LeConte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883

Alternative names

Hide Profile

American entomologist John L. LeConte was the son of distinguished entomologist John LeConte. Born in New York and educated as a physician, LeConte's inheritance meant he never had to practice medicine; instead, he continued his father's work in entomology, publishing his first paper at the age of nineteen. He travelled across the United States and later the world collecting and describing insects, especially beetles. Many of his papers were translated and republished in Europe, and the collection of specimens he and his father accumulated was one of the richest in America. He volunteered as a surgeon during the Civil War.

From the description of John L. LeConte correspondence, 1847-1861. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 60677988

John Lawrence LeConte was an entomologist and physician and son of naturalist John Eatton LeConte. During the Civil War, he entered the army medical corps as a "surgeon of volunteers" and was promoted to the grade of lieutenant-colonel and was medical inspector until the end of the war. He held the position of chief clerk of the United States Mint at Philadelphia, 1878-1883.

From the description of Papers, 1812-1897. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122440049

John Lawrence LeConte (1825-1883, APS 1853), entomologist was an active member of the American Philosophical Society and founding member of the American Entomological Society; a charter member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1863; surgeon and medical inspector for the U.S. Army medical corps, 1861-1865; president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1874; and Chief Clerk of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia in 1878.

John Lawrence LeConte was the son of John Eatton LeConte (1784-1860, APS 1851) an army topographer and noted naturalist, and his wife Mary Ann Hampton. John Lawrence decided at an early age to follow in his father’s footsteps, and began collecting natural specimens, showing a particular interest in insects, especially beetles. He matriculated at Mount St. Mary’s College in Emmitsburg, Maryland, graduating in 1842. Three years later he enrolled at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and received a medical degree in 1846. While a medical student, LeConte also worked as an assistant to New York botanist and chemist John Torrey (1796-1873, APS 1835). Like other contemporary naturalists who were educated as doctors, including Asa Gray (1819-1888, APS 1848), LeConte seems never to have had any intention of practicing medicine. Already in 1844 he had published a paper, describing twenty-nine species of ground beetles. From 1844 to 1846 he collected specimens in the Rocky Mountains and around Lake Superior. When the noted Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz (1807-1873, APS 1843) explored the Great Lakes area in 1848, LeConte accompanied him. In 1849, he took another trip westward, this time traveling as far as California, returning to New York in 1851.

In 1852, LeConte and his father moved to Philadelphia, whose Academy of Natural Sciences helped to make it a center of activity for the study of natural history, including entomology. Unlike his Georgia cousin Joseph LeConte (1823-1901, APS 1873), with whom John had traveled, collected specimens, and even attended medical school, he did not enter Harvard’s new Lawrence Scientific School that opened in 1847. One reason was that Agassiz, the school’s founder and premier faculty member, had no special interest in entomology. In fact, except for the work of Frederick V. Melsheimer and Thomas Say (1787-1834, APS 1817) in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, American naturalists had described and classified few insects, routinely sending specimens abroad for identification as late as the mid-1840’s. For this reason LeConte aimed to make entomology a major field of study in the United States, focusing on the order Coleoptera (beetles), which lacked an effective taxonomy. With this goal in mind, LeConte traveled widely to collect specimens, including trips to Central America and Europe. He built a extensive collection of beetles, and also published descriptions of a number of new species. LeConte was also active in scientific organizations, participating in the affairs of Philadelphia’s Academy of Natural Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. He was a founding member of the American Entomological Society and elected an honorary member of several European scientific organizations.

1861 was a momentous year for LeConte. He began work on a monograph dedicated to the classification of the Coleoptera. He also married Helen S. Grier, the daughter of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Robert C. Grier (1794-1870, APS 1848). The advent of the Civil War disrupted his scientific work and his family life. He watched in horror as his Georgia relatives joined the secessionist cause. Soon after the War began, he volunteered to serve in the U.S. Army's medical corps, first as a surgeon and later as a medical inspector. Only in 1865 was he discharged and allowed to resume his study of natural history. Two years later in 1867 LeConte joined a railroad surveying team as a geologist and zoologist. This afforded him an opportunity to study the landforms and fauna of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains.

During the Civil War and the years that followed, LeConte enhanced his scientific stature by participation in nationally renown scientific bodies. In 1863 he became a charter member of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1874 he served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

LeConte published two important monographs in entomology with the assistance of George Henry Horn (1840-1897, APS 1869). The first in 1876 was on the weevils or Rhynchophora of North America. In 1883 he finished his taxonomy of the Coleoptera of North America, begun in 1861. This 600-page work classified about 11,000 different beetles. Although LeConte contributed to other fields of natural history with dozens of articles on topics in geology, paleontology and ornithology, he devoted his greatest attention to the description and classification of beetles. His published studies of the distribution of insects in the American West also helped to promote zoogeography as a means of biological inquiry.

LeConte wrote studies of insect damage to crops, and in 1877 unsuccessfully sought appointment as the U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture. Despite endorsements by fellow scientists, this office eluded him. However, President Rutherford B. Hayes later appointed him the chief clerk of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia.

John Lawrence LeConte died in his Philadelphia home on November 15, 1883 at the age of 68, after suffering a stroke. He was the father of three children, one of whom died in infancy. His contributions to entomology, in particular his taxonomy of beetles, greatly advanced descriptive and systematic entomology. Fellow entomologist Samuel H. Scudder wrote of him in 1884, “LeConte was the greatest entomologist this country has yet produced.”

