Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897

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Historian, cartographer, and librarian of the Boston Public Library.

From the description of Letter : Cambridge, Mass., to Henry Harrisse, Paris, France, 1891 Oct. 10. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 40998446

Winsor graduated from Harvard in 1853 and was a librarian at Harvard and at the Boston Public Library.

From the description of Papers of Justin Winsor, 1847-1897 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 76972933

Winsor was librarian of Harvard University from 1877 to his death.

From the guide to the Justin Winsor scrapbook, 1695-1884., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

Winsor was superintendent (1868-77) of the Boston Public Library and afterward librarian (1877-97) of Harvard University.

From the description of Scrapbook, 1695-1884. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 82743574

Librarian and historian.

From the description of Justin Winsor signature, undated. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981401

The American Library Association (ALA) was founded in 1876 at a conference of librarians in Philadelphia. The British Library Association (LA) was founded during the international conference in London in 1877. Justin Winsor was librarian of the Boston Public Library, and later Librarian of Harvard University. He was one of the founders of the American Library Association and became its first president, serving until 1885 and again in 1897.

From the description of Scrapbook concerning conferences of librarians, 1876-1877. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612655120

American librarian and historian.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Cambridge, Mass., to Paul Ford, 1887 Nov. 26. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270586882

Historian, librarian, cartographer.

From the description of Justin Winsor letters, 1891-1893 [manuscript]. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647814527

Winsor was a librarian and historian. Leighton was a dramatist, poet and author of prose.

From the description of ALS, 1879 August 26, Cambridge, Mass. to William Leighton. (Haverford College Library). WorldCat record id: 43053085

Sent to Thomas Bailey Aldrich, editor of the Atlantic Monthly, 1881-1890; probably submitted for publication.

From the description of Wedlock in literature : manuscript, [1881-1890?] (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612864215

Justin Winsor (1831-1897) was a librarian and historian. He received an AB from Harvard College in 1853, was the Superintendent of the Boston Public Library from1868-1877, Librarian of Harvard College from 1877 until his death, and the first president of the American Library Association, 1876-1885. Winsor published numerous historical books and articles and planned this massive, exhaustive biography of actor David Garrick, but it never was published.

David Garrick (1717-1779) was a British actor, writer, theater manager, entrepreneur, and international celebrity. David Garrick revolutionized acting and the English stage in the eighteenth century and also was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson.

From the description of Justin Winsor papers for Garrick and his contemporaries, 1851-1867. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 713373674

Justin Winsor (1831-1897) was a librarian and historian. He received an AB from Harvard College in 1853, was the Superintendent of the Boston Public Library from1868–1877, Librarian of Harvard College from 1877 until his death, and the first president of the American Library Association, 1876-1885. Winsor published numerous historical books and articles and planned this massive, exhaustive biography of actor David Garrick, but it never was published.

David Garrick (1717-1779) was a British actor, writer, theater manager, entrepreneur, and international celebrity. David Garrick revolutionized acting and the English stage in the eighteenth century and also was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson.

From the guide to the Justin Winsor papers for, Garrick and his contemporaries, 1851-1867., (Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873, APS 1843) was a zoologist and geologist. A student of Georges Cuvier, Agassiz was renown for his six-volume work Poissons fossils, a study of more than 1,700 ancient fish. Equally important was his Ètudes sur les glaciers (1840). In 1845 Agassiz moved to the United States on a two-year study grant from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to compare the flora and fauna of the United States and Europe. While in the United States he was invited to deliver a course of lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston. He took America and New England by storm and as a result in 1847 was appointed professor of zoology and geology at Harvard’s new Lawrence Scientific School.

