Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960

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Anthropologist and author.

From the description of Papers of Clyde Kluckhohn, 1945-1948. (University of Iowa Libraries). WorldCat record id: 233131951

Kluckhohn taught anthropology at Harvard.

From the description of Papers of Clyde Kay Maben Kluckhohn, 1930-1960 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 76973102

Ashley Montagu, born Israel Ehrenberg on June 28, 1905, was a British-American anthropologist, specializing in the areas of race and gender issues, as well as a prolific speaker and author, publishing over 50 books in his lifetime. The son of Jewish tailor Charles Ehrenberg and his wife, Mary Plot Ehrenberg, Montagu was born and raised in London's working class East End neighborhood. Although the reasoning behind his name change was never revealed, it may have been due to anti-Semitic prejudice faced by many East End Jews during his childhood, and Montagu might have felt the need to distance himself from his parents’ Russian and Polish backgrounds.

Montagu earned his undergraduate degree from University College London in psychology and anthropology. After studying anthropology at the London School of Economics under Bronislaw Malinowski, Montagu left England for the United States. He arrived at New York City in 1927 and began taking graduate classes at Columbia University. Montagu then traveled to Italy in 1928, where he took classes in ethnography and anthropology at the University of Florence. Upon his return to the United States in 1931, while working as an assistant professor of anthropology at New York University, Montagu married Marjorie Peakes. The couple would have two daughters, Audrey and Barbara, as well as a son, Geoffrey. In 1934 Montagu returned to Columbia University, culminating his postgraduate work at Columbia in 1936 with his dissertation, Coming into being among the Australian Aborigines: A study of the procreative beliefs of the native tribes of Australia, produced under the direction of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. Based largely on his dissertation, Montagu’s first book, Coming into Being among the Australian Aborigines, was published in 1937. After he completed his education, Montagu taught anatomy at Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia in 1938 and became an American citizen in 1940. It was during his time at Hahnemann that he began to produce work relating to race, resulting in his seminal work, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race, published in 1942. The work controversially advanced the argument that race was a social construct imposed upon a complex biological substratum and demolished the arguments for inherent inequality between human populations. The influential nature of Man’s Most Dangerous Myth led to Montagu’s service on the 4th United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) task force, in 1949. The ten member UNESCO committee, composed of such world-renowned social scientists as Claude Levi-Strauss and E. Franklin Frazier, was created to collect information about the problem of race and to establish educational programs to disseminate its findings. The resultant document, authored by Montagu, the group’s rapporteur, was published as the “Statement on Race” in 1951. The Committee’s final statement on race asserted: 1)All mankind belong to the same species and that the differences between groups are few compared to all of the genetic similarities. 2)That Race designates a group with high frequency of physical characteristics or particular genetic trait and that these traits fluctuate or even disappear over time. 3)The way in which people are grouped does not reflect the capacity or character traits of a particular group. The differences between races are physical and have no correlation with other traits like intelligence.

Upon leaving Hahnemann Medical College in 1949, Montagu moved to Rutgers University, where he was a professor of anthropology and head of the department from 1949 to 1955. While at Rutgers, Montagu wrote perhaps his most famous work, The Natural Superiority of Women, published in 1953. Examining the differences between the sexes anthropologically, Montagu concluded that women were the superior sex because they possessed a better capability to survive both as individuals and in groups- talents necessary for an advancing society. Based on these conclusions, he suggested that women receive equal pay for equal work, a controversial stance at the time.

With his prolific writing skills to rely on financially, and facing strong backlash for his openly liberal views and anti-McCarthy public statements, Montagu accepted a forced retirement from Rutgers in 1955 at the age of 50. Though retired from academic life, he continued to lecture at such institutions as Harvard University, Princeton University, the University of Santa Barbara, and New York University. Settling in Princeton, New Jersey, Montagu’s work took up a more humanist element with Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, his effort to encourage parents to take a more physical role in raising their children and especially to encourage mothers to breastfeed their babies. Published during that same year, Montagu’s book The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity, a history of the life of disfigured Briton Joseph Merrick, inspired a Tony winning play and later a motion picture. He continued publishing through the 1980s, including The Nature of Human Aggression (1976) and Growing Young (1981), while making numerous and notable television appearances on Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show as well as the Phil Donahue Show.