From the guide to the John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897, (American Philosophical Society)

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873, APS 1843) was a zoologist and geologist. A student of Georges Cuvier, Agassiz was renown for his six-volume work Poissons fossils, a study of more than 1,700 ancient fish. Equally important was his Ètudes sur les glaciers (1840). In 1845 Agassiz moved to the United States on a two-year study grant from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to compare the flora and fauna of the United States and Europe. While in the United States he was invited to deliver a course of lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston. He took America and New England by storm and as a result in 1847 was appointed professor of zoology and geology at Harvard’s new Lawrence Scientific School.

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz was born in Motier, Switzerland on May 26, 1807, the son of a Protestant minister Rodolphe Agassiz and his wife Rose Mayor. Despite family pressure to enter business, Agassiz early decided to devote himself to the study of nature. At the age of twenty-one he predicted that he would become “the first naturalist of his time, a good citizen and a good son.” His determination gained Agassiz an excellent education in the natural sciences at the Universities of Heidelberg and Munich. He also made important contacts in early life that formed his outlook and provided the basis for his early career. The naturalist Johann B. Spix allowed him to publish on a collection of fish from Brazil that Spix had gathered, while the anatomist Ignaz Döllinger trained him to use the microscope and introduced him to the field of embryology. Philosophically, Agassiz was influenced by the German idealism of Lorenz Okenfuss, who built a system of biological classification based upon increasing complexity of sense organs. Agassiz’s scientific thought and practice was characterized by two separate and often contradictory outlooks. One was exact and pragmatic; the other was transcendental. His approach was clearly influenced by French zoologist and paleontologist Georges Cuvier, who passed on to Agassiz his remarkable collection of fossil fish illustrations. He also impressed the geographer Alexander Humboldt, an adviser to the king of Prussia who arranged an appointment for him at the Collège de Neuchâtel in 1832, where he taught natural history for more than ten years. During these years (1832-42) he studied fossil fish in museums and private collections throughout Europe, resulting in his six-volume Poissons fossils that described more than 1,700 primeval fish, that he analyzed according to Cuvier’s comparative method. The work, which won high praise from major Bristish naturalists Sir Charles Lyell and Richard Owen, provided the basis for Agassiz’s scientific fame and fortune. His natural philosophy was infused with the belief in an all-powerful diety, who planned and created every single living being, plant and animal, undercutting any genetic connection between ancient and modern creatures.

In addition to his work on fish, between 1837 and 1843 Agassiz did ground breaking work on glacial geology, presented in a paper presented to the Sociètè Helvétique des Sciences naturelles (July 1837) and in his book Etudes sur les glaciers in which he theorized that a massive glacier had once covered all of Europe. Although the idea had first been suggested by Swiss naturalist Jean de Charpentier, Agassiz was the first to publicize the idea and to apply it to all of Europe. A prolific writer, who wished to be personally involved with the production of his works, Agassiz developed a publishing house in Neuchâtel, that employed the latest technology in photo duplication and produced bibliographies, dictionaries and monographs by Agassiz and his assistants. In the spring of 1845 Agassiz’s fortunes abruptly shifted. His wife Cécile Braun Agassiz left her husband and Neuchâtel, his printing business closed due to accumulated debts, and he was forced to leave the Collège de Neuchâtel. Just as his luck seemed to run out, he received word of a 2-year grant secured for him by Humboldt from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia for $3,000 to do a comparative study of the flora and fauna of the United States and Europe.

Shortly after the arrival of Agassiz in the United States, John Amory Lowell, manufacturer and head of the Lowell Institute in Boston, invited him to deliver a course of public lectures. New Englanders found the Swiss naturalist, who spoke enthusiastically about primitive fish and prehistoric glaciers, intriguing. New England scientific luminaries such as Harvard botanist Asa Gray and Yale chemist Benjamin Silliman lauded Agassiz as “full of knowledge on all subjects of science.” His lectures created such a demand for speaking engagements, that within less than two years Agassiz was able to repay $20,000 in European debt. In the fall of 1847 Harvard University offered him a chair of zoology and geology at its newly established Lawrence Scientic School. In July 1848, after his wife’s death, he arranged for his children to join him in the United States. These events, together with his 1850 marriage to a bright well-connected Bostonian Elizabeth Cabot Carey, sixteen years Agassiz’s junior, permanently anchored the Swiss scientist in America. Soon afterward Agassiz’s home in Cambridge became a center of intellectual life. As a Harvard professor he badgered the University continually for funds to build a major natural history museum to instruct the public and help to train advanced students. His efforts paid off in November 1859, when the Museum of Comparative Zoology opened its doors. The Museum provided a unique resource for American students to gain unrestricted, first hand access to natural specimens. Many practicing American naturalists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were trained by Agassiz and worked in his museum. The Museum testified to Agassiz’s passion for collecting and identifying the “entire natural kingdom all at once,” a desire that quickly filled the repository to overflowing with specimens. From a philosophical perspective Agassiz planned the Museum as a demonstration of the “master plan” that the diety had executed in the creation of the natural world, displaying the “type plan” of different classes and stressing the separate creation of each species. Agassiz’s core belief in the special creation of species by God undergirded his quest to locate new species. However, some colleagues criticized him as “species mad,” arguing that his museum and his methods added little to the conceptual understanding of natural history.