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz was born in Motier, Switzerland on May 26, 1807, the son of a Protestant minister Rodolphe Agassiz and his wife Rose Mayor. Despite family pressure to enter business, Agassiz early decided to devote himself to the study of nature. At the age of twenty-one he predicted that he would become “the first naturalist of his time, a good citizen and a good son.” His determination gained Agassiz an excellent education in the natural sciences at the Universities of Heidelberg and Munich. He also made important contacts in early life that formed his outlook and provided the basis for his early career. The naturalist Johann B. Spix allowed him to publish on a collection of fish from Brazil that Spix had gathered, while the anatomist Ignaz Döllinger trained him to use the microscope and introduced him to the field of embryology. Philosophically, Agassiz was influenced by the German idealism of Lorenz Okenfuss, who built a system of biological classification based upon increasing complexity of sense organs. Agassiz’s scientific thought and practice was characterized by two separate and often contradictory outlooks. One was exact and pragmatic; the other was transcendental. His approach was clearly influenced by French zoologist and paleontologist Georges Cuvier, who passed on to Agassiz his remarkable collection of fossil fish illustrations. He also impressed the geographer Alexander Humboldt, an adviser to the king of Prussia who arranged an appointment for him at the Collège de Neuchâtel in 1832, where he taught natural history for more than ten years. During these years (1832-42) he studied fossil fish in museums and private collections throughout Europe, resulting in his six-volume Poissons fossils that described more than 1,700 primeval fish, that he analyzed according to Cuvier’s comparative method. The work, which won high praise from major Bristish naturalists Sir Charles Lyell and Richard Owen, provided the basis for Agassiz’s scientific fame and fortune. His natural philosophy was infused with the belief in an all-powerful diety, who planned and created every single living being, plant and animal, undercutting any genetic connection between ancient and modern creatures.

In addition to his work on fish, between 1837 and 1843 Agassiz did ground breaking work on glacial geology, presented in a paper presented to the Sociètè Helvétique des Sciences naturelles (July 1837) and in his book Etudes sur les glaciers in which he theorized that a massive glacier had once covered all of Europe. Although the idea had first been suggested by Swiss naturalist Jean de Charpentier, Agassiz was the first to publicize the idea and to apply it to all of Europe. A prolific writer, who wished to be personally involved with the production of his works, Agassiz developed a publishing house in Neuchâtel, that employed the latest technology in photo duplication and produced bibliographies, dictionaries and monographs by Agassiz and his assistants. In the spring of 1845 Agassiz’s fortunes abruptly shifted. His wife Cécile Braun Agassiz left her husband and Neuchâtel, his printing business closed due to accumulated debts, and he was forced to leave the Collège de Neuchâtel. Just as his luck seemed to run out, he received word of a 2-year grant secured for him by Humboldt from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia for $3,000 to do a comparative study of the flora and fauna of the United States and Europe.

Shortly after the arrival of Agassiz in the United States, John Amory Lowell, manufacturer and head of the Lowell Institute in Boston, invited him to deliver a course of public lectures. New Englanders found the Swiss naturalist, who spoke enthusiastically about primitive fish and prehistoric glaciers, intriguing. New England scientific luminaries such as Harvard botanist Asa Gray and Yale chemist Benjamin Silliman lauded Agassiz as “full of knowledge on all subjects of science.” His lectures created such a demand for speaking engagements, that within less than two years Agassiz was able to repay $20,000 in European debt. In the fall of 1847 Harvard University offered him a chair of zoology and geology at its newly established Lawrence Scientic School. In July 1848, after his wife’s death, he arranged for his children to join him in the United States. These events, together with his 1850 marriage to a bright well-connected Bostonian Elizabeth Cabot Carey, sixteen years Agassiz’s junior, permanently anchored the Swiss scientist in America. Soon afterward Agassiz’s home in Cambridge became a center of intellectual life. As a Harvard professor he badgered the University continually for funds to build a major natural history museum to instruct the public and help to train advanced students. His efforts paid off in November 1859, when the Museum of Comparative Zoology opened its doors. The Museum provided a unique resource for American students to gain unrestricted, first hand access to natural specimens. Many practicing American naturalists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were trained by Agassiz and worked in his museum. The Museum testified to Agassiz’s passion for collecting and identifying the “entire natural kingdom all at once,” a desire that quickly filled the repository to overflowing with specimens. From a philosophical perspective Agassiz planned the Museum as a demonstration of the “master plan” that the diety had executed in the creation of the natural world, displaying the “type plan” of different classes and stressing the separate creation of each species. Agassiz’s core belief in the special creation of species by God undergirded his quest to locate new species. However, some colleagues criticized him as “species mad,” arguing that his museum and his methods added little to the conceptual understanding of natural history.

Agassiz’s reputation took a major hit in a series of Boston debates on evolution, after the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859. Agassiz made a poor defense of special creation against Darwin’s defenders Asa Gray and William Barton Rogers. Furthermore, Agassiz’s understanding of special creationism as applied to human beings led him to view various races as distinct species, a rationale quickly adopted by the proponents slavery, who asserted a scientific basis to white supremecy.

