Belknap, William Worth, 1829-1890

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William Worth Belknap was born in Newburgh, New York on September 22, 1829, the son of career soldier William G. Belknap and Anne (Clark) Belknap. Belknap's father had fought with distinction in the War of 1812, Florida War, and Mexican–American War. Belknap attended the local schools in Newburgh, and graduated from Princeton University in 1848. In addition to attending Princeton with Hiester Clymer, the Democratic Congressman who later led the investigation into Belknap's War Department corruption, Belknap was a college contemporary of Grant's Secretary of Navy George M. Robeson, who was one year behind Clymer and Belknap at Princeton. After graduation, he studied law with Georgetown attorney Hugh E. Caperton. After passing an examination by Judge William Cranch in 1851, Belknap was admitted to the Washington, D.C. bar, and began looking for a place to settle and begin his career.

He moved west to Keokuk, Iowa, and entered into a partnership with Ralph P. Lowe. Deciding to make Iowa his permanent residence, in 1854, Belknap had a home built in Keokuk. He joined the Democratic Party and successfully ran for state office in 1856, serving one term in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1857 to 1858. Belknap also joined a local militia company, the City Rifles, and he attained the rank of captain.

In 1854 Belknap married Cora LeRoy, who died in 1862. They had one child together, Hugh R. Belknap, who served as a U.S. Representative from Illinois. Belknap married Carita S. Tomlinson of Kentucky in January 1869; she died of tuberculosis shortly after childbirth in December 1870.

Belknap married again on December 11, 1873, to Amanda (Tomlinson) Bower, his second wife's widowed sister. They had a daughter together, Alice Belknap, born November 28, 1874. Alice Belknap was considered one of Washington society's most sought after belles. In 1897 she reportedly converted to Judaism for her engagement to Paul May, an attaché of the Belgian legation in Washington. The engagement was broken the following year, and in June 1898 Alice Belknap married William Barklie Henry of Philadelphia.

When the American Civil War started, Belknap remained loyal to the Union as a pro-war Democrat. He joined the Union Army in the Autumn of 1861, was commissioned as a major, and on December 7 was tasked with raising and equipping the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry. A rugged, charismatic and handsome man, Belknap was well-suited to the rigors of being a soldier. At over six feet tall and 200 pounds, with blue eyes, and fair hair, mustache and beard, Belknap was a natural leader described as "a fine type of Saxon-American manhood". In addition, the public speaking skills and powers of persuasion he had developed as a lawyer made him an effective recruiter. His natural leadership skills and militia experience were also assets in the training of newly enlisted privates.

In March 1862, Maj. Belknap and the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry were mustered into military action. Traveling by steamer from St. Louis, Belknap was sent to the front at the Battle of Shiloh; arriving at Pittsburgh Landing on April 6 joining the Army of the Tennessee, under authority of Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Belknap and his men were ordered to the front to serve under Maj. Gen Benjamin M. Prentiss at the Hornet's Nest. Belknap and his raw 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry troops were forced to fight like regular army veterans on Prentiss's depleted line. Belknap fought bravely, was slightly wounded, and his horse was shot and killed from under him. After Shiloh, Belknap served as acting commander of the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry at the Battle of Corinth. Col. Hugh T. Reid, commander of the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, had been severely injured in the neck at Shiloh and removed from active duty. Col. Reid stated that at Shiloh Belknap, "was always in the right place at the right time, directing and encouraging officers and men as coolly as a veteran" At Corinth, Belknap was noted for his "conspicuous gallantry". After Corinth, Belknap and the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry for a time served on guard duty. Belknap was formally promoted from Major to Lieutenant Colonel on August 20, 1862. Belknap was promoted from Lieutenant Colonel to Colonel of the Iowa 15th Volunteer Infantry on June 3, 1863. Belknap's primary military operation took place at the Siege of Vicksburg until July 4, 1863. On December 24, 1863 Belknap was in command of the 11th Iowa Volunteer Infantry and the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry reinforcing Redbone, Mississippi, south of Vicksburg. On February 26, 1864 Belknap served as Provost Marshall of Post in Canton, Mississippi.

On June 8, 1864 Col. Belknap and the veteran 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry were transferred to the 4th Division, XVII Corps at Ackworth, Georgia. On July 22, 1864 at the Battle of Atlanta, Belknap served with distinction, fighting against the 45th Alabama Infantry. Belknap and his Iowa troops dug in and set up earthworks and a parapet around Bald Hill. The 45th Alabama infantry led by Confederate Col. Harris D. Lampley, assaulted the entrenched Union line two times but were repelled by massive Union gun power. On the second attempt, Lampley and his remaining men crossed over to the Union line for hand-to-hand combat. Lampley, who had been shot, cursed his men who had fallen or were retreating. In the midst of the fierce fighting the burly Belknap grabbed the wounded Lampley by the collar, spun him around to face the Confederate lines, and shouted, "Look at your men! They are dead! What are you cursing them for!?" Belknap took the wounded Lampley prisoner; he was held until his death on August 24.

"The next day [July 23, 1864] I remember seeing Colonel Wm. W. Belknap of the 15th Iowa (afterward Brigadier-General and Secretary of War). He was a brawny, red-bearded giant in appearance, and it was told of him that he had captured a number of prisoners by pulling them over the breastworks by main force, so closely were the lines engaged."

On July 28, 1864 Belknap was in charge of the 15th Iowa Volunteer Infantry and the 32nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which reinforced Maj. Gen. Morgan Lewis Smith's XV Corps. On July 30, Belknap was promoted to brigadier general as commander of the 4th Division, XVII Corps, and participated in Major Gen. Sherman's operations in Georgia and the Carolinas. After Atlanta was taken by the Union Army, Belknap accompanied Maj. Gen. Sherman on his March to the Sea. Belknap was promoted to Brevet Major General on March 13, 1865 as a reward for his bravery in the Atlanta Campaign. Having declined a regular Army commission, on August 24, 1865, Belknap was mustered out of the U.S. Army.

In 1865, after the American Civil War had ended, President Andrew Johnson appointed Belknap, now retired from military service, to the post of Iowa Collector of Internal Revenue. In that position, Belknap was responsible for collecting millions of dollars in federal taxes; collectors were paid a percentage of the revenue they brought in, which made the position lucrative and highly sought after. Belknap served in that position for four years, until he was appointed Secretary of War by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1869. During his term as Collector, Belknap associated himself with the Republican Party in the period of Reconstruction.

On the advice of General of the Army William T. Sherman, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Belknap to Secretary of War on October 25, 1869, to take the place of Secretary John A. Rawlins who had died in office of tuberculosis. Sherman himself, had served briefly as acting Secretary of War, after Rawlins death. Belknap was seen as a protégé of Sherman's, having fought in the Atlanta Campaign and accompanied him on Sherman's March to the Sea. President Grant believed Belknap had served capably during the American Civil War and deserved to head the War Department. After his appointment, Belknap implemented or recommended several positive initiatives. He recommended that Congress act to fix the date of May 1 as the start of the fiscal year, allowing for more accurate accounting of department funds. He inaugurated the preparation of historical reports by post commanders as a way to document their activities for posterity, and proposed actions to preserve Yellowstone National Park. Not all of Belknap's actions were well received, however. He bypassed Sherman when making appointments, and reduced Sherman's budget, thus weakening the authority of the General of the Army position.

In 1874, Sherman responded by leaving Washington and moving his headquarters to St. Louis. Major General Oliver O. Howard was also ostracized by Belknap. While stationed in Oregon, in 1874, Major General Howard candidly expressed his opinion of Belknap. Howard stated that Belknap was deceptive to "General Grant", that Belknap was not a true Republican, and that he associated nightly with "foul-mouthed" Democratic Kentucky associates. Howard also opined that Belknap was "not in favor" of the President's Indian Peace policy. That statement is likely related to a conflict, during Belknap's tenure, between the War and Interior Departments as to which would exercise control over American Indian policy. In the context of this era, Belknap's actions may not be seen as overtly aggressive or overreaching. In terms of Reconstruction, historian Jean Edward Smith, notes that Grant, a former General of the Army, personally supervised the use of the U.S. military and that Belknap "had less freedom of action then other cabinet members." Belknap held office for 6 years, 4 months, and 7 days.