Agassiz’s reputation took a major hit in a series of Boston debates on evolution, after the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859. Agassiz made a poor defense of special creation against Darwin’s defenders Asa Gray and William Barton Rogers. Furthermore, Agassiz’s understanding of special creationism as applied to human beings led him to view various races as distinct species, a rationale quickly adopted by the proponents slavery, who asserted a scientific basis to white supremecy.

Concerned about the decline of his professional reputation in the 1850s, in 1855 Agassiz announced the forthcoming publication of a projected ten-volume entitled Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. A total of 2,500 subscribers made advanced purchases at $12.00 each. The initial volume entitled Essay on Classification elaborated Agassiz’s views on classification, the philosophy of nature and the species concept. Appearing two years after Darwin’s Origin of Species, the work drew mixed reviews. Many were put off by the author’s dogmatism, others thought his views dated and moribund. Three more volumes appeared, but the publication of the projected set was never completed.

Many years later in 1872 Agassiz did reconsider evolution, trying to understand Darwin’s views by making a trip around South America, retracing Darwin’s voyage. However, he only became more convinced that the concept of evolution was “a scientific mistake, untrue to the facts, unscientific in its method, and mischievous in its tendency.” To the dismay of the scientific community Agassiz authored strident attacks on Darwinism in the popular press, infuriating Asa Gray and James Dana. Consequently, Agassiz was increasingly excluded from the politics of American science.

Agassiz remained at Harvard University until the end of his life. When he died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was deeply mourned by his adopted country.