Concerned about the decline of his professional reputation in the 1850s, in 1855 Agassiz announced the forthcoming publication of a projected ten-volume entitled Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. A total of 2,500 subscribers made advanced purchases at $12.00 each. The initial volume entitled Essay on Classification elaborated Agassiz’s views on classification, the philosophy of nature and the species concept. Appearing two years after Darwin’s Origin of Species, the work drew mixed reviews. Many were put off by the author’s dogmatism, others thought his views dated and moribund. Three more volumes appeared, but the publication of the projected set was never completed.

Many years later in 1872 Agassiz did reconsider evolution, trying to understand Darwin’s views by making a trip around South America, retracing Darwin’s voyage. However, he only became more convinced that the concept of evolution was “a scientific mistake, untrue to the facts, unscientific in its method, and mischievous in its tendency.” To the dismay of the scientific community Agassiz authored strident attacks on Darwinism in the popular press, infuriating Asa Gray and James Dana. Consequently, Agassiz was increasingly excluded from the politics of American science.

Agassiz remained at Harvard University until the end of his life. When he died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was deeply mourned by his adopted country.

From the guide to the Louis Jean Rodolph Agassiz papers, 1833-1873, 1833-1873 1833-1873, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004 Harvard University Archives.
creatorOf Cornell University. Library. Cornell University Library miscellaneous correspondence, 1872-1944. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897. Boston old and new. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn William Warland Clapp correspondence, 1790-1891 (inclusive), 1840-1891 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Ticknor, Benjamin Holt, 1842-1914. Papers of Benjamin Holt Ticknor, 1595-1935 (bulk 1850-1920). Library of Congress
creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897. Papers of Justin Winsor, 1847-1897 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
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creatorOf Leighton, William, 1833-1911,. Autograph letters signed from William Leighton to Justin Winsor, Esquire [manuscript], 1879 August 19- September 15. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Ingleby, C. M. (Clement Mansfield), 1823-1886,. Letters to Clement Mansfield Ingleby from various correspondents [manuscript], 1877-1884 Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Salisbury family papers, 1753-1904 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
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creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897,. Autograph letters and postcards signed from Justin Winsor, Boston, to J.P. Norris [manuscript], 1874-1879. Folger Shakespeare Library
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referencedIn Jared Sparks collection of American manuscripts, 1582-1843. Houghton Library.
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referencedIn Samuel Henshaw letters from various correspondents, 1849-1937 and undated. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897,. Scrapbook, 1695-1884. Harvard University, Houghton Library
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creatorOf Adams, Charles Francis, 1835-1915. Charles Francis Adams papers, 1861-1933 ; bulk 1890-1918. Massachusetts Historical Society
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creatorOf Duffield, Pitts, 1869-. Letter : to Justin Winsor concerning Mackinac Island, 1895. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Henry family. Papers : of the Henry family, 1763-1920. Virginia Historical Society Library
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creatorOf Elze, Karl, 1821-1889,. Autograph letters signed and initialled from Karl Elze, Halle and London, to various people [manuscript], 1876-1884. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Letters to Justin Winsor and Charles Coffin Jewett, 1866-1874 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
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creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897. Notes for Shaksp[eare] on the Continent : 1600 to 1766 to 1863 : manuscript, 1863. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Brewer family papers, 1714-1954, 1820-1930 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
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creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897,. Autograph letter signed from Justin Winsor, Boston, to T.O.H.P. Burnham [manuscript], 1874 March 28. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Ingleby, C. M. (Clement Mansfield), 1823-1886,. Letters to Clement Mansfield Ingleby from various correspondents, 1865-1881. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897,. Autograph letter signed from Justin Winslow, Cambridge, to H.C. Folger [manuscript], 1895 December 16. Folger Shakespeare Library
