Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961

Alternative names
Birth 1899-07-21
Death 1961-07-02

Biographical notes:

Author and journalist.

From the description of Papers of Ernest Hemingway, 1949. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79450863

Joseph Dearing is addressed on envelope as "war correspondent, U.S. Army." A native of Santa Rosa, he was a photographer for Colliers magazine during World War II, covering both the European and Pacific theaters. After the war he wrote the "Uncle Joe Dearing's Fish and Game Column" for for the San Francisco Call Bulletin and later worked for the San Jose Mercury News. He was an avid fisherman and hunter.

From the description of Autograph letter signed "Papa, " to Joseph Dearing, 1945 March 8. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754866487

This copy of the typescript is stamped "Submission: Book of the Month Club, Inc." on the t.p. The manuscript was unfinished when Hemingway committed suicide. Tom Jenks, an editor at Esquire, edited the author's rough drafts. This copy contains numerous final changes in Jenks's hand, deleting some words, adding others and correcting punctuation and spelling, with additional corrections indicating further copyediting. With publisher's note to the reader.

From the description of The garden of Eden : a novel / Ernest Hemingway. 1986. (University of South Carolina). WorldCat record id: 462133921

Hemingway was an American journalist, novelist, and short story writer.

From the description of Collection, 1938-1964. (University of Delaware Library). WorldCat record id: 122599412

From the description of Manuscripts, [ca.193-?]. (University of Delaware Library). WorldCat record id: 155180705

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was an American journalist, novelist, and short story writer.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway manuscripts, circa 1930s. (University of Delaware Library). WorldCat record id: 17789605

From the description of Ernest Hemingway collection, 1938-2001. (University of Delaware Library). WorldCat record id: 667686339

Ernest Hemingway, American novelist and former newspaper writer, was born 21 July 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, the son of physician Clarence Edmunds Hemingway and music teacher Grace Hall Hemingway. He married four times: to Hadley Richardson, 3 September 1921 (divorced 10 March 1927); writer Pauline Pfeiffer, 10 May 1927 (divorced 4 November 1940); writer Martha Gellhorn, 21 November 1940 (divorced 21 December 1945); and writer Mary Welsh, 14 March 1946. He had three children: John Hadley Nicanor from his first marriage; Patrick and Gregory from his second marriage. Hemingway committed suicide, 2 July 1961, in Ketchum, Idaho.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway letters to his family, 1901-1957 (bulk 1917-1954) (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 754957359

Ernest Hemingway was an American novelist and short story writer. Harvey Breit (1909-1968) was an American author and columnist for the New York Times Book Review.

From the guide to the Ernest Hemingway letters to Harvey Breit, 1950-1961., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

American author.

From the description of Typed letters signed (2) and autograph letter signed : Fincia Vigia, Cuba, to "Pickle" [Mary Welsh], [1945] Apr. 13 and Sept. 1. and [n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270874937

From the description of Ernest Hemingway Collection, 1860-1965. (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC); University of Texas at Austin). WorldCat record id: 122598013

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), novelist and author.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway collection, 1920-1962. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702172321

From the description of Ernest Hemingway collection, 1920-1962. (Yale University). WorldCat record id: 60366748

Denne Petitclerc met Hemingway while working as a reporter from Miami, Florida newspaper.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway letters, 1956-1958. (Sonoma State University). WorldCat record id: 433826004

Howard Rhines had some connection to publishing in southern California. The galleys had been used as packing material in a gift of 78 recordings donated on his death to the library.

From the description of The Old Man and the Sea: "Galley 4, " 1952. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122398207

Hemingway was an American short story writer, novelist, and journalist.

From the description of Papers: 1873-1993 (inclusive), 1899-1961 (bulk). (John F Kennedy Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 122471380

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was an American novelist, journalist, and short-story writer.

From the guide to the Ernest Hemingway letter, circa 1953, (J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah)

American novelist.

