Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915

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Frederic Ward Putnam (1839-1915) was one of the earliest anthropologists in the United States. He founded anthropology programs, and worked to establish museum collections in anthropology. He directed some of the first field expeditions in the Americas, including sites in Maine, Massachusetts, Ohio, Wisconsin, Kentucky, New Jersey, and California.

Putnam was born April 16, 1839 in Salem, Massachusetts to Mr. and Mrs. Ebenezer Putnam III. In 1864, Putnam married Adelaide Martha Edmands; they had three children: Eben Putnam, Alice Edmands Putnam, and Ethel Appleton Fiske Lewis. On March 10, 1879, Mrs. Adelaide Putnam passed away; in 1882, Putnam remarried Esther Orne Clark. Putnam's early education consisted of home and private schooling, and it was at this time that he expressed an interest in studying nature. Putnam, along with his father, cultivated plants and later began observing the birds in the area. Later, he trained under Henry Wheatland as an intern at the Essex Institute in Salem, Massachusetts. In 1856, at the age of sixteen, he successfully published List of the Birds of Essex County. In that same year, he entered Harvard College where he studied under the tutelage of Professor Louis Agassiz at the Lawrence Scientific School, serving as his assistant from 1857-1864.

In 1875, Putnam was appointed Curator of Harvard's Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. With Putnam at the helm, the focus of the Peabody Museum shifted from archaeology to physical anthropology and ethnology. He was responsible for a variety of museum functions which included not only administrative duties but field collecting, curation of collections, fund raising, and teaching in the Harvard College Department of Anthropology. In 1876, Putnam directed the first major construction of the Peabody Museum building that currently sits on Divinity Avenue in Cambridge. Putnam was appointed professor of anthropology in 1885 (the position was authorized in 1887). He retained that post until 1909 and was then Professor Emeritus and Honorary Director.

He also co-founded the anthropology programs at the American Museum of Natural History, Columbia University, and the University of California, Berkeley. At the age of sixty-four, he became the University of California's first Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Anthropological Museum. In 1909, Putnam retired from the University of California and was later appointed Professor Emeritus there. In 1894 he began devoting half his time to the curatorship in anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, and was influential in dispatching the productive Jesup North Pacific Expedition to northeastern Asia and northwestern North America.

Putnam was active in professional associations. In 1873, Putnam was elected to the post of permanent secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a position he held until 1898, at which time he was bestowed with the presidency of the Association. He helped establish the journals American Naturalist, Science, American Anthropologist, and founded organizations, such as Anthropology of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, the Archaeological Institute of America, and the American Anthropological Association.

Putnam was appointed the lead curator and head of the anthropology department in 1891 for the World's Columbian Exposition, to be held in Chicago in 1893.

