Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

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Booker T. Washington was an African American educator and public figure. Born a slave on a small farm in Virginia, he worked his way through the Hampton Institute and became an instructor there. He was the first principal of the Tuskegee Institute, and under his management it became a successful center for practical education. A forceful and charismatic personality, he became a national figure through his books and lectures. Although his conservative views concerned many critics, he became the most important African American voice of his generation and had a vital influence on American culture.

From the description of Booker T. Washington letters and clipped signature, circa 1904 and undated. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 61113097

Booker T. Washington was American educator, author, and leader in the African-American community. He served as head of Tuskegee Institute from 1881-1915.

From the description of [Letters] 1900-1915 / Booker T. Washington. (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 464289587

Former slave and later president of Tuskegee Institute.

From the description of Papers of Booker T. Washington 1901-1904. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 32135393

Booker T. Washington, the most prominent African American of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century; founder of the Tuskegee Institute who urged Blacks to concentrate on economic self-advancement.

From the description of Letters, 1895,1900. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80797423

Founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute for the education of young African Americans in 1881 in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama; served as its principal from 1881 to 1915.

From the description of Letters, 1908-1911. (Buffalo History Museum). WorldCat record id: 34178336

Educator.

From the description of Letters, 1897-1907. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 41546363

Booker T. Washington was Principal of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute "for the training of colored young men and women."

From the description of Letters signed by Booker T. Washington, 1896-1914 [manuscript] (Haverford College Library). WorldCat record id: 363205234

Washington founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama.

From the description of Three-quarter length portrait of Washington seated at a table and holding a book : signed and matted albumen print, 1910, Feb. 15. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754864273

Booker T. Washington was an educator and reformer, first president and principal developer of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University), and the most influential spokesman for black Americans between 1895 and 1915.

From the description of Booker Taliaferro Washington letter, 1910. (University of Georgia). WorldCat record id: 308561451

Educator; b. Booker Taliaferro Washington.

From the description of Booker T. Washington letters, 1902-1913. (Cheyney University). WorldCat record id: 70972034

Educator, writer, founder of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

From the description of Booker T. Washington correspondence, 1889-1913. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122575935

From the guide to the Booker T. Washington correspondence, 1889-1913, (The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.)

American educator.

From the description of Letter, 1902 April 2, Tuskegee, Alabama, to William Sloane Kennedy, Madison, Wisc. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 184904381

African American educator, social reformer, and president of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama.

From the description of Booker T. Washington collection, 1885-1914. (Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center). WorldCat record id: 70941313

Noted black educator and head of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

From the description of Letter, May 2, 1900. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 281323922

American educator, born a slave in Franklin Co., Va. Founder and president of Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Ala. Spokesman for the conservative viewpoint among African Americans who favored self-improvement, industrial education, and acquiescence to segregation rather than agitation for more extensive civil and political rights.

From the description of Booker T. Washington papers, 1903-1916. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 53905923

African-American educator.

From the description of Letters to D.H. Greer, 1899-1902. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 34336546

Booker T. Washington, the son of a slave and white father, was born on 1856 Apr. 5 in Franklin Co., Va. He worked in a salt furnace and coal mine at Malden, W.Va., and, at the same time, attended school. In 1872 he entered Hampton Institute, Va., where he earned his board by working as a janitor, and graduated in 1875. He was a school teacher at Malden from 1875-1877, and a student at Wayland Seminary, Washington, D.C., from 1877-1879. He taught at Hampton Institute, where he was in charge of the Indian dormitory and the night school.

In 1881 he was chosen to organize, at Tuskegee, Ala., a normal school chartered by the Ala. Legislature. Washington founded there the Normal and Industrial Institute for Negroes, now called Tuskegee University.

He soon became the foremost advocate of Negro education and was active as a public speaker on race relations, stressing industrial education and gradual adjustment rather than political and civil rights.

On 1915 Nov. 14 Washington died at Tuskegee.