Upon assuming office in 1869, Belknap conceived the idea of creating portraits of previous civilian heads of the War Department in honor of the upcoming 1876 U.S. Centennial, and hired renowned artists Daniel Huntington, Robert Weir, and Henry Ulke. Belknap's portrait was painted by Huntington in 1874. The portraits were assembled into a distinct collection to be viewed by the public. The portrait initiative was continued by Belknap's successors; in addition to secretaries, the collection came to include others notable for their military distinction. This effort at historic preservation was considered a success, and Belknap received "unqualified credit" for his creation of the War Department portrait gallery.

During the summer of 1870, Belknap successfully lobbied Congress to grant him the sole power to appoint and license agents, known as sutlers, with ownership rights to highly lucrative "traderships" at U.S. military forts in the Western frontier. These monopoly traderships were considered good investments during the Gilded Age and were highly sought after. On July 15, the Commanding General of the Army's power to appoint traderships was repealed, empowering Belknap while further eroding Sherman's authority. To ensure maximum profits, Belknap ordered soldiers stationed at forts having Belknap-approved sutlers to buy supplies only through the authorized traderships. Soldiers on the Western frontier, who were thus forced to buy goods at exorbitant prices which far exceeded the usual rate, were left in debt or destitute as a result. Hostile American Indians bought supplies at these traderships, including high-quality single-shot breech-loaders and repeating rifles. At the same time, Army requisitions for rifles were filled by Belknap's War Department with inferior single-shot breech-loaders that jammed frequently, and were no match for superior breech-loaders and repeating rifles. The policy had a negative effect on the firepower of the U.S. troops and may have contributed to the defeat of George Armstrong Custer and the 7th Cavalry at Battle of the Little Big Horn in June 1876, several months after Belknap was out of office. (However, Custer had also decided against bringing Gatling guns; these would have increased Custer's firepower, even if his troops had been armed with inferior rifles.)

Belknap's second wife, Carita, was socially ambitious and unwilling to live in Washington, D.C. on Belknap's $8,000 annual salary (about $157,000 in 2018). When the couple arrived in Washington from Keokuk, Iowa in 1869, Belknap rented a large house recently vacated by Secretary of State William H. Seward. In hosting large parties, a typical social requirement for cabinet members, the Belknaps overextended their invitations; one of their events had 1,200 guests, including many young army officers; the resulting raucous behavior led to extensive damage and vandalism, including destruction of curtains, couches, and other furniture. The Belknaps could not afford to pay for the damages, and were faced with leaving Washington society and reducing expenses by living in a boarding house, or finding a way to enhance their income. They decided to look for additional income, and Carita engineered a plan to obtain a lucrative "cash cow" Indian tradership position at the recently built Fort Sill, located in the Oklahoma Indian Territory. Carita lobbied her husband to appoint a New York contractor, Caleb P. Marsh, to the Fort Sill tradership; John S. Evans, an experienced sutler, had already been appointed and did not want to give it up. To settle the question, Marsh drew up an illicit partnership contract which allowed Evans to keep the tradership at Fort Sill, provided that he pay Marsh $12,000 per year in quarterly installments (approximately $236,000 in 2018). Marsh, in turn, was required to give half of his $12,000 to Carita, also in quarterly installments. All the parties agreed to the arrangement; however, Carita only received one payment before her death from tuberculosis after childbirth in December 1870.

After Carita's death, Marsh continued to pay the quarterly share of the profits to Carita's younger sister Amanda, known as "Puss", who had moved in with the Belknaps, ostensibly to hold as a trust fund for the benefit of Carita's child. This profiteering arrangement between Amanda and Marsh was all done with Belknap's full knowledge and consent. After Carita's child died in June 1871, Amanda left to tour Europe, and Belknap continued to take the quarterly bribery payments until December 1873, when Amanda returned and became Belknap's third wife. Amanda was a beautiful young socialite; intending to keep the modest fortune she inherited from her family while also attaining a high position in Washington society, she required Belknap to sign a prenuptial agreement. Belknap rented a new large house on G Street, which had been built by Orville Babcock, President Grant's personal secretary. From that time onward, Belknap and Amanda continued to accept Marsh's quarterly payments. Amanda was considered to be more self-indulgent then her sister Carita, donning gorgeous gowns, jewelry and other accessories for parties and other events, and dubiously called the "spendthrift belle" by Washington society. The Belknaps extravagant lifestyle of entertaining Washington society, holding lavish parties, and wearing elegant clothes, created envy among both Democratic political figures and permanent residents of Washington. However, it was not publicly known that the Belknaps were receiving kickbacks until February 1876, when the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives launched an investigation, which discovered that Belknap and his wives had received about $20,000 in bribes from Marsh (approximately $394,000 in 2018).

During the Franco-Prussian War that lasted from 1870 to 1871, the United States declared neutrality. Belknap had been accused by Grant Administration critics, including Senators Charles Sumner and Carl Schurz, of violating neutrality and selling arms to French agents. In fact, Belknap had sold obsolete U.S. War Department firearms to a neighbor of the Remington family, which owned the E. Remington and Sons gun making company. Samuel Remington, as arms-selling agent to the French Government, then arranged the sale of those firearms to France. Belknap subsequently sold 54,000,000 cartridges to the French Army—cartridges that would specifically fit the firearms he had previously sold to the Remington neighbor. A Congressional investigation which took place in 1872 exonerated Belknap, and no criminal charges for impeachment were initiated.

During the Reconstruction Era, former slave James Webster Smith became the first African American cadet to enroll at West Point. After starting classes in 1870, Smith was immediately and severely hazed by white cadets. One of Belknap's nephews, a cadet at the Academy, had been reprimanded (but not otherwise punished) for hazing Smith. In another instance, Smith was arrested and taken to a military court for fighting a white cadet, though Smith said he had merely defended himself. Major General Oliver O. Howard, an advocate for African American civil rights and in charge of the trial, acquitted Smith and gave him a light punishment for unruly conduct. This outraged the Academy's Bureau of Military Justice, who made a formal protest to Belknap on November 20, 1870. In another hazing incident, in January 1871, Smith was arrested for supposedly not holding his head up when marching, again after being severely harassed by white cadets. With Howard now reassigned to the western United States, the Academy's administration determined to force Smith out. This time he was convicted; his case was then appealed to Belknap. Smith had been recommended for expulsion, but Belknap intervened with President Grant, who changed the sentence to setting Smith back academically, which caused him to repeat his Plebe year. Smith continued at West Point until 1874, when Professor Peter S. Michie, a white supremacist, gave Smith a private test, in defiance of traditional West Point practice, and claimed Smith failed. Smith was then denied a chance to retest, and was forced out of West Point. Belknap concurred when Major General Thomas H. Ruger, appointed Superintendent of West Point in 1871, reduced the amount of hazing of cadets by 1873 and made strong efforts to eradicate the "discreditable" practice. Belknap admired Ruger's performance as West Point Superintendent and stated, "I am pretty satisfied with the success of your management, and private conversations with officers of all grades, & with civilians too, who have been there since your accession..." Other African Americans followed Smith's entrance into West Point and Henry O. Flipper became the first to graduate from the Academy in 1877. In 1997, President Bill Clinton attempted to acknowledge and right the wrong done to Smith by awarding him a posthumous commission as a second lieutenant.

From October 8, 1871 to October 10 a devastating fire burned and destroyed much of Chicago, killing hundreds of people and causing $200,000,000 in damages (nearly $4 billion in 2018). Over 100,000 citizens were left destitute and homeless. Belknap took prompt action on October 9, ordering food sent from St. Louis, tents from Jefferson Barracks, and two companies of troops from Fort Omaha to help keep peace and order. On October 10, Belknap in writing a dispatch to Lt. General Philip Sheridan stated that the fire was "...a national calamity. The sufferers have the sincere sympathy of the nation." Belknap ordered military officers around the nation to send supplies to Chicago "liberally and promptly". In his Annual Report to President Grant in December 1871, Belknap praised the War Department for the efficiency of operations in aiding the homeless and destitute of the Chicago Fire within hours of notification, while the fire was still in progress. Belknap also praised Sheridan and the several companies of troops under his command for keeping law and order in the ruined city.

