Yale University. President's Office.

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Theodore Dwight Woolsey served as president of Yale College from 1846-1871.

From the guide to the Theodore Dwight Woolsey, president of Yale College, records, circa 1855-1859, (Manuscripts and Archives)

James Rowland Angell was born on May 8, 1869 in Burlington, Vermont. He attended the University of Michigan (B.A., 1890; M.A., 1891), Harvard (M.A., 1892) and the University of Berlin. From 1893-1919 Angell was a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and served as acting president from 1918-1919. In 1921 he resigned as president of the Carnegie Corporation to accept the presidency of Yale University, a position he held until 1937. As president of Yale, Angell instituted a major reorganization of the undergraduate curriculum, brought in new faculty, expanded the Graduate School, and increased Yale's stature as a national center of higher education. Major achievements of his administration included the founding of the Yale School of Nursing (1923); the organization of the Institute of Psychology (1924), which was expanded into the Institute of Human Relations (1929); and the adoption of a residential college plan for undergraduates. Angell died in Hamden, Connecticut on March 4, 1949.

From the guide to the James Rowland Angell, president of Yale University, records, 1921-1937, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Alfred Whitney Griswold was born on October 27, 1906 in Morristown, New Jersey. He received a B.A. from Yale in 1929 and a Ph.D. in 1933. Griswold taught English and was a professor of history, as well as government and international relations, at Yale. He served as Director of the U.S. Army Civil Affairs Training Program in Foreign Area and Language Studies, and as Director of the U.S. Army Civil Affairs Training School at Yale (1942). In 1950 Griswold became president of Yale. He instituted progressive academic and physical changes and introduced discussion on coeducation at Yale. A. Whitney Griswold died in New Haven, Connecticut on April 19, 1963.

From the guide to the Alfred Whitney Griswold, president of Yale University, records, 1950-1963, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Charles Seymour was born in New Haven, Connecticut on January 1, 1885. He attended Cambridge (B.A. 1904, M.A. 1909), Yale (B.A. 1908, Ph.D. 1911) and the University of Paris. Seymour taught history at Yale from 1911-1937. In 1937 he became president of Yale, a position he held until 1950. Seymour inaugurated the Directed Studies Program for freshmen and sophomores, revived the Scholar of the House Program, and introduced such interdepartmental majors as Foreign Area and American Studies. In addition to his duties at Yale he served as chief of the Austro-Hungarian Division of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace; U.S. delegate on the Rumanian, Jugoslavian, and Czechoslovakian Territorial Commissions (1919); and curator of the Edward House Collection at Yale (1923-1963). Seymour died in Chatham, Massachusetts on August 11, 1963.

From the guide to the Charles Seymour, president of Yale University, records, 1917-1956, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Richard C. Levin has served as president of Yale University since 1993.

From the guide to the Richard C. Levin, president of Yale University, records, 1989-2009, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Benno C. Schmidt, Jr., served as president of Yale University from 1986-1992.

From the guide to the Benno C. Schmidt, Jr., president of Yale University, records, 1986-1992, (Manuscripts and Archives)

The DeVane lectures were established in 1969 in honor of William Clyde DeVane, dean of Yale College from 1939 to 1963. The series has traditionally covered a different topic each year, ranging from democracy to Yale's role in the 20th century. The lecture series is organized and financed by the President's Office and is open to the general public as well as to Yale students. Only Yale students though are permitted to attend the discussion sections, and the lecture series counts as a full Yale credit.

From the guide to the DeVane Lecture Series, Yale University, audiorecordings, 1998-2001, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Thomas Clap served as president of Yale College from 1745-1766.

From the guide to the Thomas Clap, president of Yale College, records, circa 1720-1765, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Hanna Holborn Gray was born in Heidelberg, Germany on October 25, 1930. She received a B.A. from Bryn Mawr in 1950 and a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1957. Mrs. Gray taught at Harvard from 1955-1960 and the University of Chicago from 1961-1972. She was dean of Northwestern University from 1972-1974 and provost of Yale University from 1974-1978. From 1977-1978 Mrs. Gray was acting president of Yale. In 1978 she became president of the University of Chicago.

From the guide to the Hanna Holborn Gray, president of Yale University, records, 1977-1978, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Angelo Bartlett Giamatti was born on April 4, 1938 in Boston, Massachusetts. He attended Yale College (B.A. 1960) and Yale Graduate School (Ph.D. 1964). After earning his doctorate, Giamatti taught Italian and comparative literature at Princeton University (1964-1966). He went on to teach English and comparative literature at Yale (1966-1977). In 1976 he became the Frederick Clifford Ford Professor of English and Comparative Literature, and in 1977 he accepted the John Hay Whitney Professorship of English and Comparative Literature. In 1978, Giamatti became president of Yale, a position he held until his resignation in 1986.

