Baker, Newton Diehl, 1871-1937

Hide Profile

Newton Diehl Baker Jr. (December 3, 1871 – December 25, 1937) was an American lawyer, Georgist, politician, and government official. He served as the 37th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1912 to 1915. As U.S. Secretary of War from 1916 to 1921, Baker presided over the United States Army during World War I.

Born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, Baker established a legal practice in Cleveland after graduating from Washington and Lee University School of Law. He became progressive Democratic ally of Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Baker served as city solicitor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909 before taking office as mayor in 1912. As mayor, he sought public transit reform, hospital improvement, and city beautification. Baker supported Woodrow Wilson at the 1912 Democratic National Convention, helping Wilson win the votes of the Ohio delegation. After leaving office, Baker accepted appointment as Secretary of War under President Wilson. He was one of several prominent Georgists appointed to positions in the Wilson Cabinet.

Baker presided over the U.S. military's participation in World War I. He selected General John J. Pershing to command the American Expeditionary Forces, which he insisted act as an independent unit. He left office in 1921 and returned to BakerHostetler, the legal practice he co-founded. He served as an attorney in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., a landmark case that established the constitutionality of zoning laws. He was a strong supporter of the League of Nations and continued to advocate American participation in the League during the 1920s. Beginning in 1928, he served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. He was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but the convention chose Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Newton D. Baker Papers, Series II, 1896-1917 Western Reserve Historical Society
referencedIn Glueck, Sheldon. Sheldon Glueck papers. 1916-1972. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Documentary Films. 1914 - 1944. THE 42ND DIVISION [WORLD WAR I] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. OCCUPATION OF THE ANSAUVILLE SECTOR (LORRAINE), JAN. 15-APRIL 3, 1918, FIRST DIVISION National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Extension Service. 1888 - 2000. Motion Picture Films. 1915 - 1959. FIRST quot;LUMBERJACKquot; REGIMENT: 10TH RESERVE ENGINEERS (FOREST) National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Richard Brown Scandrett papers, 1907-1966, 1907-1951 (bulk) Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. OCCUPATION OF LUNEVILLE SECTOR (LORRAINE), FEB. 11- MARCH 23, 1918--42ND DIVISION National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Correspondence Relating to Portraits of Former Secretaries of War, 1897 - 1942 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn National Broadcasting Company, Inc., Collection. 1953 - 1962. Motion Picture Films. 1953 - 1962. THE GREAT WAR National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Russell, Isaac, 1879-1927. Isaac Russell papers, 1898-1927. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc., Collection. 1927 - 1942. Motion Picture Films. 1927 - 1942. THE YANKS ARE COMING National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Roscoe Pound papers, 1888-1964 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Roper, Daniel C. (Daniel Calhoun), 1867-1943. Daniel C. Roper papers, 1860-1985 David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Records of the Selective Service System (World War I), 1917 - 1939. LIST OF LOCAL BOARDS AND APPOINTED BOARD MEMBERS, 1917-1919 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. 1798 - 2007. Moving Images Relating to Naval Activities. 1942 - 1947. VICE ADMIRAL ALBERT GLEAVES, ETC National Archives at College Park
creatorOf Newton D. Baker Papers, Series III, 1892-1961, 1918-1937 Western Reserve Historical Society
referencedIn White, George, 1872-1953. Papers 1914-1953. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Documentary Films. 1914 - 1944. THE 89TH DIVISION [WORLD WAR I] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Scandrett, Richard Brown, 1891-1969. Richard Brown Scandrett papers, 1907-1966, 1907-1951 (bulk). Cornell University Library
creatorOf Newton D. Baker Papers, 1917-1932 Western Reserve Historical Society
referencedIn Harmon, Judson, 1846-1927. Papers 1908-1912. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Cox, James M. (James Middleton), 1870-1957. Papers 1913-1920. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Seiberling, Frank Augustus, 1895-1955. Papers 1885-1960. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn University of Colorado Medical School Collection. 1918 - 1919. Motion Picture Films. 1918 - 1919. THE PRICE OF PEACE [PARTS 4 AND 5] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Lawrence Graham Brooks papers, 1897-1981 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Morris S. Lazaron papers, 1851-1979 (bulk 1930-1950) The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. BASE SECTION NO. 2 (BORDEAUX), SCENES OF PERSONNEL AND PROMINENT VISITORS [1918] National Archives at College Park
