Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906

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U.S. Secretary of War.

From the description of Letter signed : Washington, D.C., 1869 Jan. 26. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270635150

U.S. secretary of war and army officer.

From the description of Papers of John McAllister Schofield, 1837-1906 (bulk 1862-1895). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 74984707

American army officer.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : West Point, New York, to David A. Wells, [no year] May 27. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270634525

From the description of Autograph letter signed : San Francisco, to W.W. Belknap, 1871 May 1. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270634300

Schofield, a West Point graduate, was a major general during the Civil War and remained in the army for his entire career.

From the description of Letter, July 1, 1905. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 434841901

John M. Schofield, born in Gerry, New York, attended West Point, 1849-1853, and taught there briefly; commanded a department and army in the field in the Atlanta Campaign during the Civil War, also at the Battle of Franklin, Tenn.; Secretary of War, 1868-1869, commander of the Army of the U.S., 1888-1895; wrote Forty Six Years in the Army published in 1897.

From the description of Letter to S.S. McClure, 1890 November 5. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 57240223

American army officer; U.S. secretary of war.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : "Hd. Qrs. Army of the Ohio," to Brig. Gen. Cox, [1864] July 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270633781

American army officer; U.S. Secretary of War.

From the description of Document signed : War Department, 1868 Nov. 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270635012

Major General (MG) John M. Schofield was stationed at Headquarters, Division of the Missiouri, in 1886, and at Headquarters, Army of the United States, Washington, D.C., in 1889.

From the description of John M. Schofield papers, 1886,1889. (US Army, Mil Hist Institute). WorldCat record id: 61241711

Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867) was an important scientific reformer during the early nineteenth century. From his position as superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, and through leadership roles in the scientific institutions of the time, Bache helped bring American science into alignment with the professional nature of its European counterpart. In addition, Bache fostered the reform of public education in America.

On July 19, 1806 Alexander Dallas Bache was born into one of Philadelphia's elite families. The son of Richard Bache and Sophia Dallas, he was Benjamin Franklin's great-grandson, nephew to George Dallas (vice president under James K. Polk), and grandson to Alexander James Dallas (secretary of the treasury under James Madison). In 1821, Bache was admitted to the United States Military Academy at the age of 15, graduating first in his class four years later. He remained at the Academy for an additional two years to teach mathematics and natural history. While serving as a lieutenant in the Army Corps of Engineers, working on the construction of Fort Adams in Newport, R.I., he met Nancy Clarke Fowler whom he would later marry.

Bache left the Army in 1828 to begin an academic career, accepting an appointment as professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. Although his scientific interests were broad, he had a particular interest in geophyscial research. While in Philadelphia, he constructed a magnetic observatory, and made extensive research into terrestrial magnetism, and during the 1830s he began to be recognized as a leading figure in the city's scientific community. Bache was an active member of the American Philosphical Society and the Franklin Institute, seeking to raise the professional standards of both institutions and urging them to place a stronger emphasis on original research. While at the Franklin Institute from 1830-1835, Bache led a Federally-funded investigation into steam-boiler explosions, the government's first use of technical experts to examine a matter involving public policy.

In 1836 Bache became interested in educational reform when he was asked to help organize the curriculum at Girard College, of which he later served as president. Bache spent two years in Europe visiting over 250 educational institutions. The result of his visit was a 600 page study, Report on Education in Europe, to the Trustees of the Girard College for Orphans published in 1839. Although Bache was unable to apply the report at Girard College because of its delayed opening, it proved useful in overhauling the curriculum of Philadelphia's Central High School, where he was superintendent from 1839-1842, and was widely influential among American educational reformers, helping to introduce the Prussian educational model to the United States.

After meeting many of the leading savants during a European tour, including Alexander von Humboldt, Francois Arago, and Karl Friedrich Gauss, Bache became convinced of the need to professionalize American science. His opportunity to make an impact came in 1843 with the death of Ferdinand Hassler, superindendent of the U.S. Coast Survey. In the years before the Civil War, the Coast Survey supported more scientists then any other institution in the country, and Bache and his colleagues saw the Survey as a means of gaining federal patronage for science. After a campaign by his friends and colleagues, Bache was named as Hassler's replacement. Over the next two decades Bache transformed the Coast Survey into one of the nation's leading scientific institutions, becoming an important patron of science himself in the process . Bache was not just an administrator, but remained personally involved in field work.

Bache also led the reform of American science through his leadership of an elite group known as the "Lazzaroni" or scientific beggars. The goal of the Lazzaroni was to ensure that the nation's leading scientists kept control of the nation's scientific institutions, and they were instrumental in reforming the American Association for the Advancement of Science (of which Bache was president of in 1850). In his remarkably busy schedule, Bache was a member of the Lighthouse Board (1844-1845), superintendent of the Office of Weights and Measures (1844), and a prominent regent for the Smithsonian Institution, where he convinced fellow Lazzaroni Joseph Henry to become its first secretary. Bache also played a leading role in the creation of the National Academy of Sciences, serving as its first president. When the Americn Civil War broke out, Bache focused the Coast Survey to support the war effort, was vice president of the Sanitary Commision, a consultant to the army and navy on battle plans, a superintended for Philadelphia's defence plans, and a member of the Permanent Commission of the navy in charge of evaluating new weapons. Bache died in Newport, R.I. on February 17, 1867.