From the guide to the A. Bartlett Giamatti, president of Yale University, records, 1977-1993, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Brewster Biography

Kingman Brewster, Jr., the seventeenth president of Yale University, was born on 17 June 1919 in Longmeadow, Massachusetts. He earned his B.A. in History, Arts, and Letters from Yale University in 1941, and his LL.B. from the Harvard Law School in 1948, magna cum laude. Between degrees, Brewster served in World War II as a naval aviator and was released from active duty in 1945 with the rank of lieutenant. Brewster taught on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) faculty, 1949-1950, and on the Harvard Law School faculty, 1950-1960, being promoted to full professor in 1953. He resigned from Harvard in 1960 and became Yale University provost-designate for the academic year 1960-1961, and then provost the following year.

Brewster became president of Yale in 1963 and remained in office until 1977. While president, he also served on two national commissions formed by the Lyndon B. Johnson administration: the Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 1965-1967, and the National Advisory Commission on Selective Service, 1966-1967; he was also chairman of the United Nations National Policy Panel, 1968. Brewster officially resigned the Yale presidency on 16 May 1977 to serve as ambassador to the Court of St. James, 1977-1981, under President Jimmy Carter. In 1986 he accepted the mastership of University College at Oxford University, Oxford, England, where he stayed until his death on 8 November 1988.

Brewster married Mary Louise Phillips on 30 November 1942 and together they raised five children: Constance, Kingman III, Deborah, Alden, and Riley.

Administrative History

The Brewster presidential administration's primary objective was to raise academic standards comprehensively throughout Yale University. This required the substantial revision of certain existing policies and disciplines, as well as the development of new programs, schools, and departments. President Brewster began this process in the 1960s by significantly increasing the size of the faculty and by actively recruiting renowned non-Yale scholars to fill the positions. According to Brewster, previous Yale administrations tended to overlook high caliber academicians who graduated and specialized outside the university. Approximately fifty percent of those instructing both at the undergraduate and graduate levels in the mid-1950s had earned their degrees from Yale. To reverse this trend, and to help even-out the student-faculty ratio, Brewster carried forward three policies initiated while he was Provost. First, as of 1961, most new professors were to be appointed jointly to the undergraduate college and the graduate school, allowing greater variety and possibility for instructor-student interaction. Second, the administration maintained a university-wide faculty committee to review and approve departmental tenure promotions, so that all disciplines would have to match the administration's overall research and teaching standards. Third, Brewster continued realigning the budget to raise faculty salaries to levels unsurpassed by other higher learning institutions. Growth in new faculty appointments was especially strong in the 1960s, when the instructor-student ratio dropped from 1:11 to 1:7, and the size of the faculty increased by 80 percent. While the graduate school student population doubled, the undergraduate population remained level at 4,000.

As the size of the Yale faculty increased, Brewster's new admissions policies caused the make up of the undergraduate body to shift. By the early 1960s, most undergraduates had prepared at private schools, and many were sons of Yale alumni. As with the faculty, Brewster felt that Yale was consistently overlooking some of the best intellectual student talent necessary to maintain the highest levels of academic excellence. In a 1965 speech to alumni, Brewster summarized his administration's revised recruitment policy by stating that Yale would only seek students whose capacity for intellectual achievement is outstanding and who also have the motivation to put their intellectual capacities to creatively influential use, in thought, in art, in science, or in the exercise of public or private or professional responsibility.

In short, the administration maintained that talent and proven ability, in spite of background, were to be paramount in every application review. Brewster appointed Admissions Dean R. Inslee Clark in 1965 to help bring this recruitment objective to fruition. As well, in 1963, the administration enacted a needs-blind policy for all applicants, so that lack of necessary finances could not become an admissions factor. The inevitable result of these new policy initiatives was a more diversified student body. While angry alumni accused Brewster and Clark of reverse discrimination, the administration argued that public school standards in quality and achievement had risen sharply, justifying tougher and more thorough screening processes for all applicants. As with faculty expansion, the effects of the student body shift were most noticeable throughout the 1960s, during which time the number undergraduates who entered Yale from private schools had dropped from 51 to 38 percent, and alumni sons decreased from 24 to 13 percent. As well, the number of accepted black applicants rose from fifteen in 1965 to one hundred in 1969.