In the summer of 1871, a U.S. Board of military officers visited the Quebec, Canada military prison run by the British Army. The Board recommended that British methods be adopted in the U.S. Army, including a system of rewards for good behavior, and difficult physical exercise and taxing military drill and ceremony as punishments, with the goals of returning prisoners to military duty at the end of their sentences and preventing re-offenses. Belknap approved the Board's recommendations and requested Congress incorporate the British system into the U.S. military, and also requested that funding for the new program be paid for by having soldiers forfeit their pay during the time of their incarceration.

During Reconstruction Grant enforced civil and voting rights for African Americans in the South, using the army and newly created Justice Department to destroy the Ku Klux Klan in 1871, under the Enforcement Acts. Louisiana during Reconstruction was one of the most politically turbulent, violent, and disputed states. Rival political factions fought for power in the state government, and white insurgents frequently attacked freedmen and their sympathizers, requiring the deployment of federal troops to keep peace.

During January 1872, the War Department was kept on high alert, concerned with the potential for violent confrontation in New Orleans between Gov. Henry Clay Warmoth's faction and that of George W. Carter, former speaker of the Louisiana House. Warmoth supported social equality and voting rights for African Americans, but southern conservatives considered him a corrupt northern carpetbagger. To prevent disorder Major General William H. Emory, Louisville District Commander, in charge of New Orleans, decided that federal troops were needed to prevent violence. Belknap informed General-in-Chief William T. Sherman, supporting Emory's request. On January 5, federal troops were deployed in New Orleans to prevent violence, and were intended to occupy the area until January 11. Sec. Belknap advised President Grant that Emory was the best to make the decision about use of the forces.

On January 9, a street riot broke out after a Gov. Warmoth supporter was assassinated; Gov. Warmoth's state police retaliated by attacking and dispersing Carter's faction at the Gem Saloon. Emory deployed reinforcement troops on January 10 to restore order. On January 12, Grant, wanting to stay out of state politics, told the mayor of New Orleans through the War Department that he would not declare martial law in Louisiana. An angry mob of thousands of Carter's men took to the streets. Emory deployed troops equipped with Gatling guns. Carter's men dispersed, believing that Emory would use U.S. military force to keep the peace.

On January 15, Grant wrote to Belknap that he desired to prevent the "danger of bloodshed" without having to take sides with either faction. On January 16, Att. Gen. George H. Williams told Gov. Warmoth that Grant would take sides only if there was a "clear case of legal right and overruling necessity." On January 22, learning that both Gov. Warmoth and Carter had formed rival militias and were preparing for violence, President Grant issued orders through the War Department for Emory to use troops if necessary. When Emory communicated Grant's message to both Gov. Warmoth and Carter, they dispersed their factions and kept peace for 10 months.

In 1873, the construction of the Americas' first steel arched bridge, named after James B. Eads, was nearing completion in St. Louis. Belknap, under influence from the Keokuk Packet steamliner company, was opposed to its completion. He desired that the bridge be torn down, so steamers would not have to lower their smokestacks to sail under it. Belknap created a commission to make recommendations on either destroying the bridge and rebuilding it with a design that allowed steamers to pass, or building a canal around the bridge so steamers could pass. Eads, who was friends with Grant, visited Washington, D.C. in November 1873 before Belknap submitted the report to Congress, and asked that Grant rescue the bridge from destruction. Belknap argued that according to federal law, the Secretary of War had the authority to prevent obstruction of the Mississippi River.

In response, Grant reminded Belknap that Congress had authorized the construction of the bridge, and that Congress would probably not authorize money to tear it down. He overruled Belknap's decision, and told Belknap in person, "You certainly cannot destroy this structure on your own authority...General, you had better drop this case." Belknap was embarrassed, stood up blushing, bowed to President Grant, and left the meeting. The Eads Bridge was completed in 1874 and is still in active use today.

In 1872, photographer Mathew Brady went bankrupt; his possessions, including photographs and negatives, were sold to satisfy creditors. In 1874, the owner of a warehouse in New York City offered a set of over 2,000 Brady negatives for sale; Belknap authorized their purchase for $2,500. The negatives were not packed or transported with care, and by the time the War Department took possession, about one-third of them were damaged or destroyed.

Brady subsequently complained to Belknap that none of the $2,500 had gone to him or any of his creditors. During the discussion, Brady offered to sell a second set of negatives; Congress appropriated up to $25,000 for the purchase, and after reviewing the materials and obtaining advice from a War Department attorney as to their value, Belknap authorized payment in full.

As a result of Belknap's initiative, the War Department acquired over 6,000 images of the Civil War era, including photos of prominent military and government officials, battlefields, and defensive works. This collection was subsequently combined with other collections of Brady photos which were purchased by the federal government; they were later catalogued, and are maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress.

During the summer of 1875, Belknap decided to explore Yellowstone the nation's first national park, created as the result of a law signed by President Grant on March 2, 1872. Accompanying Belknap were Colonel Randolph B. Marcy, Lieutenant Colonel James W. Forsyth, and Chicago businessman William E. Strong. Leading the expedition was Lieutenant Gustavus C. Doane, who had led the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition in 1870, the first extensive federal survey of the Yellowstone territory, that was responsible in part for the formation of the park. Doane left Fort Ellis, where he was stationed, and made preparations for Belknap's party's arrival at Mammoth Hot Springs. On July 26, Belknap's party reached Fort Ellis and proceeded to meet Doane. Led by Doane, Belknap's party attempted to retrace the original 1870 Expedition in addition to hunting for any big game found on the journey. Belknap's party included 24 soldiers and two ambulances. The two-week expedition proved to be troublesome as Doane was unable to find big game to hunt and after briefly viewing the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone, Belknap's party had to wait several hours before Doane finally found the trail.

In late July 1874 a U.S. Army expedition under Col. George A. Custer discovered gold in the Black Hills. Soon many gold miners were trespassing on land granted to the Indians under the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. In June 1875, President Grant attempted to resolve the problem by offering Indians $100,000 per year to lease their land or $6,000,000 for the Black Hills. The Lakota Sioux under Chief Red Cloud refused since the offer would require the Sioux to be moved to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. On November 3, 1875, as the crisis escalated, President Grant held a secret meeting at the White House including Belknap and Secretary of Interior Zachariah Chandler. Grant, Belknap, and Chandler agreed to a plan that would withdraw U.S. troops from the Black Hills, allowing miners to mine on Indian Territory. The purpose of troop withdrawal was to start an Indian War. On December 3, 1875 Chandler ordered all Indians to return to their respected reservations, however, militant Indians under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse refused to return. By January 1876, 4,000 miners illegally occupied Indian land. When hostile Indians refused to leave their hunting grounds by the January 31 deadline, Chandler turned the Indians over to Belknap's War Department stating "the said Indians are hereby turned over to the War Department for such action on the part of the Army as you [Belknap] may deem proper under the circumstances." On February 8, 1876 Generals Crook and Terry were ordered to start winter military campaigns against hostile Indians and the Great Sioux War commenced. On March 1, 1876 Crook, in freezing weather, marched north from Fort Fetterman near Douglas, Wyoming to attack Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse and their Indian followers on the Powder River. The following day, March 2, Belknap abruptly resigned office over the Fort Sill traderpost scandal. From March 3 to March 7 the War Department was run ad interim under Secretary of Navy George M. Robeson. On March 8, 1876 Alphonso Taft was appointed by Grant Secretary of War. The Great Sioux War ended in April 1877 under President Rutherford B. Hayes.

On February 29, 1876 rumors that Belknap was receiving profits from traderships reached Representative Hiester Clymer, chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of War. In response, Clymer launched an investigation into the War Department. Although Clymer and Belknap were friends and had been college roommates, Clymer strongly opposed Republican Reconstruction. During Belknap's tenure, the Army was used in combination with the Justice Department to prosecute the Ku Klux Klan, a policy opposed by most Democrats. Caleb P. Marsh testified to the Clymer Committee that Belknap had personally taken Fort Sill tradership profit payments as part of the partnership agreement between Marsh and John S. Evans. On February 29, 1876, Belknap and his counsel went before Clymer's committee, but Belknap declined to testify. On the morning of March 2, Treasury Secretary Benjamin Bristow told President Grant of Belknap's impending impeachment. After Grant finished breakfast, Secretary Belknap and Secretary Chandler arrived at the White House. Belknap was extremely anxious, openly wept, and confessed to Grant. Belknap handed Grant a one-sentence resignation letter. Grant personally wrote a letter accepting Belknap's resignation, which he placed on a White House mantel at 10:20 A.M.