From the description of [Letter, literary fragment, and poems / Ernest Hemingway] [between 1929 and 1938?] (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 231686295

Hemingway was an American novelist and short story writer. Harvey Breit (1909-1968) was an American author and columnist for the New York Times Book Review.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway letters to Harvey Breit, 1950-1961. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612366314

C. E. Frazer Clark, Jr. (1925-2001), a marketing executive, was the leading collector of Nathaniel Hawthorne materials. In 1962, Clark co-founded Bruccoli Clark Publishing (later Bruccoli Clark Layman) with Matthew J. Bruccoli. The firm produced reference works in literary and social history and published limited editions of literary works. By the late 1960s, Clark shifted his attention to Ernest Hemingway. After several years collecting Hemingway, Clark sold the bulk of his collection to the University of Maryland.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway collection, 1916-1977 (bulk 1930-1965). (University of Maryland Libraries). WorldCat record id: 304432350

Hemingway was an American novelist and poet.

From the description of Letters: 1933-1934. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122594351

Hemingway was an American writer and journalist.

From the description of Collection, 1923-1962 (inclusive), 1925-1940 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122348911

American novelist and short story writer.

From the description of Audio materials, 1949-1950 [sound recording]. 1949-1950. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 45122761

Born in 1902, C.T. Lanham was a life soldier who retired as a general. In 1944, during World War II, his troops were among the first to break out from Normandy, enter Paris, and attack the Siegfried Line in Germany. He became friends with writer/journalist Ernest Hemingway and corresponded with him for the next seventeen years. After the war, he was chief of troop information and education; post-retirement he was associate editor of Infantry Journal . He died in 1978.

From the guide to the Hemingway/Lanham Correspondence, 1944-1961, (Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections)

Hemingway and Baker drove ambulances together on the Italian front in 1918, and later shared big-game hunting and gun-collecting interests.

From the description of Ernest Hemingway and Milford J. Baker correspondence, 1918-1969 (bulk 1930-1932) (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 175688294

Ernest Hemingway was an American novelist, storywriter, and journalist. An expatriate living in Paris after World War I, he became part of the "Lost Generaton" of American writers. He won the Pulitzer Prize for The Old Man and the Sea in 1953 and received the Nobel Prized for Literature in 1954. His writing style, characterized by economy and understatement, significantly influenced twentieth-century literature.

From the guide to the Ernest Hemingway Collection, 1918-1974, (Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections)

For a biography of Ernest Hemingway see the Clarke Historical Library's catalog record entitled the Ernest Hemingway Collection, 1901-2004, or an encyclopedia. Jack Pentecost was a friend of Hemingway's at least since their senior year in high school. Warren Sumner was a farmer hired by Dr. Hemingway in 1917 to work on Longacre Farm at Walloon Lake.

From the description of Miscellaneous collection, 1909, 1919. (Clarke Historical Library). WorldCat record id: 77082069