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creatorOf Ratzer, Bernard. A copy of the general map the most part compiled from actual surveys by order of the Commissioners appointed to settle the partition line between the provinces of New York and New Jersey in 1769 / by Bernard Ratzer. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
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creatorOf Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897. [Scrap-book containing in chronological order MS. sketches and proofs of reproductions of old maps; arranged by Justin Winsor, many of the maps being used in the Narrative and critical history of America and in Mr. Winsor's other works. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
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Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, Charles Francis, 1835-1915. person
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873. person
associatedWith Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, 1836-1907, person
associatedWith American Library Association. corporateBody
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Bachelor, Anna. person
correspondedWith Barrows family. family
associatedWith Beattie, R. Kent (Rolla Kent), b. 1875 person
associatedWith Beedham, Brailsford H., person
associatedWith Belcher, Frederick E. person
associatedWith Bibliothèque nationale de France. corporateBody
associatedWith Billings, John S. (John Shaw), 1838-1913. person
associatedWith Boromé, Joseph Alfred, 1919-2002. person
associatedWith Boston Public Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Bourne family
associatedWith Brewer family. family
associatedWith Brewer family. family
correspondedWith Brooks, Phillips, 1835-1893 person
associatedWith Broom, Jacob, 1752-1810. person
associatedWith Buchan, Peter, 1790-1854. person
associatedWith Buckland, William, 1784-1856 person
correspondedWith Burnham, Thomas O. H. Perry, 1814-1891 person
associatedWith Cabot, Sebastian, 1474 (ca.)-1557. person
associatedWith Cambridge Scientific Club. corporateBody
associatedWith Carrington family family
associatedWith Carrington family. family
associatedWith Carrington family. family
associatedWith Clapp, William Warland, 1826-1891 person
associatedWith Columbus, Christopher. person
associatedWith Conference of Librarians, London (1877) corporateBody
associatedWith Conference of Librarians, New York (1877) corporateBody
associatedWith Conference of Librarians, Philadelphia (1876) corporateBody
associatedWith Cornell University. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Dante Society of America. corporateBody
associatedWith David Garrick person
associatedWith Davis, Charles Henry, 1807-1877 person
associatedWith Dewey, Melvil, 1851-1931, person
correspondedWith Dionne, N.-E. (Narcisse-Eutrope), 1848-1917. person
associatedWith Droeshout, Martin, b. 1601 person
associatedWith Duffield, Pitts, 1869- person
associatedWith Dwight, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 1846-1917. person
associatedWith Eames, Wilberforce, 1855-1937 person
associatedWith Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Edward W. West person
associatedWith Eliot, Charles William, 1834-1926 person
correspondedWith Elze, Karl, 1821-1889, person
correspondedWith Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1803-1882 person
associatedWith Emery, Charles Edward, 1838-1898 person
correspondedWith Evans, F. W. (Frederick William), 1808-1893. person
correspondedWith Fleay, Frederick Gard, 1831-1909 person
correspondedWith Folger, Henry Clay, 1857-1930 person
associatedWith Ford, Paul Leicester, 1865-1902, person
associatedWith Garrick, David, 1717-1779. person
associatedWith Gray, Asa, 1810-1888 person
associatedWith Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875 person
associatedWith Greenough, William W. (William Whitwell), d. 1899. person
associatedWith Guyot, A. (Arnold), 1807-1884. person
associatedWith Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O. (James Orchard), 1820-1889 person
associatedWith Hammond, Eli Shelby. person
correspondedWith Harrisse, Henry, 1829-1910 person
associatedWith Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918, person
associatedWith Hartt, Charles Frederick, 1840-1878 person
associatedWith Harvard University corporateBody
associatedWith Harvard University. person
associatedWith Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology. corporateBody
associatedWith Haven, Franklin, 1857-1908 person
associatedWith Haynes, Henry W. (Henry Williamson), 1831-1912. person
associatedWith Heine, Heinrich, 1797-1856. person
associatedWith Henry Allen Hazen person
associatedWith Henry family. family
associatedWith Henshaw, Samuel, 1852-1941 person
associatedWith Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911, person
associatedWith Hillard, George Stillman, 1808-1879. person
associatedWith Hill, Benjamin Thomas. person
associatedWith Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1809-1894 person
correspondedWith Hopkins, F. M., fl. 1896 person
associatedWith Houghton Library. person