Clymer's committee was informed at 11:00 A.M. of Belknap's resignation. Although Belknap's resignation caused great commotion among House members, it did not prevent action by the Clymer committee. The committee unanimously passed resolutions to impeach Belknap and drew up five articles of impeachment to be sent to the Senate. Belknap, by then a private citizen, was impeached by a unanimous vote of the House of Representatives. Speaker of the House Michael C. Kerr wrote to the Senate that Belknap resigned "with intent to evade the proceedings of impeachment against him." Belknap's case was constitutionally unprecedented and would serve as reference for nine other civilian officials' resignations before trial, including President Richard Nixon.

On March 29 and April 4, 1876, George Custer testified before the Clymer Committee, which continued to gather evidence for the Senate trial. Custer's testimony was a national media sensation because he accused both Grant's brother and the Secretary of War of corruption. Although Belknap had resigned, he had many political allies in Washington, D.C., including Grant. Custer had previously arrested Grant's son Fred, an Army officer, on the charge of drunkenness. As the result of that incident and his testimony to the Clymer Committee, Custer incurred Grant's displeasure. It took more than a month for Custer to resolve the situation and obtain Grant's permission to return to duty and lead the expedition that culminated with the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Upon Belknap's sudden resignation in March, Grant had to hastily ask his Secretary of Navy George M. Robeson to run the War Department ad interum, which lasted a week. Grant then appointed Alphonso Taft Secretary of War; Taft was an attorney and former judge; unfamiliar with military matters, he reluctantly agreed to serve in order to stabilize the War Department, and Grant promised to nominate him later for another, more suitable position. In May, Grant kept his word when he created a vacancy in the Attorney General's post by naming the incumbent, Edwards Pierrepont, to serve as Minister to England; he then appointed Taft to serve as Attorney General, and J. Donald Cameron to succeed Taft as Secretary of War.

Starting on April 5, 1876, Belknap was tried by the Senate. For several weeks Senators argued over whether the Senate had jurisdiction to put Belknap on trial since he had already resigned office in March. Belknap's defense managers argued that the Senate had no jurisdiction; the Senate ruled by a vote of 37-29 that it did. Belknap was charged with five articles of impeachment, and the Senate listened to over 40 witnesses. With 40 votes needed for conviction, the Senate voted 35 to 25 to convict Belknap, with one Senator not voting, thus acquitting Belknap of all charges by failing to reach the required two-thirds majority. All Senators agreed that Belknap took the money from Marsh, but 23 who voted for acquittal believed that the Senate did not have jurisdiction. Grant's speedy acceptance of Belknap's resignation undoubtedly saved him from conviction. After the trial, Belknap's wife Amanda, known as "Puss" in Washington society, and their daughters traveled to and remained in Europe. Former Senator Matthew H. Carpenter of Wisconsin, who had defended Belknap at the Senate trial, said that Belknap was entirely innocent and that if he outlived Belknap he would clear Belknap's name. Carpenter was reelected to the Senate in 1879, but had been in ill health; he died in February 1881, but never produced any new evidence.

On March 4, 1876, one month prior to his Senate impeachment trial, Grant's Attorney General Edwards Pierrepont had Belknap arrested; as a foe of the Tweed Ring in New York, Pierrepont was seen as a lawyer of integrity, and Grant named him as Attorney General to promote reform and anti-corruption within Grant's administration. Grant, who as former commanding general put more scrutiny into military matters, had ordered Pierrepont to launch a criminal investigation into Belknap's War department. Much to Belknap's anger, Pierrepont put an armed guard around his home to ensure he did not attempt to flee. In May 1876, Grant named Pierrepont Minister to Britain, and appointed his Secretary of War Alphonso Taft to be Attorney General. After Belknap's Senate acquittal on August 1, the guards were removed; he was indicted by a grand jury on the same day, and set for trial in the District of Columbia federal court. However, journalists and other observers were of the view that the district courts were unlikely to convict, given the number of Grant administration officials who had been accused of corruption and received little or no punishment. Belknap remained angry at Pierrepont, and threatened to sue him for false imprisonment. On February 2, 1877, Belknap visited Grant and pleaded for his indictment to be dismissed. The next day Grant asked his cabinet for advice; Secretary of State Hamilton Fish was furious at Belknap and wanted him to be tried. Grant decided otherwise, and wrote to Taft that the District Attorney should be directed to dismiss the case. Following Grant's instructions, Taft told Washington, D.C. District Attorney Henry H. Wells that the evidence against Belknap would not sustain a conviction, and that Belknap had suffered enough during the Senate trial. Wells moved for dismissal; on February 8, 1877, Belknap's case, indictment No. 11,262, was dismissed by Justice Arthur MacArthur Sr. No longer facing the possibility of conviction and imprisonment, Belknap decided not to follow through on his threat to sue Pierrepont.

Having been disgraced by the Senate trial, Belknap sought to escape from the scrutiny and disapproval of Washington society by moving to Philadelphia. The Belknaps remained married; Amanda and the children visited the Catskills, Coney Island, and other resorts, and Belknap saw them periodically. Belknap later resided in Keokuk where he practiced law that largely involved representing railroads. Although he was no longer involved in politics or government, Belknap often returned to Washington to represent clients, and maintained a residence and office there.

Years after his impeachment, Belknap's reputation still remained damaged. During the 1880 presidential race, he was among those lampooned in a Puck magazine cartoon (Grant the Acrobat, by Joseph Ferdinand Keppler) opposing Ulysses S. Grant's bid for a third term. He remained popular among his fellow Civil War veterans; in 1887, Belknap coauthored the book History of the Fifteenth Regiment, Iowa Veteran Volunteer Infantry.

Belknap died suddenly from a massive heart attack in Washington, D.C. on Sunday October 12, 1890. The New York Times stated that his death occurred on Sunday between 1:00 A.M and 9:00 a.m., and that he died alone at his residence in the Evans building on New York Avenue. Prior to his death, Belknap had played cards with his friends on Saturday night, then retired upstairs for the evening. Belknap's wife, Amanda, was in New York City at the time. At 8:30 a.m. on Monday morning, Belknap's business associate, John W. Cameron, picked up Belknap's mail on the first floor of Belknap's home, where he maintained his law office, and proceeded to the second floor, where Belknap lived. Cameron and a maid found that all the rooms had been locked. A janitor was summoned to open the doors, and a step ladder was used to peer into Belknap's bedroom. Belknap had placed his hat and coat on a chair and his lifeless body was found on his bed. His left arm had been raised toward his head with his left hand tightly clenched. The bed clothes were disheveled and he appeared to have struggled for breath. The physician who initially examined the body stated that he had died of apoplexy; however, an autopsy by the coroner revealed that Belknap suffered from heart disease. The War Department was notified and received with "genuine sorrow" the news of Belknap's death, since Belknap had been a popular Secretary of War.

Belknap was buried in Section 1 at Arlington National Cemetery on October 16, 1890. The ceremony was conducted by St. John's Episcopal Church. The site features a granite gravestone with a bronze relief memorial designed by sculptor Carl Rohl-Smith. The bronze relief (2 ft. x 2 ft.) bust shows Belknap wearing a dress uniform with his hair parted on the right side as well as a long, full beard. The relief is placed on the front of a granite base (6 ft. x 5 ft. x 5 ft.). This piece was surveyed by the Smithsonian's Save Outdoor Sculpture! survey in 1995 and its condition was described as "Treatment being needed". The relief is signed by the artist: C.R. 1897.

In 2003 biographer Edward S. Cooper described Belknap as a man of virtues and flaws. According to Cooper, Belknap "willingly turned to graft to support the social ambitions of his wives" while living a lavish lifestyle in Washington, D.C. at the expense of soldiers and Indians during the Gilded Age. Belknap is positively credited by Cooper for creating and expanding the weather bureau, reforming the military justice system, and for preserving Mathew Brady's photographic record of the Civil War. Belknap's abrupt and controversial resignation in March 1876 caused an unprecedented succession of four Secretaries of War within a 13-month time period: Belknap, Alphonso Taft, J. Donald Cameron, and George W. McCrary.