In his lifetime, Montagu received many major awards, among them the American Association of Humanists’ 1995 Man of the Year award, the Darwin Award from the American Association of Physical Anthropologist in 1994, and the Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Anthropological Association in 1987. Montagu maintained an active schedule of lecturing and gardening around his Princeton, New Jersey, home until he was hospitalized in March 1999; he died on November 26, 1999 from heart disease, at the age of ninety-four. He was survived by his wife of sixty-eight years, Marjorie, as well as his son and two daughters.

From the guide to the Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960. Letters to Grace Van Wormer. Cambridge, MA. 1947-1958. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Parsons, Talcott, 1902-1979. Papers of Talcott Parsons, 1921-1979 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn De Harport, David. David De Harport collection, [18--]-[19--] [microform]. Museum of Northern Arizona
referencedIn Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 1897-1941. Benjamin Lee Whorf papers, 1914-1957 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Benjamin Lee Whorf papers, 1898-1971 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Advertising Dept. Speeches, 1943-1969. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Bain, Read, 1892-. Read Bain papers, 1893-1972. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Boys, Richard Charles, 1912-. Correspondence, 1949-1954. University of Michigan
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960. Memorandum of comments on the report of Evon Z. Vogt re Malcolm F. Farmer : study of original Navajo boundaries. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
creatorOf White, Leslie A., 1900-1975. Leslie A. White papers, 1921-1974. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960. Ramah research files, 1936-1955. Museum of New Mexico Library
creatorOf Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Records. Series VII., Other Department Files, 1916-1996 (bulk 1943-1969). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Erik H. and Joan M. Erikson papers, 1925-1985 (inclusive) 1960-1980 (bulk). Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Anne Roe papers, 1949-1974 (bulk), 1949-1974 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960. Papers of Clyde Kay Maben Kluckhohn, 1930-1960 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn James J. Hanks collection, 1916-1933. Northern Arizona University, Cline Library
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn William N. Fenton Papers, ca. 1933-2000 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf House, Floyd Nelson, 1893-1975. Papers of Floyd Nelson House [manuscript], 1919-1974. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Papers of Earnest A. Hooton, 1926-1954. Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Read Bain papers, 1893-1972 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Roe, Anne, 1904-1991. Papers, 1949-1971 (bulk). American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Harvard University. Russian Research Center. Records of the Russian Research Center, 1947-1984 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Haile, Berard, 1874-1961. Papers, 1893-1961 (bulk 1925-1961). University of Arizona Libraries
creatorOf Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960. Papers of Clyde Kluckhohn, 1945-1948. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Harvard University. Russian Research Center. Records of the Russian Research Center, 1947-1984. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Boder, David P. (David Pablo), 1886-1961. David P. Boder papers, 1927-1956. University of Akron, Bierce Library
referencedIn John Collier papers, 1910-1987 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Suckow, Ruth, 1892-1960. Papers of Ruth Suckow, 1887-1988. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004 Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn Ruth Fischer papers, 1925-1961 (inclusive) 1940-1961 (bulk). Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Lloyd Lózes Goff Papers, 1905-1971 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978. Margaret Mead papers and South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996 (bulk 1911-1978). Library of Congress
referencedIn Margaret Mead Papers and the South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996, (bulk 1911-1978) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Records. Series V., Editor Files, 1873-1984 (bulk 1960-1980). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 1897-1941. Benjamin Lee Whorf papers, 1898-1957 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Records. : Series I., General Correspondence, 1922-1977 (bulk 1946-1966). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Halle, Louis Joseph, 1910-. Letters to Charlton Ogburn [manuscript], 1936-1984. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Fischer, Ruth, 1895-. Ruth Fischer papers, 1925-1961 (inclusive) 1940-1961 (bulk). Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946. Edgar L. Hewett files, 1915-1940. Museum of New Mexico Library