From the guide to the Louis Jean Rodolph Agassiz papers, 1833-1873, 1833-1873 1833-1873, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Wailes, Benjamin L. C. (Benjamin Leonard Covington), 1797-1862. Papers, 1843-1862. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Joseph LeConte's early geological excursion., 1899. Minnesota Historical Society.
referencedIn LeConte, Joseph, 1823-1901. An early geological excursion, 1899. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
referencedIn Emory, William H. (William Hemsley), 1811-1887. William Hemsley Emory papers, 1823-1886. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Lewis Reeves Gibbes Papers, 1793-1894, (bulk 1838-1894) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn LeConte family papers, 1827-1901, 1827-1901 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William Parker Foulke Papers, 1840-1865, 1840-1865 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Foulke, William Parker, 1816-1865. Papers, ca. 1840-1865. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Le Conte, John Eatton, 1784-1860. Entomological drawings, n.d. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Gibbes, Lewis Reeves, 1810-1894. Lewis Reeves Gibbes papers, 1793-1894 (bulk 1838-1894). Library of Congress
referencedIn Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873. Papers, 1833-1873. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf LeConte family. LeConte family papers : additions, 1862-1928. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Handwriting samples of naturalists and others, ca. 1800-1970 (inclusive) Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
referencedIn John Shaw Billings Correspondence with Libraries of the American Philosophical Society and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Microfilm Copies, 1878-1916 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Samuel Stehman Haldeman letters, 1859-1875, 1844-1875 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Anne Hadden Collection, 1869-1935 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Harvard University. Gray Herbarium. Administrative correspondence of the Gray Herbarium, 179?-1965 (inclusive), 1840-1955 (bulk) [microform]. Harvard University, Gray Herbarium
creatorOf LeConte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883. Papers, 1812-1897. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Louis Jean Rodolph Agassiz papers, 1833-1873, 1833-1873 1833-1873 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn John Fries Frazer papers, 1834-1871, 1834-1871 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William Sharswood papers, 1865-1867, 1865-1867 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Jacob Stauffer Papers, 1844-1879, 1844-1879 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Entomological drawings, n.d., n.d. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn John Eatton Le Conte papers, 1816-1877, 1816-1877 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Phi Beta Kappa. Massachusetts Alpha (Harvard University). Records of Phi Beta Kappa : general correspondence, 1782-1911. Harvard University, Archives
creatorOf LeConte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883. John L. LeConte correspondence, 1847-1861. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
creatorOf Audubon, Victor Gifford, 1809-1860. Victor Audubon letters to John L. Le Conte, 1852. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Jacob Stauffer Papers, 1844-1879, 1844-1879 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf LeConte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883. Petition for a geological survey of California, 1850. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn William Hemsley Emory papers, 1823-1886 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, 1812-1880. The Geo. M. Greene Collection : the following letters addressed to Prof. S.S. Haldeman, sketches, illustrations of his scientific articles, pieces of manuscript, and the original plates of Thomas Say's "North American entomology" were presented by me (Prof. Haldeman's grandson) to Geo. M. Greene in May 1920. [signed] Guy K. Haldeman. Brown University, Brown University Library
referencedIn Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. Correspondence in the American Philosophical Society Library and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Library, 1878-1916 [microform]. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Le Conte, John Eatton, 1784-1860. Papers, 1816-1877. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn William Sharswood papers, 1865-1867, 1865-1867 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Hadden, Anne,. Anne Hadden collection of letters from American authors, 1869-1935. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Thomas Say papers, 1819-1883, 1955, 1819-1883 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Moore, Nathaniel Fish, 1782-1872. Journey by way of Buffalo and the lakes to the falls of St. Anthony : and return thence by way of St. Louis and the Ohio River in the autumn of 1845, 1845 July 3 - Sept. 20. Newberry Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIf, 1866-1886 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Popenoe, Edwin A. Letters received by Edwin A. Popenoe, 1873-1878. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, 1812-1880. Letters, 1859-1875. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Records of the U.S. Geological Survey. 1839 - 2008. Personal Letters Received
referencedIn John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn LeConte Family. Papers, 1827-1901. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Frazer, John Fries, 1812-1872. Papers, 1834-1871. American Philosophical Society Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Aall, Nicolai person
associatedWith Abbott, Asa M person
associatedWith Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia person
associatedWith Academy of Sciences of St. Louis. corporateBody
associatedWith Agassiz, Alexander, 1835-1910. person
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873. person
associatedWith Akhurst, John person