In Keokuk, Belknap is remembered for being one of its "colorful citizens" and he has two streets named after him. He was commended by his Army colleagues for his coolness under fire during the Civil War, but his reputation suffered as the result of his forced resignation as Grant's Secretary of War, which took place under a cloud amid suspicions of misconduct.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Van Antwerp, Verplanck, d. 1875. Letter, July 30, 1871. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf McDowell, Irvin, 1818-1885. Autograph letter signed : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, 1874 Apr. 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Hardie, James Allen, 1823-1876. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, to William W. Belknap, [ca. 1870?] Aug. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Walling, A. T., fl. 1871. Autograph letter signed : Circleville, Ohio, to W.W. Belknap, [18]71 Oct. 2. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907. Autograph letter signed : "U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y.," to William W. Belknap, 1874 July 11. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson, 1810-1883. Autograph letter signed : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, [18]71 Aug. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
contributorOf Records Concerning Complaints, Questions of Precedence or Procedure, Civilian Employees, Publications, Pensions, Claims, and Other Matters, 1811 - 1887 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
creatorOf Ward, Marcus L. (Marcus Lawrence), 1812-1884. Marcus L. Ward papers, 1683-[ca. 1900]. New Jersey Historical Society Library
creatorOf Townsend, George Alfred, 1841-1914. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to "Mr. Secretary," [William W. Belknap?], [ca. 1869?]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn United States. Office of the Secretary of War. Letters received, 1849-1896 National Archives at Washington, D.C
referencedIn Robeson, George M. (George Maxwell), 1829-1897. Letter : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, [Washington, D.C.], 1871 Aug. 3. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Fairchild, Lucius, 1831-1896. Autograph letter signed : Madison, to W.W. Belknap, 1870 Feb. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn [Subjects on Bickel microfilm, reel 1] [microform]. Iowa State Historical Society
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Letter : to J. Winsor, 1874 Aug. 4. Boston Public Library, Central Library in Copley Square
creatorOf Butler, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1818-1893. Letter signed : Washington, to William W. Belknap, 1874 Mar. 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875. Correspondence, ca. 1870-1890. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Force, Manning Ferguson, 1824-1899. Autograph letter signed : Cincinnati, to William W. Belknap, 1873 Nov. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Eads, James D., fl. 1869. Autograph letter signed : Warrensburg, Mo., to William W. Belknap, 1869 Oct. 25. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, 1818-1883. Autograph letter signed : San Francisco, to "Dear Genl." [William Worth Belknap?], 1870 Jan. 19. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Bristow, Benjamin Helm, 1832-1896. Benjamin Helm Bristow papers, 1839-1932 (bulk 1874-1896). Library of Congress
creatorOf Stuart, George H., fl. 1869. Letter signed : Philadelphia, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Nov. 6. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Butler, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1818-1893. Letter signed : Boston, to William W. Belknap, 1874 Apr. 24. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, to William W. Belknap, 1872 Apr. 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Marcy, Randolph Barnes, 1812-1887. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Sept. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Allison, William B. (William Boyd), 1829-1908. Letter : Dubuque, Iowa, to W[illiam] W[orth] Belknap, Washington, D.C., 1873 Oct. 22. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Wilson, James Harrison, 1837-1925. Autograph letter signed : New York, to "My Dear General" [William Worth Belknap], 1872 May 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Barney, Hiram. Autograph letter signed : Keokuk, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Nov. 6. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Fish, Hamilton, 1888-1991. Fish family papers. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
creatorOf Dodge, Augustus C. (Augustus Caesar), 1812-1883. Letter to Genl. W. W. Belknap. Burlington, IA. 1869 Oct. 14. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Letter : to Crosby, [not after 1890]. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Vandever, William, 1817-1893. Letter to W. W. Belknap. Dubuque, IA. 1870 Dec. 26. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Hancock, Winfield Scott, 1824-1886. Autograph letter signed : St. Paul, Minnesota, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Aug. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Dodge, Grenville Mellen, 1831-1916. Autograph letter signed : Council Bluffs, Iowa, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Aug. 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library
creatorOf Washburne, Elihu Benjamin, 1816-1887. Autograph letter signed : South Livermore, Maine, to General Belknap, 1872 Dec. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Leggett, Mortimer Dormer, 1821-1896. Autograph letter signed : Zanesville, Ohio, to W.W. Belknap, [18]70 Nov. 19. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Benjamin Helm Bristow Papers, 1839-1932, (bulk 1874-1896) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Martha Leach Packard commonplace book, Packard, Martha Leach commonplace book, 1837-1894, 1853-1862 William L. Clements Library
creatorOf Gillmore, Quincy Adams, 1825-1888. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1874 July 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Bennett, David S. (David Smith), 1811-1894. Letters received, 1865-1884 (inclusive) 1869-1871 (bulk). Rutgers University
referencedIn Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878. Letter : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, n.p., 1872 Dec. 27. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Delano, Columbus, 1809-1896. Papers. Library of Congress
referencedIn United States. Dept. of Justice. Documents related to judgments rendered by the Court of Claims in cases connected with the War Department : Washington, D.C., 1879 Feb. 14. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf William Worth Belknap Letter to Hon. J.B. Chaffee, House of Representatives (MS 174), 1874 University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
referencedIn Church, William Conant, 1836-1917. William Conant Church papers, 1862-1924. Library of Congress
creatorOf Babcock, Orville Elias, 1835-1884. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1873 Feb. 25. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Letters relating to Harris Hoyt and the Texas adventure, 1862-1871. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Logan, John Alexander, 1826-1886. Letter signed : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, 1870 Mar. 26. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Vandever, William, 1817-1893. Letter to William Worth Belknap. Dubuque, IA. 1869 Nov. 30. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Cameron, Simon, 1799-1889. Autograph letter signed : Harrisburg, to William W. Belknap, 1874 July 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Stevens, Thomas Holdup, 1819-1896. Papers, 1823-1895. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Nininger, Alexander Ramsey, 1844-1918. Alexander Ramsey Nininger papers, 1852, 1859-1897. Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf Talbot, Thomas Hammond, 1823-1907. Letter signed : Washington, D.C., to the Secretary of War, 1870 Jul. 6. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Force, Manning Ferguson, 1824-1889. Autograph letter signed : "Society of the Army of the Tennessee," Cincinnati, to W.W. Belknap, 1871 Mar. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Negley, James Scott, 1826-1901. Autograph letter signed : Pittsburgh, to William Worth Belknap, 1870 Sept. 27. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Rice, Elliott Warren, 1835-1887. Elliott Warren Rice Papers, 1861-1887. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library
creatorOf Cooke, Philip St. George, 1809-1895. Autograph letter signed : Detroit, to W.W. Belknap, 1871 July 19. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. William W. Belknap papers, 1814-1917 (bulk 1849-1890). Princeton University Library
creatorOf Belknap, William Worth, 1829-1890. Records of the Office of the Secretary of War. Letters Sent by Secretary of War William Belknap, 9/1871 - 10/1873 National Archives at Washington, D.C
referencedIn Lyons, James, 1801-1882,. Miscellaneous Virginia papers [manuscript] 1791-1884. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Smith, Giles Alexander, 1829-1876. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to William W. Belknap, 1870 Oct. 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Upton, Emory, 1839-1881. Autograph letter signed : West Point, to [William W. Belknap], 1875 May 11. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn United States. War Dept. United States. War Dept. papers, 1870 Apr 20. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn United States War Department correspondence and records regarding Indian affairs and activities with Indian nations, 1798-1874. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Letter : Washington, D.C., to J.G. Ames, Washington, D.C., 1875 Oct. 19. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. Autograph letter signed : San Francisco, to W.W. Belknap, 1871 May 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf McDowell, Irvin, 1818-1885. Autograph letter signed : New York, "My dear General" [William W. Belknap?], 1871 Jan. 30. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Grant, Frederick Dent, 1850-1912. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, Ill., "Dear Gen." [William W. Belknap], 1874 Oct. 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907. Correspondence. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Belknap family. Papers, 1787-1877. New-York Historical Society Library