At the height of his popularity, Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was hailed as the greatest writer of American literature, a hero of several wars, a world-class sportsman in the fields of bullfighting, boxing, hunting, and fishing, and a connoisseur of food, wine, writing, and painting. He was viewed as a colossus who strode all fields of action, excelling in all the manly pursuits. At his worst, Hemingway was derided as a writer who specialized in evasion and repression; an illiterate, inarticulate ox who avoided literary circles to disguise his own limitations; a bully, misogynist, and homophobe with the world''s most famous castration anxiety; a self-aggrandizing egotist and poseur who shamelessly promoted the legend of his exploits in popular magazines; a belligerent and jealous writer who betrayed and publicly insulted all the authors who helped his career; an overpaid, glorified journalist who sold his talent to feed his ego, ending up as a rich, decadent alcoholic who succumbed to dementia in later years, and who finally took his own life when he realized that he could not write anymore. Born Ernest Miller Hemingway in Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899, Hemingway developed his terse style by writing for the Kansas City Star in 1917. In 1918 he volunteered as a Red Cross ambulance driver in Italy, where he was badly wounded attempting to save a soldier''s life. Hemingway''s war experiences and his severe injuries seem to have carved a deep scar in the young man''s psyche, and he suffered from insomnia and a fear of sleeping in the dark. All his early writing reveals a preoccupation with violence and wounds, and a terror of death. The honesty with which Hemingway wrote about naked emotions in the 1920s--which contrasts sharply with the bloated legend of himself that he promoted in the 1930s and beyond--was immediately greeted as a major innovation in modern writing. His rapid development and swift rise to acclaim derived from his willingness to learn from older writers: while living in Paris among the expatriates he sought, and followed, the advice of Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, Ezra Pound, Ford Madox Ford, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Though most famous for his terse, stark narrative style and realistic dialogue, Hemingway was certainly not the first to write plainly and simply; he did not singlehandedly overthrow the decadent conventions of the Victorian novel. Many predecessors, including Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, and Sherwood Anderson, had cleared the prolix path that Hemingway strode more boldly. He did however drive verbal terseness and austerity to its limit, setting an unsurpassable standard, while avoiding Stein''s and Anderson''s eccentricities. Hemingway''s early prose was taut and brittle, achieving its effects through extremely subtle suggestion while refusing to be "literary." He jettisoned the worn accouterments of alliteration, assonance, simile, and metaphor to look directly at life and report only what he saw, unencumbered by literary conventions. This does not mean, however, that Hemingway''s fiction was stripped of emotion, as it may seem to a careless reader. Hemingway refrained from describing emotion, avoiding phrases like "he felt," or "he thought," and discarding adverbs and adjectives, but he suggested the characters'' emotions by reporting what they saw, noticed, or did. For instance, in the short story "Big Two-Hearted River," Hemingway conveys the anxiety of a veteran, Nick Adams, returning home from the war and trying to repress his painful memories. But the author does this not by telling us that Nick is trying to repress his thoughts, but rather by meticulously reporting Nick''s concentration on mundane but consoling activities such as fishing and making lunch. Such indirect and subtle effects were quite powerful when done well, but could result in long passages of pointlessness when done badly, as in some of his later work. Also notable in his early writing is a willingness to portray what his characters really felt rather than what they were supposed to feel. He did not care to write edifying stories: if his character felt empty and hollow after an event that was supposed to make a respectable man feel sad, the story gained power through its honest realism. The most successful specimens of Hemingway''s method were his short stories. His first novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926), also managed to sustain the dramatic tension and power of the shorter works. Hemingway made extensive revisions at Fitzgerald''s suggestion, and the book revealed remarkable parallels with Fitzgerald''s The Great Gatsby (1925). But ironically Hemingway soon displaced Fitzgerald as the major new author of the postwar generation. Fitzgerald had been feted as the author of the Jazz Age, and appealed to collegiate readers stateside. Hemingway became known as the author of the "Lost Generation" (though the phrase, made famous by Gertrude Stein, referred cynically to the same generation as Fitzgerald''s Jazz Age). Hemingway made a stronger impression among war veterans, and The Sun