associatedWith Albertin, E. R. person
associatedWith Alexander, Stephen, 1806-1883 person
associatedWith Allen, Harrison, 1841-1897 person
associatedWith Alvarado, Léon, 1818-1870 person
associatedWith American Academy of Arts and Sciences person
associatedWith American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Fellows. corporateBody
associatedWith American Association for the Advancement of Science person
associatedWith American Geographical and Statistical Society person
associatedWith American Museum of Natural History person
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Public Health Association person
associatedWith Ames, Frank person
associatedWith Anderson, Edward L., 1815-1872 person
associatedWith Anderson, R. C person
associatedWith Andrews, Mrs. person
associatedWith Andrews, W. V. person
associatedWith Anthony, Henry B. (Henry Bowen), 1815-1884 person
associatedWith Apetz, Heinrich person
associatedWith Apetz, Johann Heinrich, 1794-1857 person
associatedWith Apgar, E. A. person
associatedWith Armistead, Walker Keith, 1783-1845 person
associatedWith Asch, Morris S. person
associatedWith Ashmead, William Harris person
associatedWith Atlee, Walter F. (Walter Franklin), 1828-1910 person
associatedWith Auburn, NY. Citizens. corporateBody
associatedWith Audubon, Victor, 1809-1860. person
associatedWith Auer, C. person
associatedWith Austin, E. P. person
associatedWith Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867. person
associatedWith Bache, Hartman, 1797-1872 person
associatedWith Bache, Richard Meade person
associatedWith Bache, Thomas Hewson person
associatedWith Bagster, C. Birch person
associatedWith Bailliere, C. E. person
associatedWith Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887. person
associatedWith Barker, George F. (George Frederick), 1835-1910 person
associatedWith Barnard, Frederick A. P. family
associatedWith Barnard, Frederick A. P., 1809-1889. person
associatedWith Barnard, James M. person
associatedWith Bates, Henry Walter, 1825-1892 person
associatedWith Bayley, James Roosevelt, 1814-1877 person
associatedWith Behrens, James person
associatedWith Belfrage, G. W. person
associatedWith Bell, Robert person
associatedWith Bell, W. A. person
associatedWith Belt, Thomas, 1832-1878 person
associatedWith Bernard, P. (Pierre), 1810-1876 person
associatedWith Bethune, Charles H. person
associatedWith Bey, H. Brugsen person
associatedWith Bickmore, Albert S. (Albert Smith), 1839-1914 person
associatedWith Biddle, Craig, 1823-1910 person
associatedWith Biddle, Thomas A., 1798-1888 person
associatedWith Bigler, William, 1814-1880 person
associatedWith Billings, B. person
associatedWith Billings, E. (Elkanah), 1820-1876 person
associatedWith Billings, John S. (John Sedgwick), 1869-1928 person
associatedWith Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. person
associatedWith Binney, W. G. (William Greene), 1833-1909 person
associatedWith Blanchard, Frederick person
associatedWith Blandy, Alfred A. person
associatedWith Blaney, George, 1775 or 6-1835 person
associatedWith Blodget, Lorin, 1823-1901. person
associatedWith Blüthner, M. person
associatedWith Blüthner, Moritz Schaufuss person
associatedWith Boardman, Henry A. (Henry Augustus), 1808-1880 person
associatedWith Boisduval, Jean Alphonse, 1801-1879 person
associatedWith Bolander, Henry Nicholas, 1831-1897 person
associatedWith Bolter, A. person
associatedWith Borre, A. de person
associatedWith Boston Society of Natural History corporateBody
associatedWith Boucard, A. person
associatedWith Bourjos, A. person
associatedWith Brendel, Emil person
associatedWith Brevoort, James Carson, 1818-1887 person
associatedWith Brinton, John H. (John Hill), 1832-1907 person
associatedWith Bristow, Benjamin Helm, 1832-1896 person
associatedWith Brooklyn Entomological Society person
associatedWith Brown, Edwin person
associatedWith Brown, George W. person
associatedWith Brown, Joseph B. person
associatedWith Brugsch, Heinrich, 1827-1894 person
associatedWith Brush, George Jarvis, 1831-1912 person
associatedWith Buckland, William, 1784-1856 person
associatedWith Bulard person
associatedWith Burley, J. W. person
associatedWith Burnam, Curtis Field, 1877- person
associatedWith Burnett, W. J. (William J.), 1842-1930 person
associatedWith Busk, George, 1807-1886 person
associatedWith Cadwalader, George, 1806-1879 person
associatedWith Caffrey, John M. person
associatedWith Camac, William person
associatedWith Campbell, Albert H. (Albert Henry), 1826-1899 person
associatedWith Campbell, H. H. (Henry Harrison), 1840-1911 person
associatedWith Campbell, J. S. person
associatedWith Candèze, E. C. (Ernest Charles), 1827-1898 person
associatedWith Cany, H. G. person
associatedWith Carey, Henry Charles, 1793-1879 person
associatedWith Carey, H. O. person
associatedWith Carey, Hugh person
associatedWith Carlier, Auguste, 1803-1890 person
associatedWith Carnier, Frederic person
associatedWith Carter, E. James person
associatedWith Casas, J. Victor person
associatedWith Cassin, John, 1813-1869 person
associatedWith Caulfield, F. B. person
associatedWith Chapin, F. person
associatedWith Chapman, Henry C. (Henry Cadwalader), 1845-1909. person
associatedWith Chapuis, F. (Félicien), 1824-1879 person
associatedWith Chaudoir, M. de (Maximilien), baron, 1817-1881 person
associatedWith Chauvennes, W. person
associatedWith Cheveult, A. person
associatedWith Chevreul, M. E. (Michel Eugène), 1786-1889 person
associatedWith Christern, Frederick W. person
associatedWith Clarke, Thomas Curtis, 1827-1901 person
associatedWith Clark, Hamlet, 1823-1867 person
associatedWith Clemens, Brackenridge, 1826-1867 person
associatedWith Coffin, J. H. C. (John Huntington Crane), 1815-1890 person
associatedWith Collis, Charles H. T. (Charles Henry Tucky), 1838-1902 person
associatedWith Columbia University. corporateBody
associatedWith Comstock, John Henry, 1849-1931 person
associatedWith Conover, Ralph person
associatedWith Cooper, J. G. (James Graham), 1830-1902 person
associatedWith Cooper, William, 1798-1864 person
associatedWith Couch, Darius Nash person
associatedWith Coues, Elliott, 1842-1899. person
associatedWith Couper, William, 1853-1942 person