The most dramatic change in the Yale student body came in 1969, when the Brewster administration implemented undergraduate coeducation. Matriculating undergraduate women in fact had been under serious consideration since the beginning of the Brewster presidency. In 1965 the Yale Corporation outlined three conditions necessary for the idea to advance. First, admissions officers could not reduce the number of men admitted each year to Yale College. Second, incremental funds estimated at fifty-five million dollars would have to be allocated. Third, women would actually matriculate through a coordinate college, designed after the Harvard-Radcliffe model. Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, sought out Yale to become the sister institution. The Yale administration engaged in thorough discussions and drew up detailed plans for the merge, but Vassar eventually rejected the idea, since it did not wish to relocate to New Haven. Brewster proposed that coeducation proceed regardless, and, with Yale Corporation support, 500 women attended Yale College in the autumn of 1969. Though some alumni vehemently objected, the administration defended its position based on the tenets of its own educational philosophy: Brewster's mission was to attract the country's best minds to Yale College, which necessitated opening the pool to women.

While the Brewster administration in the early 1970s continued to enact significant policy studies and revisions, aspects of the nation's social climate affecting college students had become volatile and problematic. Race riots had broken out over the past few years in numerous American cities, causing dramatic unrest on many college campuses in response. An event which particularly tested the Brewster administration occurred 1-3 May 1970 known as May Day weekend. Black Panther party chairman Bobby Seale and seven other party members were on trial in New Haven for the murder of fellow party member Alex Rackley. The trial and the cause of the Black Panthers became a major concern of the Yale community. Normal academic activities were suspended in late April and a number of special gatherings were held around campus to discuss the issue. Various sources predicted that 50,000 demonstrators would arrive at the New Haven Green on 1 May to protest perceived unfairness toward the Black Panthers. Brewster decided to open Yale University during the weekend rally for shelter, food, day care, and first aid. Students hosted demonstrators in designated residential college rooms, and many faculty, staff, and students were assigned special duties to help maintain order. Against the wishes of the administration, Connecticut officials brought in the National Guard as a precaution against violent eruptions. Actual attendance, peaking near 15,000 on 1 May, was lower than expected. Speeches given at various Yale sites by prominent protest leaders such as Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin occurred peacefully. Sporadic incidents throughout the night were successfully handled by local police. The next day, fewer numbers gathered for rallies on the Green and protest momentum began to taper. By Sunday 3 May the demonstrators had left New Haven, and the administration pronounced the weekend a success. As academic activities resumed, students who had elected to postpone final exams and projects were given a number of options toward completion without penalty.

Numerous programs were revitalized, expanded, or created during Brewster's tenure. In 1965 the administration secured an affiliation between the Grace-New Haven Community Hospital and the Yale School of Medicine to form the Yale-New Haven Hospital, a major center for medical instruction, research, and practice. The Yale School of Drama was revitalized in 1966 with the appointment of Dean Robert Brustein, and programs such as Afro-American Studies, and the Computer Science Department were proposed and enacted. In undergraduate education, the college seminar program was started, along with the Five Year B.A., also known as Junior Year Abroad. Distributional requirements were suspended, the grading system revised, and credit numbers necessary for graduation reconsidered. The campus Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program was phased out during the early 1970s, and study groups such as the Dahl Committee on Undergraduate Education and the Dominguez Study Commission on Governance were organized by the administration to consider further steps toward educational improvement. New buildings were raised as well, including the Becton Engineering and Applied Science Center, the Child Study Center, Kline Biology Tower, the Nuclear Structure Laboratory, and the Center for British Art, designed by prominent architect Louis Kahn. Throughout the 1970s, the administration engaged in intensive capital fund-raising to address the deficit incurred from the extensive expansion of resources and programs achieved in the previous decade.

The Brewster administration is generally praised for its progressive initiatives and innovative new academic programs, in spite of the increasing burden it placed on the operating budget as a result. Brewster himself was considered friendly, energetic, accessible, and loyal to the faculty, staff, and students. Relations with outspoken alumni were sometimes strained, especially throughout the 1960s, because of changes in student body make-up and a perceived new wave of liberalism dominating Yale. Still, most of the Brewster administration's new initiatives and philosophies have remained operationally active and influential within subsequent Yale presidencies.