Also Rises became the most significant work of the growing genre of post-war novels about world-weary veterans. The book was amazingly influential: young women began talking like the flippant heroine, Brett Ashley, and young men started acting like Jake Barnes or Hemingway''s other male characters, muttering tough-sounding understatements and donning the repressive sackcloth of machismo. Hemingway''s portrayal of the wounded, taciturn hero resounded among men who might not ordinarily read "serious literature," and validated an archetype in popular culture which survived for several generations in icons such as John Wayne, Charles Bronson, and Clint Eastwood. Hemingway''s next novel, A Farewell to Arms (1929), returned to the theme of the wounded soldier, and the pastoral charms of escape and a "separate peace." It was a bestseller, as all of Hemingway''s subsequent books would be, and secured his reputation as a major author. Unfortunately, A Farewell to Arms marked the end of Hemingway''s rapid development and uncompromised artistic integrity. In 1932, he published Death in the Afternoon, a handbook on the art of bullfighting. Treating bullfighting as a tragic ritual, the book provides many insights into Hemingway''s views on death, performance, courage, and art--all important themes in his fiction. Although the book has interesting digressions on literature, it also has entire chapters devoted to specific bullfighting techniques or appraisals of long-dead bullfighters which make for very tedious reading. But the real subject of the book was not bullfighting; it was Hemingway. In Fame Became of Him, John Raeburn identifies nine personae that Hemingway projected in Death in the Afternoon and in later autobiographical works: world traveler, arbiter of taste, bon vivant, heroic artist, exposer of sham, initiated insider, battle-scarred stoic, sportsman, and manly man. Three of these--arbiter of taste, world traveler, and bon vivant--form a cluster of roles typical of the literary gentleman. Writers can often be counted on to offer tips on wine, dining, arts, and travel. In these roles Hemingway was similar to the effete, foppish dilettantes whom he usually detested, such as Ford Madox Ford or Henry James. To a lesser extent, the roles of heroic artist, exposer of sham, and initiated insider are also common among writers. The heroic artist who suffers for his muse was a familiar pose of the Romantics (particularly Byron), and the exposer of sham has a long pedigree in satirical writing. The battle-scarred stoic had become a common, though resonant, figure in post-war writing. The initiated insider was partly related to the veteran figure, but initiation into a select fraternity of like-minded fellows became quintessentially Hemingway. He pretended to follow a code of conduct which was all the more dignified for being unspoken, above defense, and inscrutable to outsiders. But the uniqueness and popularity of Hemingway''s public personality lay in joining these highbrow roles with those of sportsman and manly man. Readers knew of his interest in fishing, hunting, and bullfighting from his early fiction, where these sports were embraced as pastoral pleasures of escape for the physically or mentally wounded, solitary pastimes for taciturn men. But when described as Hemingway''s own hobbies in his non-fiction, they lost the therapeutic element--presumably because Hemingway was loath to admit any psychological wounds--and became games of competition, obligatory tasks of masculinity, demonstrations of "cojones," or balls. Indeed, Hemingway seemed to devote the rest of his life from the 1930s onward to proving his cojones, perhaps embarrassed by theories that Jake Barnes, the protagonist of The Sun Also Rises whose penis was shot off in the war, was an autobiographical character. In later works Hemingway seemed to dissociate himself from such vulnerable characters, and also alienated himself from writers--an unmanly lot--by quarreling with, defaming, and even threatening almost every major writer of his generation. He derided homosexuals in Death in the Afternoon, dismissing the artistry of Gertrude Stein, Oscar Wilde, Andre Gide, Walt Whitman, and Francisco Goya on the theory that they were inherently flawed and therefore disqualified as artists. Such masculine posturing proved enormously popular, and soon after Death in the Afternoon Hemingway began a series of essays for the newly founded men''s magazine, Esquire, which was marketed toward a sophisticated, though not intellectual, audience. He wrote 36 Esquire essays on topics such as fishing, hunting, and wine. He even wrote beer ads disguised as essays. Whereas Death in the Afternoon had a professed artistic impetus in Hemingway''s desire to view death in order to write "truly" about the experience, the Esquire articles lacked any artistic purpose and were pointedly non-literary. Hemingway was beginning to fashion a new character, whose name was Ernest Hemingway. He continued this farce in another book of non-fiction, Green Hills of Africa (1935). A personal account of Hemingway''s safari adventure, Green Hills of Africa reads more like a novel than Death in the Afternoon, sporting