Putnam's publications number more than 400, and cover the subjects of natural history, archaeology, anthropology, and scientific administration.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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creatorOf Rust, Horatio Nelson, 1828-1906. Papers of Horatio Nelson Rust, 1799-1906 (bulk 1870-1906). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Letters to Thomas Morong, 1874-1888 Botany Libraries
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creatorOf Moorehead, Warren King, 1866-1939. Warren King Moorehead papers, 1875-1939 Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn William Sharswood papers, 1865-1867, 1865-1867 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Records of the U.S. Geological Survey. 1839 - 2008. Personal Letters Received
referencedIn Harvard, Peabody Museum Of Archeology. Second Letterbook.
creatorOf Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915. Papers of Frederic Ward Putnam, 1851-1916. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Harvard University. Dept. of Anthropology. Records of the Department of Anthropology, 1890-1980 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
creatorOf Putnam, F.W. (Frederic Ward), (1839-1915). Collection of Negatives, 1887-1888 Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Anthropology. Correspondence files, [ca. 1895]-1980. American Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Anthropology.
creatorOf Putnam, Frederic W., 1839-1915, Peabody Museum director records, Frederic W. Putnam, (1839-1915), : A Finding Aid, 1870-1923 Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Hawthorne Family Papers, ca. 1800-1926 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Putnam, Frederic Ward. Frederic Ward Putnam Papers. 1855-1935. Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 52: Assistant Secretary, Incoming Correspondenc.
referencedIn Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Hawthorne family. Hawthorne family papers, 1825-1929. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Lawrence, George Newbold, 1806-1895. Papers, ca. 1860s-1870s. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Lawrence, George N. (George Newbold) Papers, ca. 1860s-1870s, Circa 1860s-1870s American Philosophical Society
referencedIn George G. Heye autograph collection, 1886-1928 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary. Correspondence, 1863-1879 Smithsonian Institution Archives
creatorOf Harrison, Edwin, 1836-1905. Papers, 1788-1928 (inclusive), 1844-1928 (bulk). Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Cuntz, H. Otto,. Letters, 1862-1866. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Autograph File, P, 1554-2005. Houghton Library
referencedIn Agassiz Zoological Club (Harvard University). Records of the Agassiz Zoological Club, 1859-1862 and 1917-1922. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Records of the Museum, 1866-1982 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Harvard, Museum Of Comparative Zoology, Library, Archives. Agassiz Letterpress Books.
creatorOf Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915. [Collected papers on zoology and archaeology]. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Harvard University Archives. Peale Papers.
referencedIn Harvard Anthropological Society. General information by and about the Harvard Anthropological Society, 1899-1915, undated. Harvard University, Archives
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referencedIn Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935. Notes, correspondence and drawings on the Indian mounds of the Ohio Valley, 1915-1935. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Treadwell, George A. George A. Treadwell papers, 1866-1910. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Putnam, Frederic Ward. Frederic Ward Putnam Papers. 1855-1935. Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
creatorOf Nuttall, Zelia, 1858-1933. [Nuttall, Zelia, papers 1886-1912]. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn Jacob Ellsworth Reighard Papers, 1887-1942, 1890-1920 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. Culin Archival Collection Series 9: Brinton memorial 1875-1902 1899-1902 (bulk). Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Records of the Museum, 1851-1968 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn E. G. Squier Papers, 1841-1888, (bulk 1846-1874) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn History of Religions Club (Harvard University). Records of the History of Religions Club, 1892-1952. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Harvard University Archives. Biographical Files.
creatorOf Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935. Correspondence, 1896-1903. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Edward Williams Morley Papers, 1833-1923, (bulk 1863-1899) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn William Wallace Denslow Botanical Manuscripts Collection MS 64., 1864-1868 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Smith, Erminnie Adele Platt, 1836-1886. [Peabody Museum director records, Frederic W. Putnam (1839-1915), 1870-1923]. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn Joseph Meredith Toner Collection of Manuscripts, 1741-1896 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Lawrence Base Ball Club. Records of the Lawrence Base Ball Club, 1858-1859, and 1910-1917. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn George G. Heye autograph collection, 1886-1928 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Denslow, William Wallace, 1826-1868. William Wallace Denslow botanical manuscripts collection, 1864-1868. University of Massachusetts Amherst, W.E.B. Du Bois Library
referencedIn Hearst, George, 1820-1891. Fitch family papers, 1838-1878. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Fitch Family Papers, 1815-1969 San Diego History Center Document Collection
creatorOf Putnam, Frederick Ward, 1839-1915. Frederick Ward Putnam Papers, 1868-1915. Peabody Essex Museum
creatorOf Appleton, Nathan, 1843-1906. Letters received, ca. 1870-1883. Boston Athenaeum
referencedIn William Woodville Rockhill papers, 1826-1941. Houghton Library
referencedIn Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004 Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn Essex Institute. Archives.