associatedWith Cox, E. T. (Edward Travers), 1821-1907 person
associatedWith Crane, Charles Henry, 1825-1883 person
associatedWith Crawford, John Martin, 1845-1916 person
associatedWith Crawford, William Harris, 1772-1834 person
associatedWith Cresson, E. T. (Ezra Townsend), 1838-1926 person
associatedWith Cresson, T. person
associatedWith Crotch, George R. person
associatedWith Crotch, G. K. person
associatedWith Crozer, John P. (John Price), 1793-1866 person
associatedWith Currie, C. George person
associatedWith Cuyler, John M. person
associatedWith Da Costa, J. M. (Jacob Mendes), 1833-1900 person
associatedWith Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927 person
associatedWith Dana, James Dwight, 1813-1895. person
associatedWith Darrach, James, 1806-1889 person
associatedWith Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. corporateBody
associatedWith Davenport, Samuel person
associatedWith Davidson, George, 1825-1911 person
associatedWith Davis, Charles Henry, 1807-1877 person
associatedWith Dawson, John William, Sir, 1820-1899 person
associatedWith de Bouvauloir, H. person
associatedWith Deby, Julien, 1827-1895 person
associatedWith Dejean, Pierre François Marie Auguste, comte, 1780-1845 person
associatedWith De Kay, James E. (James Ellsworth), 1792-1851 person
associatedWith Detroit, Michigan. Citizens. corporateBody
associatedWith Dickson, Samuel Henry, 1798-1872 person
associatedWith Dillaway, Charles K. (Charles Knapp), 1804-1889 person
associatedWith Dohrn, Anton, 1840-1909. person
associatedWith Dohrn, C. A. (Carl August), 1806-1892 person
associatedWith Dow, John M. person
associatedWith Drayton, G. person
associatedWith Drayton, W. Heywood person
associatedWith Drewson, Christian person
associatedWith Du Chaillu, Paul B., (Paul Belloni), 1835-1903 person
associatedWith Dunker, Wilhelm, 1809-1885 person
associatedWith D'Urban, W. S. M. person
associatedWith Duyckinck, George L. (George Long), 1823-1863 person
associatedWith Eby, J. R. person
associatedWith Edwards, Amory person
associatedWith Edwards, Henry, 1830-1891 person
associatedWith Eichaltz, L. H. person
associatedWith Eliot, Charles William, 1834-1926 person
associatedWith Emery, Charles Edward, 1838-1898 person
associatedWith Emory, William H., 1811-1887. person
associatedWith Engelmann, George, 1809-1884 person
associatedWith Ernst, C. W. (Carl Wilhelm), 1845-1919 person
associatedWith Eustis, Henry Lawrence, 1819-1885 person
associatedWith Farish, John P. person
associatedWith Farnum, J. Edward person
associatedWith Faure, Albert person
associatedWith Fauvel, Albert Auguste, 1851- person
associatedWith Fay, Alec Alexander person
associatedWith Felder, Cajetan, Freiherr von, 1814-1894 person
associatedWith Fellows, Arthur person
associatedWith Fiske, Willard, 1831-1904 person
associatedWith Flint, Charles Louis, 1824-1889 person
associatedWith Foote, Albert E., 1846-1895 person
associatedWith Forbes, John Murray, 1813-1898 person
associatedWith Forbes, Stephen Alfred, 1844-1903 person
associatedWith Forbes, Stephen Alfred, 1844-1930 person
associatedWith Forney, J. W. person
associatedWith Foster, J. W. person
associatedWith Foulke, Julia de Veaux person
associatedWith Foulke, William Parker person
associatedWith Foulke, William Parker, 1816-1865. person
associatedWith Franklin Institute, (Philadelphia, PA) person
associatedWith Frazer, Charlotte Cave person
associatedWith Frazer, John Fries, 1812-1872. person
associatedWith Frazer, Persifor, 1844-1909 person
associatedWith Fuller, Andrew S. (Andrew Samuel), 1828-1896 person
associatedWith Furness, Horace Howard, 1833-1912. person
associatedWith Gabb, William More, 1839-1878 person
associatedWith Garvin, Thomas E. person
associatedWith Gautier des Cottes, Baron person
associatedWith Genth, F. A. (Frederick Augustus), 1820-1893 person
correspondedWith Gibbes, Lewis Reeves, 1810-1894. person
associatedWith Gibbes, Robert W. (Robert Wilson), 1809-1866 person
associatedWith Gibbs, George, 1815-1873 person
associatedWith Gibbs, Wolcott, 1822-1908 person
associatedWith Gibson, Henry C., 1830-1891 person
associatedWith Giertz, Miss person
associatedWith Gill's, Misses, School person
associatedWith Gill, Theodore, 1837-1914 person
associatedWith Gilmore & Brown person
associatedWith Girard, Charles, 1822-1895 person
associatedWith Glasewald person
associatedWith Glover, Townend, 1813-1883 person
associatedWith Goldsmith, Middleton, 1818-1887 person
associatedWith Goldsmith, W. person
associatedWith Gould, Benjamin A., (Benjamin Apthorp), 1787-1859 person
associatedWith Gould, Benjamin Apthorp, 1824-1896. person
associatedWith Gould & Lincoln person
associatedWith G. P. Putnam & Co. person
associatedWith Graham, James Lorimer, 1831-1876 person
associatedWith Graham, Thomas L. person
associatedWith Grant, F. W. (Frederick William), 1834-1902 person
associatedWith Gray, Asa, 1810-1888 person
associatedWith Gray, C. C. (Christopher Columbus), 1860-1939 person
associatedWith Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875 person
associatedWith Greet, Ferdinand person
associatedWith Grier, A. person
associatedWith Grier, D. P. person
associatedWith Grier, Isaac, 1806-1884 person
associatedWith Grier, Robert Cooper, 1794-1870 person
associatedWith Grier, W. A. M. person
associatedWith Grier, W. P. person
associatedWith Grote, Augustus Radcliffe, 1841-1903. person
associatedWith Gruner, E. Chre L. person
associatedWith Guex, John A. person
associatedWith Guyot, A. (Arnold), 1807-1884 person
associatedWith Guyot, Auguste person
associatedWith Hadden, Anne, person
associatedWith Hadden, Anne. person
associatedWith Hagen, Hermann August, 1817-1893. person
associatedWith Halberstadt, A. H. person
associatedWith Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, 1812-1880. person
associatedWith Hall, James person
associatedWith Hall, James, 1811-1898. person
associatedWith Hamlin, Augustus C. (Augustus Choate), 1829-1905 person
associatedWith Hammond, Bessie person
associatedWith Hammond, E. person
associatedWith Hammond, G. person
associatedWith Hammond, J. P. person
associatedWith Hammond, Ogden person
associatedWith Hammond, William Alexander, 1828-1900 person