vivid descriptions of action and dialogue. But Hemingway''s style of writing "truly" faltered the more he wrote about himself: the book simply promoted the virile Hemingway legend without revealing anything intimate about the author. The Esquire experience and his swelling fame distorted his self-awareness and blurred his ability to distinguish fact and fiction. His self-aggrandizing grew more frequent as the burgeoning medium of photojournalism got bigger and flashier. Hemingway''s striking demeanor and handsome, husky appearance made him a favorite of glossy magazines such as Life and Look, which wedded big colorful photos to the trenchant aphorisms Hemingway was happy to provide. Another product of Hemingway''s African adventure was the short story, "The Snows of Kilimanjaro," which told of a writer who, dying of gangrene while hunting in Africa, realizes too late that he has squandered his talent. The protagonist laments "poor Scott Fitzgerald" as a writer ruined by his fascination with the rich. Hemingway thus deflected suspicion that the ruined writer of the story might represent himself by this slanderous jab at Fitzgerald. Whether or not he needed this decoy to write with his old frankness, he wrought a rich and complex story. However, most critics recognized that the declining writer was Hemingway himself, and soon it would be obvious to everyone. When Hemingway finally returned to novel writing in 1937 with To Have and Have Not he was a very different writer from the artistic innovator of the 1920s. Whereas his earlier fiction masterfully portrayed vulnerable characters through extremely subtle prose which seemed to mirror the repressed nature of the character himself, in To Have and Have Not repression triumphs over revelation. Masking his own vulnerabilities, Hemingway also masked those of his characters, stripping them of human interest. His latest protagonist, Harry Morgan, a tough-talking weapons smuggler in trouble with the mafia and the government, betrayed no weakness and awoke no pathos. After losing his arm in an accident, he stoically responds, "[If] you lose an arm, you lose an arm." The novel was barely distinguishable from pulp fiction. Hemingway''s half-hearted attempts at political significance made the work more embarrassing than redeeming. During the Depression, critics of the New Left favored novels of social relevance, like those of John Steinbeck or Sinclair Lewis. Many writers of the 1920s, such as Fitzgerald and Thornton Wilder, had fallen out of critical favor for their indifference to politics. Hemingway, who seemed to appeal to the common man because of his simple prose and simple pleasures, was urged by some critics to write more socially relevant stories. He capitulated with To Have and Have Not, and found favor with the more naive members of the Left, but most critics recognized the novel as politically simplistic. Although the novel was a bestseller, and Hemingway was more popular than ever, his critical reputation sunk to its lowest. Whereas William Faulkner had spent the 1930s producing one masterpiece after another in the most astonishing series of achievements in American literature since Henry James, Hemingway had churned out a preponderance of facile nonfiction, mostly in slick popular magazines. Always jealously competitive, Hemingway responded to the challenge of Faulkner''s achievement and set out to regain the championship he had held in the 1920s. The result was For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), his longest and most ambitious work. The novel seems to have been intended as his masterpiece, embracing a wider range of themes than any of his previous novels. However, Hemingway''s carefully crafted style was ill-suited for such a broad canvas, and the novel''s sheer bulk diluted the potency of his prose. The novel was almost as politically simplistic as To Have and Have Not. Although Hemingway strove to weave grand themes of nature, technology, and the unity of mankind, his truer, deeper preoccupations were still with the solitary man proving his mettle and facing death alone. The hero, Robert Jordan, was cut from the same cloth as earlier Hemingway heroes, solitary, glum, absinthe-drinking men. Robert Jordan was a professor of Spanish, but the intellectual side of the character was sketchy, unconvincing, and incongruent with his more familiar Hemingwayesque traits. The intended effect of the novel was unachieved. Hemingway failed to unify his themes and symbols, all the more ironic since the unity of mankind was the overarching theme. Nevertheless, the novel was extraordinarily successful, selling 360,000 copies and generating a movie. Hemingway continued to make money by writing for Collier''s magazine as a war correspondent in Europe during World War II. The 1940s were highly profitable for Hemingway, and brought him fame as a war hero (although the extent of his military participation is disputed). He did not return to novel writing until 1950. At the pinnacle of fame and arrogance, Hemingway consented to an interview with Lilian Ross, in which he boasted about his forthcoming work and his enduring position as "champ" in American fiction. This memorable