referencedIn American Naturalist Society. American Naturalist Society Papers, 1730, 1869-1879. Peabody Essex Museum
referencedIn Harvard University. Autograph File, G. 1641-2009. Houghton Library
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Harrison, Edwin, 1836-1905. Papers, 1788-1928. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Toner, Joseph M. (Joseph Meredith), 1825-1896. Papers of Joseph M. Toner, 1741-1896. Library of Congress
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIi, 1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Early records of the Museum, 1866-1942 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Harvard, Peabody Museum Of Archeology. Third Letterbook.
creatorOf Howland, Henry R. (Henry Raymond), 1844-1930. Letters regarding archaeological publication of Henry R. Howland : scrapbook, 1877 Mar. 2-Dec. 25, 1879 Feb. 8. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
creatorOf Charles Francis Adams, 1862-1943. South America Expedition Records 1904-1922. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. William Jones Rhees Collection.
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915. Evidence of preglacial man in America : lecture given by Prof. Putnam, before the history classes of Profs. Channing and Emerton, October 8, 1890. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary. Correspondence, 1865-1891 Smithsonian Institution Archives
referencedIn E.G. Squier papers, 1809-1888 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Morley, Edward Williams, 1838-1923. Edward Williams Morley papers, 1833-1923 (bulk 1863-1899). Library of Congress
creatorOf Ward, Lester Frank, 1841-1913. Correspondence, 1865-1913, "Patten" to "Sargent". Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Handwriting samples of naturalists and others, ca. 1800-1970 (inclusive) Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
referencedIn John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Putnam, Frederic Chaco Research Archive
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associatedWith Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. corporateBody
associatedWith Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. corporateBody
associatedWith Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. corporateBody
correspondedWith Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University person
correspondedWith Peet, Stephen D. person
correspondedWith Peet, Stephen Denison person
correspondedWith Penafiel, Antonio person
correspondedWith Pendola, Agustin J. person
correspondedWith Pentlarge, Georgiana person
correspondedWith Pepper, George H. person
correspondedWith Perkins, F. S. with M. Saville person
correspondedWith Perrot, G. person
correspondedWith Phillips, John C. person
correspondedWith Pickering, Edward C. person
correspondedWith Pickering, W. H. person
correspondedWith Pindar, George N. person
correspondedWith Pine, John S. person
associatedWith Poey, Felipe (Prof.) person
correspondedWith Pollie person
correspondedWith Prentiss, Spencer B. person
correspondedWith Price, G. J. person
associatedWith Putnam, Alice Edmands, 1865-1963. person
correspondedWith Putnam, Alice Edmands daughter person
correspondedWith Putnam, Alice Lewis or Louise?, cousin person
correspondedWith Putnam, Bessie (Elizabeth D.) cousin person
correspondedWith Putnam, C. P. person
correspondedWith Putnam, D. person
correspondedWith Putnam, Ebenezer father person
correspondedWith Putnam, Ebenezer grandson person
correspondedWith Putnam, Ebenezer son person
correspondedWith Putnam, Elizabeth A. person
correspondedWith Putnam, Ethel person
correspondedWith Putnam, Frederic Ward person
correspondedWith Putnam, F. W. & Co. corporateBody
correspondedWith Putnam, George Haven person
associatedWith Putnam, Henry W. person
correspondedWith Putnam, James J. person
correspondedWith Putnam sisters person
correspondedWith Rabe, J. person
correspondedWith Rathbun, Richard person
correspondedWith Ratti, Monsigneur Achille person
associatedWith Rau, Charles person
correspondedWith Ravelo, B. person
correspondedWith Read, Charles Albert person
correspondedWith Reed, Lilian Leah person
associatedWith Reid, Peter person
associatedWith Reighard, Jacob Ellsworth, 1861-1942 person
correspondedWith Remsen, Ira person
correspondedWith Reynolds, Allen Jesse person
correspondedWith Rhees, William J. person
correspondedWith Rhodes, James Ford person
correspondedWith Richards, Newdon person
correspondedWith Richards, Robert H. person
correspondedWith Ritchie, John, Jr. person
associatedWith Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology. corporateBody
correspondedWith Robinson, John person
correspondedWith Robinson, S. W. person
correspondedWith Rockhill, William Woodville, 1854-1914 person
correspondedWith Rodriguez, F. G. person
correspondedWith Roelken, Alfred person
correspondedWith Rogers, Erma person
correspondedWith Rogers, William Barton person
correspondedWith Romero, Jospersname person
correspondedWith Roosevelt, Theodore (U. S. President) person
correspondedWith Ropes, James Hardy person
correspondedWith Rotch, A. Lawrence person
correspondedWith Rothwell, Richard P. person
correspondedWith Rowell, Joseph C. person
correspondedWith Royal Anthropological Institute person
correspondedWith Royal Anthropological Society of Australia person
correspondedWith Royal Geographic Society person
correspondedWith Russell, Walter person
associatedWith Rust, Horatio Nelson, 1828-1906. person
correspondedWith Sabine, William A. person
associatedWith Sage, Gardner A. person
correspondedWith Saint Botolph (Naturalists) Club person
correspondedWith Salisbury, Stephen person
correspondedWith Sapper, Karl person
correspondedWith Sargent, D. A. person
associatedWith Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935. person
correspondedWith Saville, Marshall Howard person
associatedWith Scammon, Captain person
correspondedWith Schellhas, P. person
correspondedWith Schmitt, J. J. person
associatedWith Schumacher, Paul person
correspondedWith Scott, S. M. person
correspondedWith Sedgarick, W. T. person
correspondedWith Seler, Edward person
associatedWith Seville, J. J. person
correspondedWith Sharples, S. P. person
associatedWith Sharswood, William, 1836-1905 person
correspondedWith Shearer, H. A. person
correspondedWith Sheldon, E. S. person
correspondedWith