creatorOf Alexander, Andrew Jonathan, 1833-1887. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to W.W. Belknap, 1875 June 24. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Pope, John, 1822-1892. Autograph letter signed : Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to William W. Belknap, 1872 Aug. 10. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Harney, William Selby, 1800-1889. Autograph letter signed : Fort Bridger, Wyoming, to William W. Belknap, 1875 Sept. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Papers, 1843-1969 (bulk 1843-1908) Library of Congress
referencedIn United States War Department correspondence and records regarding Indian affairs and activities with Indian nations, 1798-1874. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888. Autograph letter signed : [Chicago], to W.W. Belknap, 1874 June 13. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Marcy, Randolph Barnes, 1812-1887. Autograph letter signed : Orange, to "Dear General" [William W. Belknap?], 1872 Aug. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Robinson, John Cleveland, 1817-1897. Autograph letter signed : Binghamton, New York, to William W. Belknap, 1869 Dec. 31. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Todd, John Blair Smith, 1814-1872. Letter : Yankton, Dakota Territory, to [William Worth] Belknap, Washington, D.C., 1870, May 15. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Delano, Columbus, 1809-1896. Autograph letter signed : "Department of the Interior," Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, 1873 Nov. 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sands, Benjamin Franklin, 1812-1883. Letter signed : "U. S. Naval Observatory Washington," to William W. Belknap, 1873 Nov. 13. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Schenck, Robert Cumming, 1809-1890. Autograph letter signed : [London], to William W. Belknap, 1871 Aug. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Letters, 1869-1887. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Sacket, Delos Bennet, 1822-1885. Autograph letter signed : Philadelphia, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Nov. 3. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. William W. Belknap papers, 1880-1888. Library of Congress
creatorOf Hartsuff, George Lucas, 1830-1874. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Sept. 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Papers, 1852-1875. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Harlan, John Marshall, 1833-1911. John Marshall Harlan : miscellaneous papers, 1869-1906. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Grant, Julia Dent, 1826-1902. Autograph letter signed (in pencil) : "Executive Mansion," "Dear Genl." [William W. Belknap?], [18]73 Dec. 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Wilson, James F. (James Falconer), 1828-1895. Letter : Fairfield, Iowa, to [William Worth?] Belknap, [Washington, D.C.?], 1873 May 19. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Pope, John, 1822-1892. Autograph letter signed : Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to W.W. Belknap, [18]71, Dec. 20. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Philip Case Lockwood memorial collection of Civil War portraits and autographs, 1862-ca. 1886. Houghton Library
creatorOf Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, 1818-1883. Autograph letter signed : Omaha, Neb., to William Worth Belknap, 1872 Jan. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Richardson, John Peter, 1831-1899. John Peter Richardson papers, 1882-1890. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1845-1900 (inclusive), 1853-1886 (bulk). Houghton Library
creatorOf McCrary, George Washington, 1835-1890. Letter to William W. Belknap. Keokuk, IA. 1874 June 27. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Vandever, William, 1817-1893. Letter to W. W. Belknap. Dubuque, IA. 1872 Jan. 19. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Hamilton Fish Papers, 1732-1914, (bulk 1840-1890) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Adams, Dan Weiseger, 1820-1872,. Autographs of Civil War officers and U.S. Statesmen. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Delano, Columbus, 1809-1896. Letterbooks, 1871-1874. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Dodge, Grenville Mellen, 1831-1916. Autograph letter signed : Council Bluffs, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Apr. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Autograph File, B, ca.1500-1976. Houghton Library
creatorOf Allen, Mary Rivers. Collection of letters and autographs, 1846-1881 Brown University Archives, John Hay Library
creatorOf Barry, William F. (William Farquhar), 1818-1879,. Miscellaneous American history collection [manuscript], 1828-1918 University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Photographic Portrait File The Huntington Library
creatorOf Church, William Conant, 1836-1917. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, [18]72 July 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Autograph letter signed : Keokuk, Iowa, to H.T. Crosby, 1873 May 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Corse, John Murray, 1835-1893. Autograph letter signed : New York, N.Y., to "Dear Genl." [William W. Belknap?], [18]71 Aug. 5. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Ulysses S. Grant papers, 1819-1974 (bulk 1843-1908). Library of Congress
referencedIn Pope, John, 1822-1892. The John Pope papers, 1851-1872. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
creatorOf Akerman, Amos Tappan, 1821-1880. Letter books of Amos Tappan Akerman [manuscript] 1871-76. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Corse, John Murray, 1835-1893. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Oct. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Heintzelman, Samuel Peter, 1805-1880. Autograph letter signed : Niagara, Ont., to William W. Belknap, 1873 Jul. 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Alexander Ramsey Nininger papers., 1852, 1859-1897. Minnesota Historical Society
creatorOf Strong, William E., fl. 1869. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Nov. 24. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Logan, John Alexander, 1826-1886. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.] to [W.W. Belknap], 1870 Feb. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Smith, Giles Alexander, 1829-1876. Autograph letter signed : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, 1870 Feb. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Barnard, J. G. (John Gross), 1815-1882. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, [18]74 Aug. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Palmer, Gideon Stinson, 1813-1891. Military officer correspondence, 1856-1907. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Babcock, Orville E., 1835-1884. Letter, 1874 Aug. 21, Long Branch, N.J., to William Belknap. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
creatorOf Kimball, Nathan, 1823?-1898. Autograph letter signed : Indianapolis, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Nov. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn McArthur, H. C. (Henry Clay), 1838-. McArthur, Henry Clay papers, 1861-1919. State Historical Society of Iowa, Library
creatorOf Wilson, James Harrison, 1837-1925. Autograph letter signed : New York, to General Belknap, 1873 Nov. 19. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Hawley, Joseph Roswell, 1826-1905. Autograph letter signed : Philadelphia, to William W. Belknap, 1873 Jun. 25. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1872 July 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907. Autograph letter signed : West Point, N.Y., to William W. Belknap, 1871 Sept. 19. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Vandever, William, 1817-1893. Autograph letter signed : Dubuque, to William W. Belknap, 1869 Nov. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Hamlin, Hannibal, 1809-1891. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to W.W. Belknap, 1872 April 5. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Swank, James Moore, 1836-1914. Papers, 1785-1898 (inclusive), 1785, 1871-1898 (bulk). Historical Society of Pennsylvania
creatorOf Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907. Letter [1874] Military Academy, West Point, New York [to] Hon. Wm. W. Belknap, Secretary of War. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
creatorOf Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887. Autograph letter signed : San Francisco, to William W. Belknap, 1869 Oct. 30. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Robeson, George M. (George Maxwell), 1829-1897. Letter : Washington, D.C., to William W. Belknap, [Washington, D.C.], 1871 Aug. 3. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Pope, John, 1822-1892. Autograph letter signed : Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to William W. Belknap, 1872 Feb. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Johnson, Bradley Tyler, 1829-1903. Autograph letter signed : Richmond, Va., to W.W. Belknap, 1873 Dec. 12. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, Ill., to William W. Belknap, [18]71 June 23. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Benham, Henry Washington, 1813-1884. Autograph letter signed : Boston, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Oct. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Hartranft, John Frederick, 1830-1889. Autograph letter signed : Norristown, to William W. Belknap, [18]72 Sept. 11. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Niblack, William Ellis, 1822-1893. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1870 Feb. 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Ould, Robert, 1820-1882. Autograph letters signed (2) : Richmond, to W.W. Belknap, 1869 Oct. 28-1870 Feb. 12. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part I: The Revolution and the Administration, 1669-1958. Houghton Library
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part I: The Revolution and the Administration, 1669-1958. Houghton Library
referencedIn Ward, Marcus L. (Marcus Lawrence), 1812-1884. Papers, 1683-1912. New Jersey Historical Society Library