From the description of Collection, 1897, 1904, n.d. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122581800

Biographical Note

  • 1856, Apr. 5: Born, Franklin County, Va.
  • 1875: Graduated from Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute,Hampton, Va.
  • 1878 - 1879 : Attended Wayland Seminary,Washington, D.C.
  • 1881: Founded and became the first principal of the Normal School for Colored Teachers at Tuskegee, Ala.
  • 1882: Married Fannie N. Smith (died 1884)
  • 1885: Married Olivia A. Davidson (died 1889)
  • 1893: Married Margaret James Murray
  • 1895: “Separate as the Fingers” speech, Cotton States and International Exposition,Atlanta, Ga.
  • 1896: Received honorary degree from Harvard University,Cambridge, Mass.
  • 1900: Organized the National Negro Business League
  • 1901: Published Up From Slavery (New York: Doubleday, Page, and Co. 330 pp.)
  • 1915, Nov. 14: Died, Tuskegee, Ala.

From the guide to the Booker T. Washington Papers, 1853-1946, (bulk 1900-1915), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) was an African-American educator, writer and civil rights activist who was most famous for his founding of the Tuskegee Institute. He was born into slavery April 5 on the plantation of James Burroughs in Hale's Ford, Franklin County, Virginia. After the Emancipation Proclamation, Washington and his family moved to Malden, West Virginia, where he worked in a salt mine in the mornings and afternoons, attending elementary school in the interim hours. At seventeen, he was accepted into the Hampton Institute in Virginia under the caveat that he work to pay his board. He graduated in 1875 and later returned to teach night school. This eventually led to his being chosen to found the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama, a teachers' college for black students.

Washington was also a prolific writer, editor and speaker. He was an advocate for cooperation and equality between races, and an opponent of racism. He worked and clashed with other prominent African American activists such as W.E.B. DuBois, and he worked with other famous personages like John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. His autobiography, Up From Slavery, was published in 1901 and became a best seller. His tireless work for the advancement of the black community was continuous up until his death on Nov. 14, 1915, which was attributed to overwork and hypertension.

From the guide to the Booker T. Washington Letters, 1896-1912, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

  • 1856 April 5: Born a slave on a plantation Franklin County, Va., to an illiterate mother and white father.
  • 1872 - 1875 : Went to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute; studied brick masonry along with collegiate courses.
  • 1876: Graduated from Hampton; taught in a rural school for two years.
  • 1878 - 79 : Studied at Wayland Seminary in Washington, D.C. Became convinced that practical manual training in rural skills and crafts would save his race.
  • 1879: Taught and supervised 100 American Indians admitted to Hampton Institute on an experimental basis.
  • 1881 - 1915 : Organizer and President of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. With the help of his students he built a kiln to make blocks to be used for campus buildings.
  • 1832: Married Fannie McKinney who died 1384; had one child from this union.
  • 1885: Married second wife, Olivia A. Davidson; died 1888; had two sons by her.
  • 1893: Married third wife, Maggie J. Murray.
  • 1895: Gave famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech - urged blacks to concentrate on improving job skills and their usefulness instead of pushing for political and social rights.
  • 1896: Won honorary A.M. degree from Harvard University.
  • 1900: Founded National Negro Business League.
  • 1902: Received LL. D. from Dartmouth College.
  • 1915 Nov. 14: Died.

