving Memorandum from Arthur H. Thomas Company
referencedIn Guide to the Virginia Gardner Papers, 1913-1990 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Harold Clayton Urey Papers, 1929-1981 University of California, San Diego. Geisel Library. Mandeville Special Collections Library.
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 31, Nominating Petition for Councilman
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 19, Memorandum from H.K. Calvert to Intelligance Officers concerning Nicholas Baker
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. Julius Rosenberg Arrest Photograph
referencedIn Cronbach, Abraham, 1882-1965. Papers, 1902-1965. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. Cross-section Sketch of Atomic Bomb
referencedIn Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. Letters to Anna Melissa Graves, 1953-1961. Houghton Library
referencedIn Gaede, Erwin A. Sobell papers, 1959-1966. University of Michigan
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 5, photograph of Harry Gold
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 21, Card in Spanish for M. Sand at the Diligencias Hotel
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 26A through 26J, Negative photostatic copies of documents from the voyage of Anatoli Yokovlev abord the United States Lines S.S. America from New York to Cobh, Southampton, and Havre
referencedIn Meeropol, Michael. Speeches [sound recording], 1975. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Mimi Diamond Photographs, undated Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Guide to the Virginia Gardner Papers, 1913-1990 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Wyatt, Walter, 1893-1978. Papers of Walter Wyatt [manuscript], 1916-1963. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn [Rosenberg demonstration before White House] [motion picture] / [production company unknown] Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn William O. Douglas oral history interviews, 1961-1963 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 22A and 22B, Gran Hotel Diligencias registration card and billing statement for Morris Sand
referencedIn Playscript about the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg espionage trial, circa 1975 University of California, Irvine. Library. Department of Special Collections
referencedIn Goldring, Benjamin. Benjamin Goldring papers, 1930s-1990s. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn [Memorial service for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg] [motion picture] / the National Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg Case. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Joshua B. Freeman Research Files on the Transport Workers Union of America, Bulk, 1940-1952, 1940s-1996, undated Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 32, Photograph of the studio of photographer Ben Schneider
referencedIn National Security Archive: Files on Julius and Ethel Rosenbergs' Grand Jury Petition, 2008, undated Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Henry Hitt Crane Papers, 1902-1977, 1938-1964 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Gold, Joseph. Papers, 1935-1983. Temple University Libraries, Paley Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Rosenberg Case Files
referencedIn Madison Committee to Reopen the Rosenberg Case. Records, 1950-1986. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. Lens Mold Sketch from the Atomic Bomb Drawn by David Greenglass
referencedIn Belfrage, Cedric, 1904-. Papers, 1922-1990 (bulk 1945-1985). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. Jell-O Box Exhibit Used in the Espionage Trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Morton Sobell
referencedIn National Rosenberg Defence Committee records, 1952-1954 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Swarthmore College collection, 1910-1974 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn George Sarton additional papers, 1901-1956 Houghton Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 28, Picture of a console table
referencedIn Rosenberg case miscellany, 1953. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Urey, Harold Clayton, 1893-1981. Papers, 1929-1981, bulk 1958-1978. University of California, San Diego, UC San Diego Library; UCSD Library
referencedIn Weinstein, Allen. Allen Weinstein papers, 1948-2004. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Guide to the Morris Schappes Papers, 1911-2004 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Jewish Community Relations Council of Minnesota. Council records, 1922-1974 (bulk 1945-1970). Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Harold Fruchtbaum Rosenberg Case Collection, circa 1945-circa 2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 16, Registration forms from the Hilton Hotel, Albuquerque, New Mexico for Harry Gold
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 20, Pamphlet, quot;Safeguarding Government Information Regulations,quot; Intelligence Bulletin No. 5, Manhattan Engineer District
referencedIn Clairchilde, Barbara. Playscript about the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg espionage trial, circa 1975. University of California, Irvine. Library. Department of Special Collections
referencedIn Douglas, William O. (William Orville), 1898-1980. William O. Douglas interviews, cassettes, 1961-1963. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Records of the Bureau of Prisons. 1870 - 2009. Notorious Offenders Files
referencedIn Perlin, Marshall, 1920-1998. Perlin Papers, (1932-1953). Columbia University Law School, Diamond Law Library, Arthur W. Diamond Law Library, Columbia Law School
referencedIn Guide to the William A. Reuben Papers, 1923-2003 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn John Finerty papers, 1910-1961 University of Oregon Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Reuben, William A. Papers, ca. 1946-1980. University of Michigan