character sketch, entitled "How Do You Like It, Now, Gentlemen?" was very different from the usual adulating articles honoring Hemingway as a champion sportsman and manly man. Although affectionate, the sketch revealed Hemingway''s eccentricities and egotism. He called himself Papa, posing as the wise, grizzled old man of American letters. He claimed that he had once lived with a bear in Montana, where they drank and slept together. But what proved to be most embarrassing to Hemingway was his boast that his forthcoming novel would be his best ever. When Across the River and into the Trees appeared four months later, it was almost unanimously regarded as the worst novel of his career. It was an abysmal work, so poorly written that it seemed a parody of his own style, riddled with his pet words "good," "true," "well," and so on. Though not without redeeming qualities, it is best enjoyed as a parody of the famous Hemingway style from the master''s own pen. The contrast between Hemingway''s published boastfulness and the critics'' sudden disfavor became even more painful when Faulkner won the Nobel Prize that same year. Five years earlier Faulkner had been a well-kept secret, and Hemingway (in his role as initiated insider and arbiter of taste) had been able to confide to Jean-Paul Sartre and others that Faulkner was a better writer than himself. Once Faulkner won the Nobel Prize, and myriad belated accolades tumbled his way, Hemingway could no longer regard himself as the champ of American letters, as he had boasted in the Ross interview, and he turned on Faulkner, declaring that no one ever wrote a decent novel after winning the Nobel Prize. Meanwhile, Hemingway labored over a long autobiographical novel, Islands in the Stream. The novel was disjointed, tedious, and uninspired. Aging, alcoholic, and unhealthy, Hemingway seemed to be losing his talent. However, he salvaged the last part of the novel and published it as an independent work in Life in 1952 as The Old Man and the Sea. A painfully poignant tale of an aged fisherman who catches the biggest marlin of his life and loses it to sharks, the story was told in a beautifully simple, chaste style that surpassed anything Hemingway had written since the 1920s. Struggling with artistic and physical decline, Hemingway had made one final effort to write truly, and succeeded by reaching inside himself to wrench out the painful theme of failure. "Man was not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated." The Life issue sold five million copies, and the story was instantly hailed as a masterpiece. In 1954, Hemingway won the Nobel Prize, largely on the achievement of The Old Man and the Sea. Throughout the 1950s Hemingway worked on a novel, The Garden of Eden, but remained unhappy with it and withheld publication. He also discovered a cache of memoirs he had begun in the 1920s, and proceeded to revise and expand them into a book called A Moveable Feast. The rediscovered writings reminded Hemingway of his youth, when he was establishing his reputation as a bold new artist of uncompromised integrity, and made it painfully clear that the aging writer had squandered his talent for the gratifications of fame. Although he had accused Fitzgerald and Faulkner of ruining their talent on stories for the Saturday Evening Post and movies for Hollywood, Hemingway had compromised his talent even more grotesquely by creating an absurd fabrication of himself. His public persona was his own worst character and had infected most of the characters he had created since the 1920s. Realizing that he could no longer write, nor maintain his own egotistical standards, Hemingway shot himself on July 2, 1961. The adulation continued years after his death, and posthumous novels, stories, and nonfiction continued to appear well into the 1990s. But biographies also appeared, and emerging evidence gradually revealed Hemingway to be a despicable man motivated by egotism, jealousy, and a sexual insecurity that led him to ridicule others and prove his own manhood ad absurdum. Such macho posturing already seemed out of place in the 1960s, and utterly ridiculous by the 1990s, though academic interest in Hemingway continued to thrive under deconstructive and feminist approaches to literature. By the turn of the century it seemed unlikely that Hemingway would ever regain the swollen stature of his middle period. However, his influence over American literature is immense and ubiquitous. As one of the major prose stylists of the English language, he has bred more imitators than any other American writer. But few authors were able to attain the suggestive power and subtlety of Hemingway''s finest work. Faulkner captured it in his stark, brittle potboiler, Sanctuary, and Fitzgerald employed a certain Hemingwayesque subtlety amid the softly echoing motifs of Tender Is the Night. But more often one found mere verbal imitation by inferior authors such as Erskine Caldwell, who simply borrowed the outward trappings of conscientious monosyllables and tough dialogue for their otherwise conventional narrative and perfunctory symbolism. Hemingway''s best fiction set a standard that few could attain, not even the later Hemingway.