From the guide to the Booker T. Washington Collection, 1885-1914, (Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Lithograph of Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, and Booker T. Washington, undated. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Lutz, Alma,. Collection of documents by and about abolitionists and women's rights activists, Part 2 (Liv-W), 1775-1943 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Atlanta Life Insurance Company. Advertisement. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
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referencedIn Morse Family Papers, 1779-1868 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
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referencedIn Papers, 1800-1967 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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referencedIn William Dudley Foulke Papers, circa 1470-1952, (bulk 1868-1935) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
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referencedIn Northport Public Library (Northport, N.Y.). Northport vertical file, 1862-1988. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
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referencedIn Herbert Aptheker Papers, 1842-1999, (bulk 1934-1994) Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Xavier University of Louisiana. Xavier University Archives photographs collection, 1909-197- (bulk 1909-1919). Xavier University of Louisiana, XULA
creatorOf Booker T. Washington Papers, 1853-1946, (bulk 1900-1915) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. Three-quarter length portrait of Washington seated at a table and holding a book : signed and matted albumen print, 1910, Feb. 15. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Child, Ruth Lavinia Subine, 1868-1951. Ruth Lavinia Subine Child collection, [19--]. Boston University. School of Medicine
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referencedIn Papers, 1900-1961 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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creatorOf Booker T. Washington Collection, 1885-1914 Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University
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referencedIn Papers, 1857-1962. Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School
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creatorOf National Council of the Young Men's Christian Associations of the United States of America. Colored Work Dept. Colored Work Department records, 1871-1946. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
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referencedIn Papers, 1840-1961. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf William L. Clements Library. African American History collection, 1729-1970, bulk 1800-1865. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
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creatorOf Deming, Adelaide, 1864-1956. Adelaide Deming letters, 1879-1918. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1805-1938, 1900-1938 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Morse family. Morse family papers, 1779-1868 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. [Letter, 1907 Jan. 29, Tuskegee Institute, Ala., to J.K. Paulding, New York City]. Michigan State University Libraries, Main Library
referencedIn Livingstone College. Photograph collection, [18--]-[19--]. Livingstone College, Andrew Carnegie Library
referencedIn Office of the Messrs Rockefeller. General files. 1890-1961. Rockefeller Archive Center, Rockefeller University, Pocantico Hills
referencedIn Bates College (Lewiston, Me.). Office of the President. Office of the President, George Colby Chase records, 1868-1921. Bates College Library, George and Helen Ladd Library
referencedIn Battey, C. M. Booker T. Washington [picture] Haverford College Library
referencedIn Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Scarborough, W. S. (William Sanders), 1854?-1926. William Sanders Scarborough letters received, 1894-1921. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn James Weldon Johnson and Grace Nail Johnson papers, circa 1850-2005, 1900-1976 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Simpson family. Papers, 1847-1961. Alabama Department of Archives and History
creatorOf Letter from Booker T. Washington to President Theodore Roosevelt United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Brooks, John Graham, 1846-1938. Papers, 1845-1938 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930. Papers of William H. Taft, 1784-1973. Library of Congress
referencedIn St. John's University (New York, N.Y.). Autograph collection, 1545-1980, 1920-1970 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Delaney, Sadie P., 1889-1958. Sadie P. Delaney papers, 1921-1958. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Moore, Andrew Charles, 1866-1928. Andrew Charles Moore papers, 1882-1941; (bulk, 1890-1926). University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Johnson, Guy Benton, 1901-1991. The impending crisis of the South [microform] / by Guy B. Johnson ; an address delivered on the occasion of Founder's Day at Tuskegee Institute, April 12, 1953. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Sagamore Hill National Historic Site (Oyster Bay, N.Y.). Library research files, ca. 1900-1990, 1953-1990(bulk). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Commencement Programs and Records. University of Nebraska - Lincoln
referencedIn Records of the U.S. Mint. 1792 - 2007. Correspondence Relating to the Booker T. Washington Commemorative Coins
referencedIn Hill, Katharine Louisa Smith, 1847-1935. Papers, 1800-1967 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1766-1912 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Moody, William H. (William Henry), 1853-1917. William H. Moody papers, 1879-1916. Library of Congress
referencedIn Newspaper clippings about Booker T. Washington, 1899-1915. Brooks Memorial Library