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. BASE SECTION NO. 1 (ST. NAZAIRE), PROMINENT VISITORS [1918-1919] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. SCENES IN AND NEAR VERDUN, 1918 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. PERSHING'S FAREWELL TO FRANCE National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. SECOND AVIATION INSTRUCTION CENTER (TOURS) National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. MEDICAL DEPARTMENT-BASE HOSPITALS IN THE INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED ZONES, 1918-1919 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. A.E.F. ACTIVITIES IN ENGLAND, 1918 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION, DECEMBER 1, 1918 TO SEPTEMBER 1, 1919, 89TH DIVISION National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. SCENES OF GENERAL PERSHING, GENERAL BLISS AND FAMOUS VISITORS TO THE AMERICAN G.H.Q. [1918-1919] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. GENERAL PERSHING IN PEACETIME National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Documentary Films. 1914 - 1944. (AMERICA GOES OVER.) National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. Cabinet Members and Prominent Officials of the Second Administration of Woodrow Wilson National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. Draft and Mobilization Activities National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. NEW MEMBERS OF ROOSEVELT CABINET [ETC.] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Harry S. Truman Papers Pertaining to Family, Business and Personal Affairs, 1280 - 1975. Family Correspondence Files, 1910 - 1964. Correspondence from Harry S. Truman to Bess Wallace, 1910-1919: January 21, 1919. LETTER FROM HARRY S. TRUMAN TO BESS WALLACE, 1/21/1919 Harry S. Truman Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. THE INTERMEDIATE ZONE, Q.M. ACTIVITIES AT GIEVRES [1919] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. MEMORIAL SERVICES AT ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY (1920) National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Official Military Personnel File for Newton D. Baker. 1908 - 1943 National Archives at St. Louis
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. GENERAL PERSHING'S RETURN [1919] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. ACTIVITIES AND REVIEWS AT HEADQUARTERS S.O.S., TOURS, FRANCE, 1918-1919 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE, SEPTEMBER 26 TO NOVEMBER 11, 1918 PRISONERS OF WAR National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. THIRD AVIATION INSTRUCTION CENTER (FRANCE, 1917-1918) National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. AMERICAN ARMY STUDENTS AT FRENCH SCHOOLS----SPRING OF 1919 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. MOTOR CONVOY National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. BASE SECTION NO. 5 (BREST), PERSONNEL AND PROMINENT VISITORS TO BREST [1919] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. PERSHING'S CRUSADERS National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE AT LANGRES, 1918 National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. POST ARMISTICE TRAINING, 88TH DIVISION [1919] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. WOODROW WILSON [1917-1921] National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Historical Films. 1914 - 1936. NOTED VISITORS TO THE UNITED STATES DURING THE POST WAR PERIOD National Archives at College Park
Relation Name
associatedWith Brooks, Lawrence Graham, 1881-1981 person
associatedWith Century Company corporateBody
associatedWith Cox, James M. (James Middleton), 1870-1957. person
associatedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith Glueck, Sheldon, 1896- person
associatedWith Harmon, Judson, 1846-1927. person
correspondedWith Lazaron, Morris Samuel person
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
correspondedWith Pound, Roscoe, 1870-1964 person
associatedWith Richard Brown, Scandrett 1891-1969. person
associatedWith Roper, Daniel C. (Daniel Calhoun), 1867-1943 person
associatedWith Russell, Isaac, 1879-1927. person
associatedWith Scandrett, Richard Brown, 1891-1969. person
associatedWith Seiberling, Frank Augustus, 1895-1955. person
memberOf United States. Army corporateBody
associatedWith White, George, 1872-1953. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Shaker Heights (Ohio) OH US
Martinsburg WV US
Subject
Cabinet officers--United States
Cleveland (Ohio)--Politics and government
Baker family (Newton D. Baker)
League of Nations
Cramer, C. H. (Clarence Henley), 1905- Newton D. Baker, a Biography
World War, 1914-1918--United States
World War, 1914-1918--Sources
Politicians--United States
Statesmen--United States
Baker, Newton Diehl, 1871-1937
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924
United States--Politics and government--1901-1953
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945
Baker family
Occupation
Lawyers
Secretary of War
Mayors
Function

Person

1937-12-25

Birth 1871-12-03

Male

Americans

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6z89fqg

Ark ID: w6z89fqg

SNAC ID: 45504458