referencedIn Campenni, Frank, 1930-2000. Frank Campenni papers, 1932-1977. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, UWM Libraries
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 1, photocopy of the security handbook for the atomic laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico
referencedIn Council records., 1922-1974 (bulk 1945-1970). Minnesota Historical Society
referencedIn Kaufman, Irving R. (Irving Robert), 1910-1992. Irving R. Kaufman papers, 1934-1992 (bulk 1949-1992). Library of Congress
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 12, Photograph of Klaus Fuchs
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files
referencedIn Swarthmore College. Swarthmore College collection, 1910-1974. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 25 and 25A, Certified copy and photostatic copy of deportation of Morton Sobell and his wife Hellen L. Sobell from Mexico
referencedIn Panken, Jacob, 1879-1968. Papers, 1916-1964. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Louis Nizer Papers, 1940-1994. Columbia University. Rare Book an Manuscript Library
referencedIn Morin, Relman, 1907-1973. Scrapbooks [microform], 1947-1969. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Hawkins, Oscar F. (Oscar Ferdinand), 1872-1964. Oscar F. Hawkins and family papers, 1888-1963. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Philadelphia Branch Records, 1943-2016, bulk 1943-1991 Temple University Libraries Special Collections Research Center
referencedIn Irving R. Kaufman Papers, 1934-1992, (bulk 1949-1992) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn National Rosenberg Defence Committee (Great Britain). National Rosenberg Defence Committee records, 1952-1954. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 7, sketch of setup to implode tubular materials. The drawing was delivered to Harry Gold
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 15, Certified copy of U.S. Department of State Foreign Oficial Status Notification for Anatoli Antonovich Yakovlev
referencedIn Fyke Farmer Papers, 1875-1997, (bulk 1945-1953) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 3, photograph of Mike and Anne Sidorovich
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 23A and 23B, Hotel Tampico registration card and billing statement for Marvin Salt
referencedIn Guide to the Benjamin and Muriel Goldring Papers and Photographs, 1900-2007 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Records of U.S. Attorneys. 1821 - 1994. Selected Case Files. 1847 - 1986. Exhibits from the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case File. 3/13/1951 - 3/27/1951. U.S. vs. Julius amp; Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell, Government Exhibit 11, Photograph of Anatoli A. Yokovlev
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alman, David, 1919- person
associatedWith Archer, James H., 1882-1973. person
associatedWith Belfrage, Cedric, 1904- person
associatedWith Benjamin, Gilbert G. person
associatedWith Campenni, Frank, 1930-2000. person
associatedWith Cheuse, Alan. person
associatedWith Clairchilde, Barbara person
associatedWith Clairchilde, Barbara. person
associatedWith Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. corporateBody
associatedWith Communist Party of Canada. corporateBody
associatedWith Crane, Henry Hitt, 1890-1977. person
associatedWith Cronbach, Abraham, 1882-1965. person
associatedWith Diamond, Mimi, (Miriam Diamond) person
associatedWith Douglas, William O. (William Orville), 1898-1980. person
associatedWith Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. person
associatedWith Edelman, Erwin person
associatedWith Farmer, Fyke. person
associatedWith Fine, Alvin I., 1916- person
associatedWith Finerty, John Frederick, 1885-1967 person
associatedWith Fruchtbaum, Harold. person
associatedWith Gaede, Erwin A. person
associatedWith Gardner, Virginia. person
associatedWith Gardner, Virginia. Friend and lover. person
associatedWith Gold, Joseph. person
associatedWith Goldring, Benjamin. person
associatedWith Goldring, Muriel Goodman. person
associatedWith Hawkins, Oscar F. (Oscar Ferdinand), 1872-1964. person
associatedWith Hoag, Leslie person
associatedWith Instituto Cubano de Amistad con los Pueblos. corporateBody
associatedWith Jewish Community Relations Council of Minnesota. corporateBody
associatedWith Jewish Community Relations Council of Minnesota. corporateBody
associatedWith Kaufman, Irving R. (Irving Robert), 1910-1992. person
associatedWith Knight, Dudley person
associatedWith Madison Committee to Reopen the Rosenberg Case. corporateBody
associatedWith Meeropol, Michael. person
associatedWith Metropolitan Music School (New York, N.Y.). corporateBody
associatedWith Morin, Relman, 1907-1973. person
associatedWith National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Philadelphia Branch (Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith National Rosenberg Defence Committee (Great Britain) corporateBody
associatedWith Newsreel (Firm). corporateBody
associatedWith Nizer, Louis, 1902-1994 person
associatedWith Panken, Jacob, 1879-1968. person
associatedWith Perlin, Marshall, 1920-1998. person
associatedWith Reuben, William A. person
correspondedWith Sarton, George, 1884-1956 person
associatedWith Schappes, Morris U. (Morris Urman), 1907- person
associatedWith United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. corporateBody
associatedWith Urey, Harold Clayton, 1893-1981. person
associatedWith Weinstein, Allen. person
associatedWith Wyatt, Walter, 1893-1978. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Subject
Occupation
Activity

Person

Birth 1918-05-12

Death 1953-06

Americans

English

Information

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