referencedIn Arnett, Trevor. Papers, 1921-1932 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Morris, J. Kenneth. J. Kenneth Morris papers, 1872-1983. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf Morse, John Torrey, 1840-1937. Papers, 1859-1935. Massachusetts Historical Society
creatorOf Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. ALS, 1 August 1897, to Mrs. Elizabeth Snyder Roberts. New York State Historical Documents
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Haynes, George Edmund, 1880-1960. Papers. 1910-1972. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. William Stanley Braithwaite papers, 1898-1979. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Page, Thomas Nelson, 1853-1922. Papers of Thomas Nelson Page [manuscript], 1865-1920. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. Letters to D.H. Greer, 1899-1902. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Commencement Programs and Records, 1873-2004 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library
creatorOf Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. Letter : Tuskegee, to Francis J. Garrison, New York / 1911 Mar. 24. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
creatorOf Jones, Thomas Goode, 1844-1914. Papers, 1861-1914. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Snoke, Georgia. Lloyd Jones family collected materials, 1844-2005. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Proctor, Henry Hugh, 1868-1933. Papers. 1881-1971. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn George Foster Peabody Papers, 1894-1937 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Theodore Roosevelt Papers, 1759-1993, (bulk 1878-1919) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Edward Warren Ordway papers, 1893-1914, 1898-1906 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Mason family. Papers, 1807-1921. Massachusetts Historical Society
creatorOf Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915. Letter, 1912 April 30, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, to Hamilton Holt. Connecticut Historical Society
referencedIn Ephraim Roberts papers, circa 1775-1968 Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Hooker Bros. (Firm : Memphis, Tenn.). Dr. Booker T. Washington with Scott Bond and family at their home in 1911 [graphic] / Hooker Bros. Arkansas History Commission
referencedIn Goggin, William. ALS, 1927 March 9, Vinton, V[irgini]a, to Henri S. Rorer, Norfolk, Virginia. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
creatorOf Johnston, Lucy Browne, 1846-1937. Lucy B. Johnston papers, 1887-1937. Kansas State Historical Society
referencedIn Visual materials from the Booker T. Washington papers, 1889-1935, bulk 1897-1915 Prints and Photographs Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Day, Caroline Bond, 1889-1948., Papers of Caroline Bond Day, bulk, 1918-1931 Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Photograph of Booker T. Washington's visit to Southern University, 1915. Southern University and A&M College
referencedIn John Casper Branner papers, 1882-1925 Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Booker T. Washington Papers Editorial Project. Archives of the Booker T. Washington papers Editorial Project, 1967-1984. University of Maryland Libraries, UMD Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Letter from Booker T. Washington to H. B. Peairs National Archives at Kansas City (U.S.)
Relation Name
associatedWith Abbot, Francis Ellingwood, 1836-1903. person
correspondedWith Abercrombie, Mary E. person
associatedWith Adams, Henry, 1838-1918 person
associatedWith Alabama. Governor (1896-1900: Johnston). corporateBody
associatedWith Allen, Cleveland G., 1887-1953. person
associatedWith Allen, Nathaniel T. (Nathaniel Topliff), 1823-1903. person
associatedWith ALMA LUTZ, 1890-1973 person
associatedWith Aptheker, Herbert person
associatedWith Arnett, Trevor, 1870- person
associatedWith Arnett, Trevor, 1870-1955. person
associatedWith Art Lovers' League (Buffalo, N.Y.). corporateBody
associatedWith Atlanta Life Insurance Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Ayer, Dana S. person
associatedWith Bagley, John Judson, 1832-1881. person
associatedWith Baily, Joshua L. (Joshua Longstreth), 1826-1916. person
correspondedWith Baker, Ray Stannard, 1870-1946. person
correspondedWith Baldwin, William Henry, 1863-1905 person
associatedWith Banér, Johan G. R. (Johan Gustav Runeskeold), 1861-1938. person
associatedWith Bankhead, John H. (John Hollis), 1842-1920. person
associatedWith Barber, Ohio Columbus, 1841-1920. person
correspondedWith Barrows family. family
associatedWith Barry, Eugene, b. 1843. person
correspondedWith Bates College (Lewiston, Me.). Office of the President. corporateBody
associatedWith Battey, C. M. person
associatedWith Beal, Junius E. (Junius Emery), 1860-1942. person
associatedWith Bedou, A. P. (Arthur P.), 1882-1966. person
associatedWith Beecher family. family
associatedWith Beecher family. family
associatedWith Beecher family. family
associatedWith Bigelow, Charles E. (Charles Edward), 1879- person
associatedWith Bixby, William K. (William Keeney), 1857-1931. person
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associatedWith Blair, John W. person
associatedWith Booker T. Washington Papers Editorial Project. corporateBody
associatedWith Borden, Alice K., person
correspondedWith Borglum, Solon Hannibal, 1868-1922. person
associatedWith Bowditch family. family
associatedWith Bowditch, Nathaniel, 1773-1838. person
associatedWith Brady, St. Elmo, 1884-1966. person
correspondedWith Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. person
associatedWith Branner, John Casper, 1850-1922. person
associatedWith Brauner, Olaf M., 1869-1947. person
associatedWith Brooks, John Graham, 1846-1938. person
associatedWith Brown, Charlotte Hawkins, 1883-1961. person
associatedWith Brown, Ella Barksdale, 1871-1966. person
associatedWith Brown, J. M. person
associatedWith Burr, George Lincoln, 1857-1938. person
correspondedWith Burroughs, Nannie Helen, 1879-1961 person
associatedWith Butler, F. G., Mrs., person
associatedWith Buttrick, Wallace, 1853-1926. person
correspondedWith Bynner, Witter, 1881-1968 person
associatedWith Cable, George Washington, 1844-1925, person
associatedWith Campbell, A. W., fl. 1900. person
associatedWith Cantwell, John Simon.