From the guide to the Kingman Brewster, Jr., president of Yale University, records, 1941-1977, 1961-1977, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Arthur Twining Hadley was born in New Haven, Connecticut on April 23, 1856. He graduated from Yale in 1876, and pursued graduate studies in political economy at the University of Berlin. In 1879 Hadley returned to Yale and worked as a tutor in Greek, logic, Roman law, and German until 1883. From 1883 until 1886 Hadley served as an instructor in political science under William Graham Sumner. In 1886 he accepted a newly created professorship in political science and, in 1891, went on to accept a professorship in political economy. In 1892 he was appointed as the first dean of the Graduate School at Yale, a position he held until 1895. In 1899 Hadley was elected president of Yale and became the first layman to hold that position. During his tenure, Yale grew into a great national university. Hadley died on March 6, 1930.

  • 1856: Arthur Twining Hadley born at New Haven, Connecticut, son of Professor James Hadley, of Yale College, and Anne Twining Hadley
  • 1868 - 1872 : Attended Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven, Connecticut
  • 1872: Entered Yale College
  • 1876: Graduated Yale College, Valedictorian Class of "76
  • 1876 - 1877 : Studied history and political science at Yale College
  • 1878 - 1879 : Continued studies of history and political science under Adolph Wagner at the University of Berlin
  • 1879 - 1883 : Tutor in Greek, Latin, and German, Yale College
  • 1883 - 1886 : Instructor in Political Science, Yale College
  • 1885: Published Railroad Transportation, Its History and Its Laws(earliest comprehensive study of subject to appear in the United States)
  • Called as an expert witness before the committee of the United States Senate that drafted the Interstate Commerce Laws
  • 1885 - 1887 : Commissioner of Labor Statistics, State of Connecticut
  • 1886 - 1887 : Lectured at Harvard on "Problems of Railroad Administration"
  • 1886 - 1891 : Professor of Political Science, Yale University
  • 1887 - 1889 : Associate Editor, Railroad Gazette
  • 1891: Married Helen Harrison Morris
  • 1891 - 1899 : Professor of Political Economy, Yale University
  • 1892 - 1895 : Dean of the Graduate School, Yale University
  • 1896: Published Economics - An Account of the Relations Between Private Property and Public Welfare
  • 1898 - 1899 : President of American Economic Association
  • 1899: Inaugurated as first lay President of Yale University
  • 1901: Published The Education of the American Citizen
  • 1902: Delivered Lowell Institute Lectures on "The History of Academic Freedom"
  • 1902 - 1903 : William E. Dodge Lecturer, Yale University, on "Responsibilities of Citizenship"
  • 1903: Pubished Freedom of Responsibility
  • 1905: Appointed trustee of the Carnegie Foundation
  • 1906: Delivered Kennedy lectures on "Standards of Public Morality"
  • 1907 - 1908 : Roosevelt Professor of American History, University of Berlin
  • 1907: Published Standards of Public Morality
  • 1909 - 1910 : Acting Treasurer of Yale University
  • 1910: Appointed Railroad Securities Commission Chairman
  • 1913 - 1930 : Member, Board of Directors of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad
  • 1913: Published Some Influences in Modern Philosophic Thought
  • 1914: Lecturer, Oxford University
  • 1915: Published Undercurrents in American Politics
  • 1919: Published The Moral Basis of Democracy
  • 1920: Member of the Republican National Committee"s Committee on Policies and Platform
  • 1921: Retired from presidency of Yale University
  • 1922: Delivered Watson Foundation lectures on "Economic Problems of Democracy" in major cities of England
  • 1923: Published Economic Problems of Democracy
  • 1924: Addressed the World Power Conference on "The Relation of the State to Electrical Development"
  • 1925: Published The Conflict Between Liberty and Equality
  • 1926: Declined offer of the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senator from Connecticut
  • 1930: Died of illness in Kobe, Japan, during the course of a world tour

From the guide to the Arthur Twining Hadley, president of Yale University, records, 1899-1921, (Manuscripts and Archives)

May Day weekend took place May 1-3, 1970 as a rally to protest the murder trial of Black Panther party chairman Bobby Seale and seven other party members. Normal academic activities were suspended so that Yale students, faculty, and staff could assist in preparing the campus for the rally. Yale University opened its doors to demonstrators by offering shelter, food, day care, and first aid throughout the weekend. Approximately 15,000 people attended the first day of rallies without significant disruption or disorder. Fewer remained the following days, and academic activities resumed by Monday May 4.

May Day weekend took place Friday 1 May to Sunday 3 May 1970. It was a rally on the New Haven Green to protest perceived unfairness in the trial of Black Panther Chairman Bobby Seale and seven other party members. Seale was charged in the murder of former Black Panther Alex Rackley, who was found dead on 21 May 1969. The trial and the protest became a primary concern of Yale University students, faculty, and staff. Mass meetings took place around campus, and publications such as the Dwight Hall were distributed to inform and update the community on Black Panther issues, as well as on other areas of national interest and unrest, including the Vietnam Conflict.

