FREDA KIRCHWEY, 1893-1976

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Freda Kirchwey (Mary Frederika Kirchwey), journalist, was born at Lake Placid, New York, on September 26, 1893, one of four children of George Washington and Dora Child (Wendell) Kirchwey. Her father was a noted criminologist and dean of Columbia University's School of Law. FK attended the Horace Mann School in New York City, and received her B.A. from Barnard College in 1915. She spent a year as a general reporter and Sunday feature writer for the New York Morning Telegraph, 1915-1916, and later became a member of the editorial staff of a New York magazine, Every Week, 1917-1918. After a short stint with the Sunday Tribune in 1918, FK joined The Nation, a liberal weekly magazine, and except for a leave of absence in 1929-1932, remained there until she retired in 1955.

FK began her career at The Nation clipping articles for the International Relations Section, but soon advanced to associate editor. She served as managing editor from 1922 to 1938, also becoming vice-president in 1922. She was literary editor, 1928-1929; editor, 1932-1937; editor and publisher, 1937-1943; and editor, 1943-1955.

FK left The Nation in 1955, but continued to support many liberal causes, serving as vice-chairman of the Committee for a Democratic Spain, the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and the Committee for World Development and World Disarmament. FK was also a member of other groups, including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the American Civil Liberties Union, the League of Women Voters, and the International League for the Rights of Man. In recognition of her contribution to liberal opinion in the United States, FK received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Rollins College in 1944; she was also made Chevalier of The French Legion of Honor in 1946.

FK married Evans Clark (1888-1970), director of the Twentieth Century Fund and editor for The New York Times in 1915. Of their three sons only Michael Kirchwey Clark (1919- ) survived childhood. The Clarks traveled widely in Latin America, Europe, and the Middle East, but maintained their home in New York city until 1970, when Evans Clark died while on vacation in Nyon, Switzerland. After Clark's death, FK lived first with her sister, Dorothy Kirchwey Brown in Boston, Massachusetts, and then in Nova Scotia. She died in a St. Petersburg, Florida, nursing home, on January 3, 1976.

The Nation, one of the oldest continuing weekly magazines in the United States, was founded by Edwin Lawrence Godkin in 1865 to "inquire critically into the 'state of the Nation' and the world at large." The Nation of Godkin's era attacked the Granges, the Populists, trade union, socialists, and suffragists; it was not until 1918 that Oswald Garrison Villard, grandson of William Lloyd Garrison, having purchased the magazine from a group of stockholders, began to transform it into a leading voice of liberal opinion (see #362-363).

In January 1933, editorial control and management of The Nation passed to a board of four editors that included FK. In 1935 Villard sold The Nation to banker Maurice Wertheim, who in turn sold it to FK two years later. FK became editor and publisher but, plagued by deficits resulting from the increase in prices brought on by World War II, decided to transfer ownership to The Nation Associates, a non-profit membership corporation founded in 1943. FK remained president of The Nation Associates, and with director Lillie Schultz worked to raise funds both to cover The Nation's deficit and to pay for forums, dinners, conferences, and reports that supported important liberal causes. Following The Nation's ninetieth birthday in 1955, FK approved the sale of the magazine to George Kirstein and turned over editorial control to Carey McWilliams.