associatedWith Harden, Jane LeConte person
associatedWith Harden, Jane Le Conte person
associatedWith Harden, M. person
associatedWith Harding, William White, 1830-1889 person
associatedWith Hardy, J. R. person
associatedWith Hare, R. Emett person
associatedWith Hare, R. H. person
associatedWith Harold, E. person
associatedWith Harrison, George L. person
associatedWith Harrison, Joseph, 1810-1874 person
associatedWith Harris, Robert person
associatedWith Harris, Thaddeus William, 1795-1856. person
associatedWith Hartt, Charles Frederick, 1840-1878 person
associatedWith Harvard University. Gray Herbarium. corporateBody
associatedWith Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology person
associatedWith Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology. corporateBody
associatedWith Haven, Franklin, 1857-1908 person
associatedWith Hayden, Ferdinand Vandiveer, 1829-1887. person
associatedWith Hayes, I. I. (Isaac Israel), 1832-1881 person
associatedWith Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893. person
associatedWith Haynes, Peter person
associatedWith Hays, Isaac, 1796-1879 person
associatedWith Helmuth, C. A. person
associatedWith Hennt, Robert W. person
associatedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878. person
associatedWith Henry, Thomas Charlton, 1790-1827 person
associatedWith Henshaw, Samuel, 1852-1941 person
associatedWith Herrolat, A. person
associatedWith Herrolet person
associatedWith Hewitt, A. H. S. person
associatedWith Hewitt, W. W. (William W.) person
associatedWith Heÿden, C. von person
associatedWith Hilgard, Eugene W. (Eugene Woldemar), 1833-1916 person
associatedWith Hilgard, J. E. (Julius Erasmus), 1825-1891 person
associatedWith Hinckley, Isaac, 1815-1888 person
associatedWith Hodgman, Frank person
associatedWith Hoey, Nicholas J. person
associatedWith Holbrook, H. P. person
associatedWith Holbrook, John Edwards, 1794-1871 person
associatedWith Holden, Edward Singleton, 1846-1914 person
associatedWith Hope, F. W. (Frederick William), 1797-1862 person
associatedWith Horn, George Henry, 1840-1897. person
associatedWith Howgate, Henry W. person
associatedWith How, G. H. person
associatedWith Hubbard, Bela person
associatedWith Hubbard, Henry Guernsey, 1850-1899. person
associatedWith Humphreys, A. A., (Andrew Atkinson), 1810-1883 person
associatedWith Huntington, Daniel, 1816-1906 person
associatedWith Hunt, Thomas Sterry, 1826-1892 person
associatedWith Hyatt, Alpheus, 1838-1902 person
associatedWith Ibbetson, Frederick H. person
associatedWith Irvin, B. J. D. person
associatedWith Janson, Edward W. person
associatedWith J. -B. Baillière et fils person
associatedWith Jeffers, William N. (William Nicholson), 1824-1883 person
associatedWith Johnston Harvester Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Jones, W. L. person
associatedWith Kane Monument Association person
associatedWith Kane, Thomas Leiper, 1822-1883 person
associatedWith Kansas Academy of Science. Popenoe, Edwin A person
associatedWith Kasson, John Adam, 1822-1910 person
associatedWith Keath, John Meredith person
associatedWith Keeney, C. C. person
associatedWith Kelley, William D. (William Darrah), 1814-1890 person
associatedWith Kendall, E. Otis (Ezra Otis), 1818-1899 person
associatedWith Kennicott, Robert, 1835-1866 person
associatedWith Kidder, Frederic, 1804-1885 person
associatedWith King, C. P. person
associatedWith King, Francis J. person
associatedWith King, Valentine Overton, 1833-1917 person
associatedWith Kirkpatrick, John person
associatedWith Kirtland, J. P., (Jared Potter), 1793-1877 person
associatedWith Kite, Thomas person
associatedWith Kluge, John Peter, 1768-1849 person
associatedWith Klug, Fr. (Friedrich), 1775-1856 person
associatedWith Kraatz, E. person
associatedWith Kraatz, Gustav, 1831-1909 person
associatedWith Krebs, W. person
associatedWith Lacordaire, Jean Théodore, 1801-1870. person
associatedWith Lacordaire, Théodore, 1801-1870 person
associatedWith Lamarche, Edward H. person
associatedWith Lamarche, E. & H. person
associatedWith La Roche, R., (René), 1795-1872 person
associatedWith Latreille, P. A. (Pierre André), 1762-1833 person
associatedWith Lawrence, Eugene, 1823-1894 person
associatedWith Lawrence, Frederick, 1821-1867 person
associatedWith Layard, Austen Henry, Sir, 1817-1894 person
associatedWith Lea, Isaac, 1792-1886 person
associatedWith Le Baron, William person
associatedWith Le Conte, Caroline, 1863-1946 person
associatedWith LeConte family. family
associatedWith LeConte family. family
associatedWith LeConte family. family
associatedWith LeConte family. family
associatedWith LeConte Family. family
associatedWith Le Conte, John, 1818-1891 person
associatedWith Le Conte, John Eatton, 1784-1860. person
associatedWith LeConte, John Eatton, 1784-1860 person
associatedWith Le Conte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883 person
associatedWith LeConte, Joseph, 1823-1901. person
associatedWith Le Conte, Josephine person
associatedWith LeConte, Joseph L. person
associatedWith LeConte, Sarah person
associatedWith Le Duc, William Gates, 1823-1917 person
associatedWith Leipzig. K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. person
associatedWith Leland, Charles Godfrey, 1824-1903 person
associatedWith Lenses Zimmerman, C. person
associatedWith Lesley, J. P., (J. Peter), 1819-1903 person
associatedWith Lesquereux, Leo, 1806-1889. person
associatedWith Letterman, Jonathan, 1824-1872 person
associatedWith Lewis, Francis Warner, 1822-1913 person
associatedWith Lewis, George, 1829-1926 person
associatedWith Lewis, J. Howard person
associatedWith Lewis, John Frederick, 1860-1932 person
associatedWith Lewis, Samuel C. person
associatedWith Lincoln, Julia Kendall person
associatedWith Linter, Joseph Albert, 1822-1898 person
associatedWith Littell, Eliakim, 1797-1870 person
associatedWith Littell, John S. (John Stockton), 1806-1875 person
associatedWith Logan, Thos. M. (Thomas Muldrup), 1808-1876 person
associatedWith Lyman, George H. (George Hinckley), 1819-1891 person
associatedWith Lyman, Theodore, 1833-1897 person
associatedWith Mackenjaskne, W. person
associatedWith Maclean, John person
associatedWith Maclur, William L. person