From the description of Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). naId: 10679516

Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961) was an American journalist, novelist, and short story writer.

After work as a journalist in the United States and service as an ambulance driver in Italy, Hemingway settled in Paris in the 1920s, where he became associated with a group of expatriate American writers including Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein. He attracted attention as a fiction writer with the publication of two volumes of short stories, In Our Time (1925) and The Torrents of Spring (1926). By the late 1930s, his reputation was well established by the success of his novels The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A Farewell to Arms (1929), and his non-fiction works Death in the Afternoon (1932) and Green Hills of Africa (1935). He returned to Spain in 1937 as a reporter and became deeply involved in the pro-loyalist cause. During the next few years a new concern with social problems was reflected in his work, which included the Depression-era novel To Have and Have Not (1937); a play, The Fifth Column (1938); and the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). Hemingway's productivity declined during the 1940s, but his career revived dramatically in the 1950s with the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954.

From the guide to the Ernest Hemingway manuscripts, circa 1930s, (University of Delaware Library - Special Collections)

Mary Welsh Hemingway (1908-1986) was a journalist and wife of Ernest Hemingway.

Mary Welsh Hemingway was born in 1908 in Minnesota. She was a journalist and the fourth wife of Ernest Hemingway. She met Ernest Hemingway in 1944 when she was working for the London Daily Express. Previously she worked for The Chicago Daily News and also worked for TIME magazine. She and Ernest Hemingway were married in 1946 in Cuba. They lived in Cuba and Ketchum, Idaho. After Hemingway's 1961 suicide, she served as his literary executor and was responsible for the publication of his posthumous works like A Moveable Feast. She moved to New York City following Hemingway's death. In 1976 her autobiography How it Was was published. She died in New York in 1986 and was buried by Hemingway in Ketchum, Idaho.

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was an American author and Nobel Prize winner.

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born July 21, 1899 in Cicero (now Oak Park), Illinois, the son of Clarence Edmond Hemingway and Grace Hall Hemingway. He went to work on the Kansas City Star following high school graduation. In 1918 he went to Italy to drive an ambulance for the Italian army. His experiences in Italy eventually became Farewell to Arms. He returned home and went to work for the Toronto Star. He met Hadley Richardson in Chicago and they married in 1921. The couple moved to Paris where their son, John, was born in 1923.

Hemingway became a member of what Gertrude Stein termed "The Lost Generation". During this time he wrote The Sun Also Rises. He had an affair with Pauline Pfeiffer and divorced Hadley to marry Pauline in 1927. They had two sons, Patrick and Gregory.

During the 1930s, Hemingway was involved with big game hunting in Africa, bullfighting in Spain and deep sea fishing in Key West. He served as a war correspondent during the Spanish Civil War where he met Martha Gellhorn, who became his third wife in 1940. His literary work For Whom the Bell Tolls contains material gleaned from this time period.

Hemingway became a World War II correspondent and met Mary Welsh, who he married in 1940. In 1951 he wrote "Old Mad and the Sea, which won a Pulitzer Prize. He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. Hemingway committed suicide on July 2, 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho and is buried there.

From the guide to the Mary Welsh and Ernest Hemingway manuscript, approximately 1950-1960, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)

American novelist Ernest Hemingway won the 1953 Pulitzer Prize for The Old Man and the Sea and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. Hemingway is known for his short and succinct prose, influenced in part by his stint as a reporter at the Kansas City Star at eighteen before being wounded during the World War One as an ambulance driver on the Italian front. Following the war, he was part of the "Lost Generation" along with authors like F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, and Sherwood Anderson.

George Brown was a close friend of Hemingway, enough so that he was one of the witnesses for Hemingway's will in 1955. Hemingway committed suicide in 1961.

From the guide to the Ernest Hemingway Ephemera (MS 380), January 1944 - January 1948, (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.)

Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961), was a novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the second child of Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, a doctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway. He attended the local public school and began to write in high school, submitting stories to the school newspaper, Tabula . His summers were spent with his family hunting, fishing, and camping in the woods around Walloon Lake in northern Michigan. On graduation from high school in 1917 and impatient for more excitement, he did not enter college as reported in the school yearbook, Senior Tabula, but went to Kansas City, where he was employed as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star . He was rejected for military service because of poor vision, but he still managed to enter World War I as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. On July 8, 1918, just shy of turning nineteen years old, he was injured by an explosion on the Austro-Italian front at Fossalta di Piave. While recovering at a hospital in Milan, he fell in love with a Red Cross nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky, whom he asked to marry him. She declined the offer. These were experiences he was never to forget.

Hemingway returned home to recuperate and continue writing. For a while he worked at odd jobs in Chicago including as staff writer of the Toronto Star . On September 3, 1921, Hemingway married Hadley Richardson and soon afterwards they moved to France where Hemingway worked as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star . Splitting their time between Paris and Toronto, it was in the latter city that the first of his three sons, John, was born on October 10, 1923. While in Paris he met other American writers, in particular F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, and Ezra Pound, who all encouraged his writing. He began to see his non-journalistic work appear in print there, and in 1924 his first book, In Our Time, a collection of stories, was published in Paris and subsequently released in New York City in 1925. 1926 saw the publication of The Sun Also Rises, a novel about a group of expatriates in France and Spain, members of the postwar "Lost Generation." Hemingway and Hadley Richardson divorced in 1927, and he soon married Pauline Pfeiffer, a devout Roman Catholic from Piggott, Arkansas. Pfeiffer was an occasional fashion reporter, publishing in magazines such as Vanity Fair and Vogue . It was at this time that Hemingway converted to Catholicism.