From the guide to the A. D. Bache Collection, 1833-1873, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Papers of John McAllister Schofield, 1837-1906 (bulk 1862-1895). Library of Congress
creatorOf Townsend, E. D. (Edward Davis), 1817-1893. Papers. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Elliott, James. James Elliott photograph collection. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph letter signed : "Hd. Qrs. Army of the Ohio," to Brig. Gen. Cox, [1864] July 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Hodges, Henry Clay, 1860-1963. Reminiscences, 1877-1886. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Getty, George W. Gibson-Getty-McClure families papers, 1777-1926 (bulk 1880-1901). Library of Congress
creatorOf Opdycke, Emerson, 1830-1884. Papers 1861-1913. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Andrew Johnson Papers, 1783-1947, (bulk 1865-1869) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Ayres, Romeyn Beck. Letters, 1864-1912. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Barriger, John W. (John Walker), 1832-1906. The John W. Barriger papers, 1864-1867. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
creatorOf Bigelow, John, 1817-1911. Letters, 1880-1906. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Augustus Mendon Lord collection, Lord (Augustus Mendon) collection, (bulk 1876-1908), 1778-1908 John Hay Library, Special Collections
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. ALS, 1865 Jan. 25, City Point, Va., to Henry W. Halleck, Washington, D.C. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Sweet, M. P., Mrs., fl. 1856-1859. Letters. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Gibson-Getty-McClure Families Papers, 1777-1926, (bulk 1880-1901) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Carrington Family papers, 1749-1929 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter, 1868. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : New York, to [Drennon?], n.p., 1897 Apr. 29. Texas Christian University
referencedIn O'Beirne, James R. Letter : New York, N.Y., to John M. Schofield, 1898 Apr. 19. Texas Christian University
referencedIn McCook, Alexander McDowell, 1831-1903. Letter : New York, to Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 1898 Apr. 25. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Comstock, C. B. (Cyrus Ballou), 1831-1910. C.B. Comstock papers, 1847-1908 (bulk 1862-1890). Library of Congress
creatorOf Smith, Francis H. (Francis Henney), 1812-1890. Letter, 1878 April 26, Lexington, Virginia [to] John M. Schofield. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Civil War generals clipping files. ca. 1880-1920 (bulk). Porterville Public Library
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. ALS, 1865 Jan. 23, City Point, Va., to Henry W. Halleck, Washington, D.C. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn Dupree, William B. Papers, 1895. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Papers, 1821-1919 (inclusive), 1892-1898 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Terry family papers, 1795-1939 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Document signed : War Department, 1868 Nov. 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph notes signed and autograph signatures, [1862-1895?]. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. John M. Schofield papers, 1886,1889. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : Washington, D.C., to Emily Heintzelman, Washington, D.C., 1894 June 22. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to the Secretary of War [Edwin M. Stanton], 1863 Dec. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn United States. President (1865-1869 : Johnson). Commission appointing J. Burnham Kinsman major general, 1868 July 24. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Gilmer, John H. (John Harmer), b. 1812. John Gilmer letters [manuscript], 1861, 1867. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Philip Case Lockwood memorial collection of Civil War portraits and autographs, 1862-ca. 1886. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Halleck, H. W. (Henry Wager), 1815-1872. H.W. Halleck papers, 1843-1896 (bulk 1862). Library of Congress
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : Richmond, Va., to Ulysses S. Grant, Washington, D.C., 1868 Jan 30. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : St. Louis, to John C. Kelton, Washington, D.C., 1862 Sept. 4. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph letter signed : Freeport, Ill., to Lorenzo Thomas, [New York?], 1853 July 23. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Luce, Stephen Bleecker, 1827-1917. Certificate, February 28, 1901. Naval War College, Henry E. Eccles Library
creatorOf Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Papers. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Porter, Fitz-John, 1822-1901. Papers, 1870-1883. Gadsden Public Library
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn C. B. Comstock Papers, 1847-1908, (bulk 1862-1890) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter signed : Washington, D.C., 1869 Jan. 26. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Shafter, William Rufus, 1835-1906. William Rufus Shafter papers, 1862-1945 (inclusive), 1862-1904 (bulk). [microform]. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter to S.S. McClure, 1890 November 5. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Mitchel, John, 1815-1875. John Mitchel letter to Eugene L. Didier [manuscript], 1867 August 29. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Papers, 1843-1969 (bulk 1843-1908) Library of Congress
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter, 1876 September 18, West Point, N.Y. [to] President U.S. Grant. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Schofield crossing the Chattahooche [sic]. Library of Congress
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter, July 1, 1905. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn [Schofield crossing the Chattahoochee, July 1864]. Library of Congress
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph letter signed : Freeport, Ill., to Lorenzo Thomas, [New York?], 1853 July 23. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Shafter, William Rufus, 1835-1906. William Rufus Shafter papers, 1862-1945, (bulk 1862-1904). Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph letter signed : West Point, New York, to David A. Wells, [no year] May 27. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn John A. Dix Collection, 1831-1879 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Library