associatedWith Houghton Mifflin Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Hyatt, Alpheus, 1838-1902 person
correspondedWith Ingleby, C. M. (Clement Mansfield), 1823-1886, person
associatedWith James Bowdoin person
associatedWith James S. Shaw person
associatedWith Janvier, Thomas A. (Thomas Allibone), 1849-1913. person
associatedWith Jewett, Charles C. (Charles Coffin), 1816-1868 person
associatedWith John Hurd person
associatedWith Jonathan Deane person
associatedWith Justin Winsor person
associatedWith Kidder, Frederic, 1804-1885 person
associatedWith Layard, Austen Henry, Sir, 1817-1894 person
associatedWith LeConte, John L., (John Lawrence), 1825-1883 person
associatedWith LeConte, Joseph, 1823-1901 person
correspondedWith Leighton, William, 1833-1911, person
associatedWith Lesquereux, Leo, 1806-1889 person
associatedWith Library Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Library Company of Philadelphia, corporateBody
correspondedWith Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 person
correspondedWith Longfellow Memorial Association corporateBody
associatedWith Marshall, William Isaac, 1840-1906 person
associatedWith Marshall, William I. (William Isaac), 1840-1906. person
associatedWith McClure, S. S. (Samuel Sidney), 1857-1949 person
associatedWith McLane, Allan person
associatedWith Milne-Edwards, H., (Henri), 1800-1885 person
associatedWith Milton, John, 1608-1674 person
associatedWith Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto. corporateBody
associatedWith Morris, Ralph, collector. person
associatedWith Nathan Smith. person
associatedWith Newberry Library. corporateBody
associatedWith New York State Library, corporateBody
associatedWith Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron, 1849-1912. person
correspondedWith Norris, John Pilkington, 1823-1891 person
associatedWith Norton, Charles Eliot, 1827-1908, person
associatedWith Parkman, Francis, 1823-1893. person
associatedWith Parsons, Thomas William, 1819-1892 person
associatedWith Perry, Thomas Sergeant, 1845-1928, person
correspondedWith Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884 person
associatedWith Poole, William Frederick, 1821-1894. person
associatedWith Radcliffe College. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Radcliffe College. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Ratzer, Bernard. person
correspondedWith Ray, F. M. (Fabius Maximus), 1837-1915. person
associatedWith Riverside Press (Cambridge, Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith Roberts Brothers (Boston, Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith Rosengarten, J. G. (Joseph George), 1835-1921. person
associatedWith Salisbury family. family
associatedWith Scudder, Horace Elisha, 1838-1902. person
associatedWith Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 person
associatedWith Shepard, Frederick Job, 1850-1934, collector. person
associatedWith Smith, J. person
associatedWith Smith, Walter, 1836-1886 person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Stevens, Henry, 1819-1886. person
associatedWith Taylor, Bayard, 1825-1878. person
associatedWith Thayer, James Bradley, 1831-1902 person
associatedWith Thayer, John, 1758-1815. person
correspondedWith Thayer, William Roscoe, 1859-1923 person
associatedWith Thomas Prentice. person
associatedWith Thomas W. Ludlow person
associatedWith Thompson, Mary P. (Mary Pickering), 1825-1893. person
associatedWith Thursday Evening Club (Boston, Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith Ticknor, Benjamin Holt, 1842-1914. person
associatedWith Universität Heidelberg corporateBody
associatedWith Vignaud, Henry, 1830-1922. person
correspondedWith Wendell family. family
associatedWith Wenzell, Henry B. (Henry Burleigh), 1853-1936. person
correspondedWith Whittier, John Greenleaf, 1807-1892 person
associatedWith Williamson, William Landrum, 1920- person
associatedWith Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875 person
correspondedWith Woodberry, George Edward, 1855-1930 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Germany
America
England
Massachusetts--Boston
Great Britain
Venezuela
Boston (Mass.)
United States
Europe
America
Germany
Subject
History publishing
Theater--History--17th century
Science and technology
Public libraries--Acquisitions--Massachusetts--Boston
Theater--History--18th century
Authors and publishers
History--18th century
Explorers
Marriage in literature
History--Research
Librarians--Correspondence
Librarians--Massachusetts--Boston--19th century
Manuscript maps
Theater--History--19th century
Natural history museums--Massachusetts
Historians
Library science
Manuscripts, American
Geology--Research--United States
Mineralogy--Research--United States
Naturalists
Library science--Congresses
Zoological museums--Massachusetts
Fossils--Collection and preservation
Zoology
Religion
Scientific expeditions
Scrapbooks
Actors--Biography
Public libraries--Massachusetts--Boston--19th century
Natural history
History--19th century
Occupation
Historians
Librarians
Compilers
Function

Person

Birth 1831-01-02

Death 1897-10-22

Americans

English

Information

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SNAC ID: 44565287