associatedWith Macomb, Alexander, 1782-1841 person
associatedWith MacVeagh, Wayne, 1833-1917 person
associatedWith Maklin, F. W. person
associatedWith Mallet, John William, 1832-1912 person
associatedWith Mann, B. Pickman, (Benjamin Pickman), 1848-1926 person
associatedWith Marseul, S. -A. de (Silvin Augustin), 1812-1890 person
associatedWith Marsh Harvester Manufacturing Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899 person
associatedWith Marsted person
associatedWith Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908 person
associatedWith Mason, Otis Tufton, 1858-1908. person
associatedWith Matthews, A. (Andrew), 1815-1897 person
associatedWith Mayer, Edward Rodman, 1823-1891 person
associatedWith Mayfair, R. L. person
associatedWith McChesney, J. B. person
associatedWith McClelland, Robert, 1807-1880 person
associatedWith McCloskey, George person
associatedWith McGill, Alexander T. (Alexander Taggart), 1807-1889 person
associatedWith McKee, John Cooper person
associatedWith McLane, Allan person
associatedWith McMichael, Morton, 1807-1879 person
associatedWith McPherson, D. F. person
associatedWith Meehan, Thomas, 1826-1901 person
associatedWith Meek, F. B. (Fielding Bradford), 1817-1876 person
associatedWith Melly, André, 1802-1851 person
associatedWith Melsheimer, Friedrich Ernst, 1782-1873 person
associatedWith Melsheimer, F. Valentin, 1749-1814. person
associatedWith Mendenhall, Thomas Corwin person
associatedWith Mendenhall, Thomas Corwin. person
associatedWith Ménétries, E. (Édouard), 1802-1861 person
associatedWith Meyers, E. M. person
associatedWith Milham, J. person
associatedWith Miller, Lewis person
associatedWith Mills, Madison person
associatedWith Milne-Edwards, H., (Henri), 1800-1885 person
associatedWith Mische, William person
associatedWith Mitchell, S. Weir, (Silas Weir), 1829-1914 person
associatedWith Moore, George Henry, 1823-1892 person
associatedWith Moore, Nathaniel Fish, 1782-1872. person
associatedWith Morrell, D. J. person
associatedWith Morris, John G., (John Gottlieb), 1803-1895 person
associatedWith Morrison, Herbart Knowles person
associatedWith Morrison, James person
associatedWith Morse, Edward Sylvester, 1838-1925 person
associatedWith Motschulsky, Victor de person
associatedWith Mulvany, Patrick person
associatedWith Murray, Andrew, 1812-1878 person
associatedWith Murray, Mary person
associatedWith Musant, E. person
associatedWith Nashville, Tennesee Citizens. corporateBody
associatedWith Nason, William A. person
associatedWith Newark, Bishop of person
associatedWith Newberry, J. S., (John Strong), 1822-1892 person
associatedWith Newcomb, Simon, 1835-1909 person
associatedWith Newsom, F. S. person
associatedWith Newton, H. A. (Hubert Anson), 1830-1896 person
associatedWith New York Academy of Sciences. corporateBody
associatedWith New York State Museum of Natural History. corporateBody
associatedWith Nichols, J. H. person
associatedWith Nicholson, Hunter person
associatedWith Nichols, S. H. person
associatedWith Norwood, W. person
associatedWith Nott, Josiah Clark, 1804-1873 person
associatedWith Ord, George, 1781-1866. person
associatedWith Osten-Sachen, Carl Robert, family
associatedWith Osten-Sachen, Carl Robert, freiherr von der, 1826-1906. person
associatedWith Osten-Sacken, C. R. (Carl Robert), 1828-1906 person
associatedWith Otis, George A. (George Alexander), 1830-1881 person
associatedWith Owen, Richard, 1804-1892 person
associatedWith Packard, A. S., (Alpheus Spring), 1839-1905 person
associatedWith Palmer, William G. person
associatedWith Parker, Daniel, 1782-1846 person
associatedWith Parrish, E. Morgan person
associatedWith Parry, C. C. (Charles Christopher), 1823-1890 person
associatedWith Parry, F. J. person
associatedWith Parsons, Thomas William, 1819-1892 person
associatedWith Pascoe, Francis P. (Francis Polkinghourne), 1813-1893 person
associatedWith Patterson, Robert, 1819-1909 person
associatedWith Patterson, Thomas C. person
associatedWith Peabody, G. H. person
associatedWith Pease, William Harper, 1824-1872 person
associatedWith Peirce, Benjamin, 1809-1880. person
associatedWith Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. corporateBody
associatedWith Penrose, R. A. F. (Richard Alexander Fullerton), 1827-1908 person
associatedWith Perry, John D., 1815-1895 person
associatedWith Peterson, Thomas, 1791-1854 person
associatedWith Phi Beta Kappa. Massachusetts Alpha (Harvard University) corporateBody
associatedWith Philadelphia. Centennial exhibition, 1876 person
associatedWith Philadelphia. Citizens person
associatedWith Philippi, Rodolfo Amando, 1808-1904 person
associatedWith Plasou person
associatedWith Poey, Felipe, 1799-1891 person
associatedWith Popenoe, Edwin A. person
associatedWith Potter, Howard person
associatedWith Potter, Joseph G. person
associatedWith Powel, Samuel, 1818-1885 person
associatedWith Pretzries person
associatedWith Price, Eli K., (Eli Kirk), 1797-1884 person
associatedWith Prime, Frederick person
associatedWith Prime, Temple, 1832-1903 person
associatedWith Provancher, L. (Léon), 1820-1892 person
associatedWith Putnam, F. W., (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915 person
associatedWith Putnam, Joseph Duncan, 1855-1881 person
associatedWith Putzeÿs, Jules, 1809-1882 person
associatedWith Quabach, William H. person
associatedWith Quarterman, J. H. person
associatedWith Raeloft, W. person
associatedWith Ramy, A. Constantine person
associatedWith Randall, A. person
associatedWith Randall, Robert E. person
associatedWith Rathvon, S. S., (Simon Snyder), 1812-1891 person
associatedWith Raynard & Treadmill person
associatedWith Read, M. C. (Matthew Canfield), 1825-1902 person
associatedWith Reiche person
associatedWith Reiff, J. C. person
associatedWith Remsen, Ira, 1846-1927 person
associatedWith Retsema, C. person
associatedWith Retsima, C. person
associatedWith Richard, Achille, 1794-1852 person
associatedWith Riley, Charles Valentine, 1843-1895. person
associatedWith Ringgold, Samuel, 1770-1829 person
associatedWith Rivers, J. J. person
associatedWith Robins, James W. person
associatedWith Robinson, Moncure, 1802-1891 person
associatedWith Rogers, Fairman, 1833-1900 person
associatedWith