The issue of suspending normal academic activities indefinitely for the duration of the trial was brought before the Yale faculty on 23 April 1970 and, with some modifications, approved. Kurt Schmoke '71, who later became Baltimore mayor in 1987 and a member of the Yale Corporation in 1989, was the first student in Yale history to address the faculty on behalf of the student body. Yale President Kingman Brewster, Jr., also addressed the assembly. During his remarks, he stated, "...I am appalled and ashamed that things should have come to pass that I am skeptical of the ability of Black revolutionaries to achieve a fair trial anywhere in the United States." Brewster's statement drew sharp criticism from Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, who in a speech delivered on 28 April 1970 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, called on Yale alumni to demand Brewster's resignation. The alumni, however, supported Brewster nearly four to one, based on written and telephone feedback. Brewster also received comprehensive support throughout the immediate Yale community.

Various sources predicted that 50,000 demonstrators would arrive in New Haven for the May Day rally. The Brewster administration decided to open Yale University for shelter, food, day care, and first aid throughout the weekend. Students hosted demonstrators in designated residential college rooms, and many faculty, staff, and students were assigned special duties to help maintain order. Fearing vulnerability to the large numbers predicted to attend, the Connecticut state government, against the wishes of Brewster, put federal forces into place in case of violent eruptions. Actual attendance, however, was lower than expected at approximately at 15,000. The events of Friday 1 May, including speeches given at various Yale sites by prominent protest leaders such as Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, occurred peacefully. Throughout the night, there were sporadic incidents managed by local police. On Saturday 2 May fewer numbers gathered for rallies on the New Haven Green with no significant eruptions, in essence bringing to a close the events of May Day weekend. By Sunday 3 May all demonstrators had left the rally and campus activities resumed the following day. Students who elected to postpone final exams and projects were offered a number of options to fulfill their academic obligations without penalty.

From the guide to the Office of the President, Yale University, records concerning the May Day rally, 1970-1976, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Kingman Brewster, Jr., president of Yale University, records, 1941-1977, 1961-1977 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Correspondence, 1860-1979. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Arthur Twining Hadley, president of Yale University, records, 1899-1921 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Theodore Dwight Woolsey, president of Yale College, records, circa 1855-1859 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf President's office, Yale University, records, 1718-1992 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Kingman Brewster, Jr., president of Yale University, inauguration records, 1959-1964 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Richard C. Levin, president of Yale University, inauguration records, 1993 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Hanna Holborn Gray, president of Yale University, records, 1977-1978 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf 250th anniversary commemoration, Yale University, records, 1951 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Charles Seymour, president of Yale University, records, 1917-1956 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Kingman Brewster, Jr., president of Yale University, resignation records, 1977 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Thomas Clap, president of Yale College, records, circa 1720-1765 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Howard S. Weaver, special assistant to the president of Yale University, records concerning alumni relations, 1964-1968 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf President's office, Yale University, records concerning social activities and gatherings, 1964-1981 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf A. Bartlett Giamatti, president of Yale University, records, 1977-1993 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Speeches and articles by and about presidents of Yale University, 1960-1993 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Alfred Whitney Griswold, president of Yale University, records, 1950-1963 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf James Rowland Angell, president of Yale University, records, 1921-1937 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn [Pamphlets on the inauguration of Arthur T. Hadley as president of Yale university, Oct. 18, 1899]. Yale University Library
creatorOf Angelo Bartlett Giamatti, president of Yale University, inauguration records, 1978 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf DeLaney Kiphuth, special assistant to the president of Yale University for athletics, Records, 1965-1981 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Office of the President, Yale University, annual and special reports, 1964-2000 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Committee to Recommend a Dean of Yale College records, 1970 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Ivy Group Presidents records, 1963-1977 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Benno C. Schmidt, Jr., president of Yale University, records, 1986-1992 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Office of the President, Yale University, records concerning the May Day rally, 1970-1976 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Benno C. Schmidt, Jr., president of Yale University, inauguration records, 1986 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Alfred B. Fitt, special assistant to the president of Yale University for community and alumni affairs, records, 1969-1975 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Richard C. Levin, president of Yale University, records, 1989-2009 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf DeVane Lecture Series, Yale University, audiorecordings, 1998-2001 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf 275th Anniversary Commemoration, Yale University, records, 1923-1977 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Henry W. Broude, special assistant to the president of Yale University, records, 1977-1988 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
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correspondedWith Hocking, William Ernest, 1873-1966 person
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