creatorOf Strong, William, 1808-1895. Autograph letter signed : Philadelphia, to William W. Belknap, 1870 Jul. 20. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Johnson, Bradley Tyler, 1829-1903. Autograph letter signed : Richmond, to William W. Belknap, 1873 Jun. 3. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Parke, John Grubb, 1827-1900. Autograph letter signed : Washington? to William W. Belknap, 187? Aug. 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Burnside, Ambrose Everett, 1824-1881. Autograph letter signed : New York, to W.W. Belknap, 1872 Apr. 11. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Edwards, John, 1805-1894. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to Edwards Pierrepont, Attorney General, 1875 Oct. 3. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Grimes, James W. (James Wilson), 1816-1872. Autograph letter signed : Burlington, Iowa, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Dec. 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Wright, George G., 1820-1896. Letter to W. W. Belknap. Des Moines, IA. 1870 Dec. 28. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Porter, Horace, 1837-1921. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1874 Aug. 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn William T. Sherman Papers, 1759-1897, (bulk 1848-1891) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Thayer, John M. (John Milton), 1820-1906. Autograph letter signed : Lincoln, Nebraska, to "My Dear General," [William W. Belknap], 1873 Jun. 6. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Wilson, James Falconer, 1828-1895. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1874 Jun. 23. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907. Autograph letter signed : West Point, N.Y., to William W. Belknap, 1871 Nov. 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Augur, Christopher Columbus, 1821-1898. Letter signed : Omaha, Nebraska, to W.W. Belknap, 1870 Mar. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf McDowell, Irvin, 1818-1885. Autograph letter signed : New York, to W.W. Belknap, 1872 Apr. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Julian, George Washington, 1817-1899. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1871 Apr. 3. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Reid, Whitelaw, 1837-1912. Letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Oct. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891. Benson J. Lossing letters, 1854-1880. Archives of American Art
creatorOf Ingalls, Rufus, 1820-1893. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1872 June 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Letter : Washington, D. C., to J. G. Ames, Washington , D. C., 1875 Oct. 19. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Ingalls, Rufus, 1820-1893. Autograph letter signed : New York, to William W. Belknap, 1871 Nov. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to Col. T.B. Thorpe, 1876 Sept. 20. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn United States. War Dept. Correspondence, 1811-1913, 1811-1882 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Ulysses S. Grant Papers, 1819-1969, (bulk 1843-1885) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Wilson, James F. (James Falconer), 1828-1895. Letter : Fairfield, Iowa, to [William Worth?] Belknap, [Washington, D.C.?], 1873 May 19. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Schenck, Robert Cumming, 1809-1890. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1870 Aug. 10. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Gear, John Henry, 1825-1900. Letter to W.W. Belknap. [Burlington, IA.]. 1869 Dec. 29. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, 1818-1883. Autograph letter signed : Omaha, Neb., to "Dear Genl" [William W. Belknap?], 1872 Nov. 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Calder, James, 1826-1892. Draft and copy of a letter, State College, Centre County, Pa., to Hon. William W. Belknap, Secretary of War, and reply, 1874 September 26 and November 6. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Letters relating to Harris Hoyt and the Texas adventure, 1862-1871. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Bristow, Benjamin Helm, 1832-1896. Benjamin Helm Bristow : miscellaneous papers, 1832-1896. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Scott, James, b. 1815. Letter to Secretary of Washington Territory from Wm. W. Belknap, [U.S.] Secretary of War, 27 February 1872. Washington State Library, Office of Secretary of State
creatorOf Willcox, Orlando Bolivar, 1823-1907. Autograph letter signed : Angel Island, California, to William W. Belknap, 1872 Apr. 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sheridan, Michael Vincent, 1840-1918. Autograph letter signed : Chicago, to W.W. Belknap, 1874 Mar. 20. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Belknap, William W. -- Brigadier General United States. National Archives and Records Administration
creatorOf Upton, Emory, 1839-1881. Autograph letter signed : West Point, to William W. Belknap, 1870 Aug. 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
Role Title Holding Repository
contributorOf 1865 - Belknap, Wm H - File No. B509 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 1119 (Belknap, W W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2210 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1871 - File No. 3810 (Belknap, William W - New York) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 1517 (Belknap, Wm W - Virginia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2751 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 3737 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn 1873 - File No. 3045 (Belknap, Wm W - Michigan) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 5249 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 1046 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn [Iowa] Belknap, William W - 15th Infantry, Company F&S United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 2025 (Belknap, Wm w - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2201 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 3129 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1876 - File No. 2318 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 2005 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 2868 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Consolidated Military Officer's File of Wm W Belknap, Kentucky, 1865 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1871 - File No. 4117 (Belknap, Wm W - Iowa) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 5476 (Belknap, Wm W - Montana) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1876 - File No. 217 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 2862 (Belknap, Wm W) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Consolidated Military Officer's File of Wm W Belknap, District of Columbia, 1865 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2843 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 3700 (Belknap, Wm W) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 5311 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 2941 (Belknap, Wm W - South Carolina) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 3606 (Belknap, Wm W - Maryland) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2040 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 287 (Belknap, Wm W - California) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1871 - File No. 705 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1865 - Belknap, Wm W - File No. B517 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 2439 (Belknap, Wm W - Pennsylvania) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 1608 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 823 (Belknap, Wm W - South Dakota) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1889 - File No. 4205 - Belknap, [Blank] - Missouri United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 2398 (Belknap, Wm W - California) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 1464 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 37 (Belknap, W W - Louisiana) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 2201 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 1485 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2113 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 632 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1871 - File No. 1099 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 5279 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1876 - File No. 216 (Belknap, Wm W - Florida) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 266 (Belknap, Wm W) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 4428 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 4027 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 2094 (Belknap, Wm W - California) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 1607 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Belknap, Wm W - State: District of Columbia - Year: 1870 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 1292 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2009 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 4973 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 1902 (Belknap, Wm W) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 1229 (Belknap, W W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2087 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 3045 (Belknap, Wm M - New York) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 952 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Belknap, Wm W - State: [Blank] - Year: 1870 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Belknap, Wm W - State: District of Columbia - Year: 1866 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 321 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 4106 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 4922 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 4208 (Belknap, Wm W - Texas) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 2687 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 159 (Belknap, Wm W - Kansas) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 5004 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 2571 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Consolidated Military Officer's File of Wm W Belknap, Georgia, 1864 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2287 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1874 - File No. 1838 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 1963 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 752 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
1873 - File No. 752 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Belknap, Wm W - State: Iowa - Year: 1866 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Belknap, Wm W - State: Pennsylvania - Year: 1870 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 144 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 3372 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1871 - File No. 2696 (Belknap, Wm W - Virginia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 5286 (Belknap, Wm W - Missouri) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1876 - File No. 2367 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1876 - File No. 5 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 2202 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1872 - File No. 2461 (Belknap, Wm W - Texas) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1871 - File No. 3485 (Belknap, W W - Illinois) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1875 - File No. 6041 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf 1873 - File No. 158 (Belknap, Wm W - District of Columbia) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