referencedIn Vaughn, R. C. Letter : St. Louis, Mo., to Edward Bates, n.p., 1863 Aug. 28. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Harwood family. Harwood family papers, 1722-1962. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : Washington, D.C., to Emily Heintzelman, Washington, D.C., 1894 June 22. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Hay, John, 1838-1905. Correspondence, 1854-1914, "Sayer" to "Sill." Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part I: The Revolution and the Administration, 1669-1958. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Ulysses S. Grant papers, 1819-1974 (bulk 1843-1908). Library of Congress
referencedIn United States. President (1865-1869 : Johnson). Commission appointing J. Burnham Kinsman brigadier general, 1868 June 13. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Moore, William G. (William George), 1829-1898. Letter : Washington, D.C., to John M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 1868 Nov. 12. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Grierson, Benjamin Henry, 1826-1911. Papers, 1827-1941. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn William T. Sherman Papers, 1759-1897, (bulk 1848-1891) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Terry family. Terry family papers, 1795-1939 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : New York, to [Drennon?], n.p., 1897 Apr. 29. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Steele, Frederick, 1819-1868. General Frederick Steele papers, 1845-1965 (inclusive), 1862-1868 (bulk). Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Johnson, Andrew, 1808-1875. Andrew Johnson papers, 1783-1947 (bulk 1865-1869). Library of Congress
creatorOf Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. Papers 1832-1948. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Note. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867. Papers, 1835-1864. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Moore, William G. (William George), 1829-1898. Letter : Washington, D.C., to John M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 1868 Nov. 12. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : St. Louis, to John C. Kelton, Washington, D.C., 1862 Sept. 4. Texas Christian University
referencedIn McCook, Alexander McDowell, 1831-1903. Letter : New York, N.Y., to Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 1898 Apr. 25. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Herron, Francis Jay, 1837-1902. Francis Jay Herron papers, 1861-1877 (bulk 1862-1865). New-York Historical Society
referencedIn H. W. Halleck Papers, 1843-1896, (bulk 1862) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf A. D. Bache Collection, 1833-1873 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. ALS, 1865 Feb. 25, City Point, Va., to John M. Schofield, Fort Monroe, Va. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Chamberlain, Sylvester. Letters received, 1885-1898. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph letter signed : San Francisco, to W.W. Belknap, 1871 May 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn United States. President (1865-1869 : Johnson). Appointment of J. Burnham Kinsman as brigadier general, 1868 June 13. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Photographic Portrait File The Huntington Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Letter : Richmond, Va., to Ulysses S. Grant, Washington, D.C., 1868 Jan 30. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Thomas, George Henry, 1816-1870. Autograph telegram signed : Nashville, to General Schofield in Franklin, 1864 Nov. 30. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn O'Beirne, James R. Letter : New York, to John M. Schofield, 1898 Apr. 19. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn United States. President (1865-1869 : Johnson). Appointment of J. Burnham Kinsman as major general, 1868 July 24. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Ulysses S. Grant papers, 1863-1866. Navarro College
creatorOf Davis, Nelson Henry, ca.1820-1890. Papers, 1874-1879. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Ulysses S. Grant Papers, 1819-1969, (bulk 1843-1885) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn General Frederick Steele Papers, 1845-1965 (inclusive), 1862-1868 (bulk) Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
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correspondedWith Comstock, C. B. (Cyrus Ballou), 1831-1910. person
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correspondedWith McClure family family
associatedWith McClure, S. S. (Samuel Sidney), 1857-1949, person
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associatedWith Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889 person
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associatedWith Paine, R. T. person
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associatedWith Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. person
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associatedWith Sweet, M. P., Mrs., fl. 1856-1859. person
associatedWith Terry, Alfred Howe, 1827-1890. person
associatedWith Terry family family
associatedWith Terry family. family
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associatedWith Thomas, Lorenzo, 1804-1875. person
associatedWith Tilghman, Tench, 1810-1874 person
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associatedWith Townsend, E. D. (Edward Davis), 1817-1893. person
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associatedWith Wingate, Charles E. L. (Charles Edgar Lewis), b. 1861 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Illinois--Chicago
Virginia
Missouri
United States
West (U.S.)
Mexico
United States
United States
France
United States
Missouri
Subject
Autographs
Wilson's Creek, Battle of, Mo., 1861
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Cooper Union
United States Coast Survey
Early National Politics
Nashville, Battle of, Nashville, Tenn., 1864
Atlanta Campaign, 1864
Science and technology
Military discharge--History--19th century
Lighthouse
Antebellum Politics
Natural history
Girard College
Education
National Academy of Sciences
Manuscripts, American
Geological Survey of the State of New Jersey
Geology
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Indians of North America--Government relations
Franklin, Battle of, Franklin, Tenn., 1864
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Birth 1831-09-29

Death 1906-03-04

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