From the guide to the Papers, 1871-1972, (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Papers, 1871-1972 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Friends Service Committee corporateBody
associatedWith Anthony, Susan B. II, 1917- person
associatedWith Auden, W. H., 1907-1973 person
associatedWith Baldwin, Roger, 1884- person
associatedWith Baruch, Bernard M., 1870-1965 person
associatedWith Beard, Charles, 1874-1948 person
associatedWith Beard, Mary Ritter, 1876-1958 person
associatedWith Boas, Franz person
associatedWith Boyd-Orr, John, Lord, 1880- person
associatedWith Braden, Anne, 1924- person
associatedWith Brown, Dorothy Kirchwey, 1888- person
associatedWith Burlingham, Charles, 1858-1959 person
associatedWith Celler, Emanuel, 1888- person
associatedWith Chase, Stuart, 1888- person
associatedWith Clark, Evans, 1888-1970 person
associatedWith Committee for a Democratic Spain corporateBody
associatedWith Committee for World Development and World Disarmament corporateBody
associatedWith Dean, Vera, 1903-1972 person
associatedWith del Vayo, Julio Alvarez, 1891- person
associatedWith de Rougemont, Denis person
associatedWith Dos Passos, John, 1896-1970 person
associatedWith Durr, Clifford J., 1899-1975 person
associatedWith Eban, Aubrey (later Abba Eban), 1915- person
associatedWith Eisenhower, Dwight D., 1890-1972 person
associatedWith Ernst, Morris, 1888-1976 person
associatedWith Farrell, James Thomas, 1904- person
associatedWith Fischer, Louis, 1896- person
associatedWith Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, 1879-1959 person
associatedWith Frank, Waldo, 1889-1967 person
associatedWith Gannett, Lewis, 1891- person
associatedWith Gide, Andre, 1869-1951 person
associatedWith Goldberg, Arthur Joseph, 1908- person
associatedWith Gruening, Ernest, 1887-1974 person
associatedWith Gunther, John, 1901-1970 person
associatedWith Howe, Quincy, 1900- person
associatedWith Ickes, Harold, 1874-1952 person
associatedWith Irwin, Inez Haynes, 1873-1970 person
associatedWith Jack, Dr. Homer, 1916- person
associatedWith James, Concha Romero person
associatedWith Kaufman, George S., 1889-1961 person
associatedWith Kellogg, Paul Underwood, 1879-1958 person
associatedWith Keynes, John Maynard, 1883-1946 person
associatedWith Kirchwey, George Washington, 1855-1942 person
associatedWith Knopf, Alfred, 1892- person
associatedWith Krutch, Joseph Wood, 1893-1970 person
associatedWith Laidlaw, Harriet (Burton), 1873-1949 person
associatedWith Lehman, Herbert, 1878-1963 person
associatedWith Lerner, Max, 1902- person
associatedWith Lewis, John L., 1880- person
associatedWith Lovett Robert Morss, 1870-1956 person
associatedWith Magnes, Judah Leon, 1877-1948 person
associatedWith Mann, Erika -1969 person
associatedWith Mann, Thomas, 1875-1955 person
associatedWith Maritain, Jacques person
associatedWith Marshall, Thurgood, 1908- person
associatedWith Mather, Kirtley Fletcher, 1888- person
associatedWith McWilliams, Carey, 1905- person
associatedWith Mencken, H. L., 1880-1956 person
associatedWith Meyer, Annie (Nathan), 1867-1951 person
associatedWith Mills, C. Wright person
associatedWith Morgenthau, Hans Joachim, 1904- person
associatedWith Morgenthau, Henry, 1891-1967 person
associatedWith Morison, Samuel Eliot, 1887- person
associatedWith Murrow, Edward R., ? -1965 person
associatedWith Myrdal, Gunnar, 1898- person
associatedWith Nathan, Otto person
associatedWith Neruda, Pablo, 1904-1973 person
associatedWith Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1892-1971 person
associatedWith Norris, Senator George W., 1861-1944 person
associatedWith Norton, William Warder, 1891-1945 person
associatedWith Oxnam, G. Bromley, 1891-1963 person
associatedWith Pickett, Clarence, 1884-1965 person
associatedWith Ratcliffe, S. K. person
associatedWith Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962 person
associatedWith Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1882-1945 person
associatedWith Rotch, Helen -1959 person
associatedWith Russell, Bertrand, 1872-1970 person
associatedWith Schlesinger, Arthur Jr., 1917- person
associatedWith Schultz, Lillie person
associatedWith Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968 person
associatedWith Smith, Jessica, 1895- person
associatedWith Southern Conference Educational Fund corporateBody
associatedWith Spender, Stephen, 1909- person
associatedWith Stevenson, Adlai E., 1900-1965 person
associatedWith Stewart, Maxwell, 1900- person
associatedWith Stone, I. F., 1907- person
associatedWith Storrow, James J. Jr., 1917- person
associatedWith Straight, Michael person
associatedWith Swing, Raymond Gram, 1887-1968 person
associatedWith Tanz, Doris Wolson person
associatedWith The Nation corporateBody
associatedWith The Nation Associates corporateBody
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associatedWith Thurber, James, 1894-1961 person
associatedWith Tree, Marietta person
associatedWith Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940 person
associatedWith Van Arx, Hugo person
associatedWith Van Doren, Dorothy, 1896- person
associatedWith Van Loon, Hendrik, 1882-1944 person
associatedWith Viereck, Peter, 1916- person
associatedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1944 person
associatedWith Wagner, Senator Robert F., 1877-1953 person
associatedWith Wallace, Henry A., 1888-1965 person
associatedWith Weizmann, Chaim, 1874-1952 person
associatedWith Welles, Sumner, 1892-1961 person
associatedWith Wertheim, Maurice, 1886-1950 person
associatedWith White, William Allen person
associatedWith Whiting, Caroline person
associatedWith Willkie, Wendell, 1892-1944 person
associatedWith Women's International League for Peace and Freedom corporateBody
associatedWith Woolley, Mary Emma, 1863-1947 person
associatedWith Worker's Defense League corporateBody
associatedWith World Center for Women's Archives corporateBody
associatedWith Wright, Richard, 1908-1960 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Israel
Spain
Subject
Editors
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Person

Birth 1893

Death 1976

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