Relation Name
correspondedWith Abert, Charles person
associatedWith Akerman, Amos Tappan, 1821-1880. person
associatedWith Alexander, Andrew Jonathan, 1833-1887. person
associatedWith Allen, Mary Rivers, person
associatedWith Allison, William B. (William Boyd), 1829-1908. person
associatedWith Alvord, Thomas Gold, 1810-1897, person
associatedWith Ames, John G. (John Griffith), 1834-1910. person
associatedWith Augur, Christopher Columbus, 1821-1898. person
associatedWith Babcock, Orville E., 1835-1884. person
correspondedWith Baird, Spencer F. person
associatedWith Barnard, J. G. (John Gross), 1815-1882. person
correspondedWith Barnard, John Gross person
associatedWith Barney, Hiram. person
associatedWith Baxter, J.H., person
associatedWith Belknap family. family
associatedWith Belknap family. family
associatedWith Belknap, William Goldsmith, 1794-1851. person
associatedWith Benham, Henry Washington, 1813-1884. person
associatedWith Bennett, David S. (David Smith), 1811-1894. person
associatedWith Binge, C.P., person
associatedWith Bingham, J. D. person
associatedWith Bristow, Benjamin Helm, 1832-1896. person
associatedWith Burnside, Ambrose Everett, 1824-1881. person
associatedWith Butler, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1818-1893. person
associatedWith Calder, James, 1826-1892. person
associatedWith Cameron, Simon, 1799-1889. person
correspondedWith Carleton, Henry G. person
associatedWith Chaffee, Jerome Bunty, 1825-1886 person
correspondedWith Church, William Conant, 1836-1917. person
associatedWith Clapp, A.M., person
correspondedWith Cogswell, Wilbur F. person
associatedWith Cooke, Philip St. George, 1809-1895. person
associatedWith Cope, Edward D. person
associatedWith Corse, John Murray, 1835-1893. person
associatedWith Coues, Elliot person
associatedWith Crosby, H. T. person
associatedWith Crosby, H. T., fl. 1873, person
associatedWith Dawson, Henry Barton, 1821-1889, person
associatedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876 person
associatedWith Delano, Columbus, 1809-1896. person
associatedWith Dodge, Augustus C. (Augustus Caesar), 1812-1883. person
associatedWith Dodge, Grenville Mellen, 1831-1916. person
associatedWith Eads, James D., fl. 1869. person
associatedWith Edmunds, George Franklin, 1828-1919, person
associatedWith Edwards, John, 1805-1894. person
associatedWith Elliott, Henry person
associatedWith Fairchild, Lucius, 1831-1896. person
correspondedWith Fish, Hamilton person
correspondedWith Fish, Hamilton, 1808-1893. person
associatedWith Fish, Hamilton, 1888-1991. person
associatedWith Force, Manning Ferguson, 1824-1889. person
associatedWith Force, Manning Ferguson, 1824-1899. person
correspondedWith Force, M. F. (Manning Ferguson), 1824-1899 person
associatedWith Gear, John Henry, 1825-1900. person
associatedWith Gillmore, Quincy Adams, 1825-1888. person
associatedWith Grant, Frederick Dent, 1850-1912. person
associatedWith Grant, Julia Dent, 1826-1902. person
associatedWith Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. person
correspondedWith Grant, U. S. (Ulysses S.), 1881-1968 person
associatedWith Griffen, B.B., person
associatedWith Grimes, James W. (James Wilson), 1816-1872. person
correspondedWith Hamilton, Park, 1808-1893 person
associatedWith Hamlin, Hannibal, 1809-1891. person
associatedWith Hancock, Winfield Scott, 1824-1886. person
associatedWith Hardie, James Allen, 1823-1876. person
correspondedWith Harlan, John Marshall, 1833-1911. person
associatedWith Harney, William Selby, 1800-1889. person
associatedWith Hart, J. M. person
correspondedWith Hart, John Seely person
associatedWith Hartranft, John Frederick, 1830-1889. person
associatedWith Hartsuff, George Lucas, 1830-1874. person
associatedWith Hawley, Joseph Roswell, 1826-1905. person
associatedWith Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887. person
associatedWith Heintzelman, Samuel Peter, 1805-1880. person
associatedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878. person
correspondedWith Howard, Oliver Otis, Gen. person
associatedWith Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. person
associatedWith Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson, 1810-1883. person
associatedWith Huntington, Collis P., 1821-1900, person
associatedWith Ingalls, Rufus, 1820-1893. person
memberOf Iowa. General Assembly. House of Representatives corporateBody
associatedWith Johnson, Bradley Tyler, 1829-1903. person
associatedWith Julian, George Washington, 1817-1899. person
correspondedWith Kelly, J. E. person
associatedWith Kimball, Nathan, 1823?-1898. person
associatedWith Ku Klux Klan (19th cent.) corporateBody
associatedWith Leggett, Mortimer Dormer, 1821-1896. person
associatedWith Leidy, Joseph person
correspondedWith Lockwood, Philip Case, 1844-1897 person
associatedWith Logan, John Alexander, 1826-1886. person
associatedWith Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891. person
associatedWith Maclean, John (1800 1886) person
associatedWith Mallery, Garrick person
correspondedWith Marcou, Jules (Mrs.) person
associatedWith Marcy, Randolph Barnes, 1812-1887. person
associatedWith Matile, George A. (Professor ) person
associatedWith McArthur, H. C. (Henry Clay), 1838- person
associatedWith Mccosh, James person
associatedWith McCrary, George Washington, 1835-1890. person
associatedWith McDowell, Irvin, 1818-1885. person
associatedWith Meigs, Montgomery Cunningham person
correspondedWith Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Commandery of the State of Massachusetts, collector. corporateBody
associatedWith Negley, James Scott, 1826-1901. person
associatedWith Niblack, William Ellis, 1822-1893. person
associatedWith Nininger, Alexander Ramsey, 1844-1918. person
associatedWith Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, 1818-1883. person
associatedWith Ould, Robert, 1820-1882. person
associatedWith Packard, Martha Leach, 1833-1896 person
associatedWith Parke, John Grubb, 1827-1900. person
associatedWith Patterson, Edward person
associatedWith Pierrepont, Edwards, 1817-1892, person
associatedWith Pinart, A. L. person
associatedWith Pope, John, 1822-1892. person
associatedWith Porter, Horace, 1837-1921. person
alumnusOrAlumnaOf Princeton University corporateBody
associatedWith Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875. person
associatedWith Reid, Whitelaw, 1837-1912. person
associatedWith Rice, Elliott Warren, 1835-1887. person
associatedWith Richardson, John Peter, 1831-1899. person
correspondedWith Richardson, William A. person
associatedWith Ried, J.M. person
associatedWith Robeson, George M. (George Maxwell), 1829-1897 person
associatedWith Robinson, John Cleveland, 1817-1897. person
associatedWith Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907. person
associatedWith Sacket, Delos Bennet, 1822-1885. person
associatedWith Sands, Benjamin Franklin, 1812-1883. person
associatedWith Schenck, Robert Cumming, 1809-1890. person
associatedWith Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906. person
associatedWith Schumacher, Paul person
associatedWith Severance, Mark S. person
associatedWith Sheridan, Michael Vincent, 1840-1918. person
associatedWith Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888. person
associatedWith Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891 person
associatedWith Smith, Giles Alexander, 1829-1876. person
associatedWith Smith, William Prescott, 1825-1872, person
associatedWith Sternberg, H. person
associatedWith Stevens, Thomas Holdup, 1819-1896. person
associatedWith Strong, William, 1808-1895. person
associatedWith Strong, William E., fl. 1869. person
associatedWith Stuart, George H., fl. 1869. person
associatedWith Swank, James Moore, 1836-1914. person
associatedWith Talbot, Thomas Hammond, 1823-1907. person
associatedWith Thayer, John M. (John Milton), 1820-1906. person
associatedWith Thorpe, Thomas Bangs, 1815-1878, person
associatedWith Todd, John Blair Smith, 1814-1872. person
associatedWith Townsend, George Alfred, 1841-1914. person
associatedWith United States. Army corporateBody
leaderOf United States. Army. Iowa Infantry Regiment, 15th (1861-1865) corporateBody
memberOf United States. Army of the Tennessee corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Dept. of Justice. corporateBody
associatedWith United States Military Academy. corporateBody
leaderOf United States. War Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Upton, Emory, 1839-1881. person
associatedWith Van Antwerp, Verplanck, d. 1875. person
associatedWith Vandever, William, 1817-1893. person
associatedWith Walling, A. T., fl. 1871. person
associatedWith Wall, Joseph person
associatedWith Ward, Marcus L. (Marcus Lawrence), 1812-1884. person
associatedWith Washburne, Elihu Benjamin, 1816-1887. person
associatedWith Willcox, Orlando Bolivar, 1823-1907. person
associatedWith Wilson, James F. (James Falconer), 1828-1895. person
associatedWith Wilson, James Harrison, 1837-1925. person
correspondedWith Winsor, J. person
associatedWith Wipple, J.F., person
associatedWith Wolcott, Clara Belknap, 1824-1906. person
associatedWith Wolcott family. family
associatedWith Woodbridge, Mr. person
associatedWith Woodruff, Israel Carle (Gen.) person
associatedWith Wright, George G., 1820-1896. person
associatedWith Yellowstone National Park corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Washington City DC US
Newburgh NY US
Georgetown DC US
Lee County IA US
Canton MS US
Tennessee TN US
Vicksburg MS US
Princeton NJ US
Atlanta GA US
Subject
Lake Erie, Battle of, 1813
Applications for positions
Smithsonian Exchange
Internal revenue--19th century
Smithsonian Institution
National Museum
Photography
Chemistry
Impeachments--19th century
West Point
Military law
Army
Frontier and pioneer life--19th century
Light House Board
District of columbia
Congress
Inventors
Recommendations For Positions
Husband and wife--19th century--Correspondence
Shiloh, Battle of, Tenn., 1862
Geology
Reconstruction--1865-1877
Republican Party
Smithsonian Board Of Regents
Corinth, Battle of, Corinth, Miss., 1862
Vicksburg, Siege of, 1863
Sherman's March to the Sea, 1864
Civil War, 1861-1865
Ethnology Archaeology Anthropology
Democratic Party
Indians of North America--Wars--1815-1842
Exposition
Meteorology
Surveys And Explorations, General
Smithsonian Library
Scientific publications
Natural history
Seminole War, 2d, 1835-1842
Atlanta Campaign, 1864
Occupation
Army officers
Cabinet officers
Politicians
Soldiers--19 century.--United States
Lawyers
Activity

Person

Birth 1829-09-22

Death 1890-10-13

Male

Americans

English

Information

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