creatorOf Leighton, Dorothea Cross, 1908-1992. Dorothea C. Leighton and Alexander H. Leighton collection Papers. 1900-1982 1940-1959. Northern Arizona University, Cline Library
creatorOf Halle, Louis Joseph, 1910-. Papers of Louis J. Halle [manuscript], 1915-1985 bulk (1947-1985). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Leslie A. White Papers, 1921-1974 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Kluckhohn, Clyde Chaco Research Archive
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Abbie, Andrew Arthur, 1905-1976 person
associatedWith Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Askenasy, Hans, 1930- person
associatedWith Bain, Read, 1892- person
associatedWith Benton, William, 1900-1973 person
associatedWith Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 person
associatedWith Boder, David P. (David Pablo), 1886-1961. person
associatedWith Boys, Richard Charles, 1912- person
associatedWith Briffault, Robert person
associatedWith Buhler, Charlotte, 1983-1974 person
associatedWith Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011 person
associatedWith Clark, Wilfrid E. Le Gros, (Wilfrid Edward Le Gros), 1895-1971 person
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith De Harport, David. person
associatedWith Dobzhansky, Theodosius Grigorievich, 1900-1975 person
correspondedWith Earnest A. Hooton person
associatedWith E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Advertising Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955 person
associatedWith Eisler, Riane Tennenhaus person
associatedWith Elkin, A. P. (Adolphus Peter), 1891-1979 person
correspondedWith Erikson, Erik H. (Erik Homburger), 1902-1994 person
associatedWith Evans, Bergen, 1904-1978 person
associatedWith Farmer, Malcolm F. person
associatedWith Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 person
associatedWith Fischer, Ruth, 1895- person
associatedWith Freeman, Derek person
associatedWith Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980 person
associatedWith Goff, Lloyd Lózes, 1917-1983 person
associatedWith Goldstein, Marcus Solomon person
associatedWith Gould, Stephen Jay person
correspondedWith Haile, Berard, 1874-1961. person
associatedWith Halle, Louis Joseph, 1910- person
associatedWith Harvard University corporateBody
associatedWith Harvard University. Russian Research Center. corporateBody
associatedWith Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946. person
associatedWith House, Floyd Nelson, 1893-1975. person
associatedWith Keith, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955 person
associatedWith Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. person
associatedWith La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996 person
associatedWith Leighton, Dorothea Cross, 1908-1992 person
associatedWith Matson, Floyd W. person
associatedWith McLuhan, Marshall, 1911-1980 person
associatedWith Meade, Margaret, 1901-1978 person
associatedWith Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978. person
associatedWith Montagu, Ashley, 1905-1999 person
associatedWith Oakley, Kenneth Page, 1911 person
associatedWith Parsons, Talcott, 1902-1979. person
associatedWith Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. corporateBody
correspondedWith Provine, William B. person
associatedWith Roe, Anne, 1904-1991. person
associatedWith Sarton, George, 1884-1956 person
associatedWith Sorokin, Pitirim Aleksandrovich, 1889-1968 person
associatedWith Spuhler, James. person
associatedWith Suckow, Ruth, 1892-1960. person
associatedWith Van Wormer, Grace, person
associatedWith Vogt, Evon Z. (Evon Zartman), 1918-2004. person
associatedWith White, Leslie A., 1900-1975. person
associatedWith Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 1897-1941. person
associatedWith Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Chaco Canyon (N.M.)
United States
Iowa
Subject
Hopi language--Dictionaries
Anthropology, ethnography, fieldwork
Biology, genetics, eugenics
Race
Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform
Social inequality
Gender
Navajo Indians
Anthropology--Study and teaching
Archaeology
Race, race relations, racism
Anthropologists
Authors, American
Navajo Indians--Land tenure
Anthropology
Excavations (Archeology)
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1905-01-11

Death 1960-07-29

Americans

English

Information

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Ark ID: w69k4tnf

SNAC ID: 20758527