The writing of books occupied Hemingway for most of the postwar years, but he traveled widely for the skiing, bullfighting, fishing, and hunting that by then had become part of his life and formed the background for much of his writing. He demonstrated his mastery of short fiction with Men without Women, published in 1927, and further enhanced it with the stories in Winner Take Nothing in 1933. In 1928, Pauline gave birth to Hemingway's second son Patrick, and they moved to Key West, Florida, to begin their life together. However, shortly afterward, their life was disturbed by the suicide of Hemingway's father, Clarence.

The novel A Farewell to Arms was published in 1929. Recalling Hemingway's experiences as a young soldier in Italy, the novel combines a love story with a war story. Hemingway's third son Gregory was born in 1931. That same year the Hemingways purchased a home in Key West, where he wrote the majority of his later novels.

Hemingway's love of Spain and his passion for bullfighting produced Death in the Afternoon in 1932. The Green Hills of Africa, written in 1935, resulted from a safari he took in the fall of 1933 to the big-game regions of Kenya and Tanzania. In 1937, he published a minor novel, To Have and Have Not, about a Caribbean desperado, set in Key West during the Great Depression.

In 1937, Hemingway made four trips to Spain, once more as a correspondent for the North American Newspaper Alliance, to report on the civil war. He raised money for the Republicans in their struggle against the Nationalists under General Francisco Franco, and he wrote a play called The Fifth Column (1938), which is set in a besieged Madrid. Hemingway divorced Pauline in 1940. A few weeks after the divorce, he married Collier's war correspondent Martha Gellhorn. That same year he published the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls, which tells the story of an American volunteer fighting for the Republicans in Spain. After the completion of the novel, he and Martha travelled to cover another war, the Japanese invasion of China.

All of his life, Hemingway was fascinated by war, and, as World War II progressed, he made his way to London as a journalist. He flew several missions with the Royal Air Force and crossed the English Channel with American troops on D-Day (June 6, 1944). Attaching himself to the 22nd Regiment of the 4th Infantry Division, he saw a good deal of action in Normandy and in the Battle of the Bulge. He also participated in the liberation of Paris although he was ostensibly a journalist. Following the war in Europe and newly divorced from Gellhorn, Hemingway married Mary Welsh, who had covered World War II with distinction for Time and Life . The couple settled at Finca Vigía ("Lookout Farm"), Hemingway's estate outside Havana, Cuba, and Hemingway began writing seriously again. Across the River and into the Trees, released in 1950, was not a critical success, but Hemingway was soon to receive the Pulitzer Prize in fiction in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea, a short novel about an old Cuban fisherman, published in 1952. This book played a role in gaining Hemingway the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.

He continued to travel widely, and, on a trip to Africa in 1954, he was so badly injured in two successive plane crashes that some American newspapers mistakenly published his obituary, believing he had been killed. By 1960, Fidel Castro's revolution had driven most Americans from Cuba. Hemingway, who remained cordial with Castro, moved to Ketchum, Idaho, intending to return to Cuba and continue to work as before. While in Idaho he worked on both The Dangerous Summer and A Moveable Feast . Poor health and depression resulted in two hospitalizations at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where he received electroshock treatments. These treatments proved ineffective, and after his return to the house in Ketchum in the summer of 1961, he died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.

Hemingway left behind a substantial number of manuscripts, many of which were retrieved by Mary Hemingway from their home in Cuba. Some of these have been published posthumously. A Moveable Feast was issued in 1964. Islands in the Stream, three closely related novellas, appeared in 1970.

From the guide to the Ernest Hemingway Collection, 1916-1977, 1930-1965, (Literature and Rare Books)


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