Hale, Charles, 1831-1882

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Charles Hale (1831-1882) was a Boston journalist and politician who graduated from Harvard in 1850. He was junior editor of his father's newspaper, the _Boston Daily Advertiser_, and in 1852 he founded the Boston literary journal, _Today_. From 1864 to 1870, Hale was U.S. Consul-General to Egypt, and was active in the development of Egypt's Assembly system. After 1870, he held various Massachusetts political offices. His publications include: _All Men Are Born Equal ..._ (Boston, 1856); _Our Houses are Our Castles_ (Boston, 1855); and others.

From the description of Papers, 1858-1869. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 191259400

Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867) was an important scientific reformer during the early nineteenth century. From his position as superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, and through leadership roles in the scientific institutions of the time, Bache helped bring American science into alignment with the professional nature of its European counterpart. In addition, Bache fostered the reform of public education in America.

On July 19, 1806 Alexander Dallas Bache was born into one of Philadelphia's elite families. The son of Richard Bache and Sophia Dallas, he was Benjamin Franklin's great-grandson, nephew to George Dallas (vice president under James K. Polk), and grandson to Alexander James Dallas (secretary of the treasury under James Madison). In 1821, Bache was admitted to the United States Military Academy at the age of 15, graduating first in his class four years later. He remained at the Academy for an additional two years to teach mathematics and natural history. While serving as a lieutenant in the Army Corps of Engineers, working on the construction of Fort Adams in Newport, R.I., he met Nancy Clarke Fowler whom he would later marry.

Bache left the Army in 1828 to begin an academic career, accepting an appointment as professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. Although his scientific interests were broad, he had a particular interest in geophyscial research. While in Philadelphia, he constructed a magnetic observatory, and made extensive research into terrestrial magnetism, and during the 1830s he began to be recognized as a leading figure in the city's scientific community. Bache was an active member of the American Philosphical Society and the Franklin Institute, seeking to raise the professional standards of both institutions and urging them to place a stronger emphasis on original research. While at the Franklin Institute from 1830-1835, Bache led a Federally-funded investigation into steam-boiler explosions, the government's first use of technical experts to examine a matter involving public policy.

In 1836 Bache became interested in educational reform when he was asked to help organize the curriculum at Girard College, of which he later served as president. Bache spent two years in Europe visiting over 250 educational institutions. The result of his visit was a 600 page study, Report on Education in Europe, to the Trustees of the Girard College for Orphans published in 1839. Although Bache was unable to apply the report at Girard College because of its delayed opening, it proved useful in overhauling the curriculum of Philadelphia's Central High School, where he was superintendent from 1839-1842, and was widely influential among American educational reformers, helping to introduce the Prussian educational model to the United States.

After meeting many of the leading savants during a European tour, including Alexander von Humboldt, Francois Arago, and Karl Friedrich Gauss, Bache became convinced of the need to professionalize American science. His opportunity to make an impact came in 1843 with the death of Ferdinand Hassler, superindendent of the U.S. Coast Survey. In the years before the Civil War, the Coast Survey supported more scientists then any other institution in the country, and Bache and his colleagues saw the Survey as a means of gaining federal patronage for science. After a campaign by his friends and colleagues, Bache was named as Hassler's replacement. Over the next two decades Bache transformed the Coast Survey into one of the nation's leading scientific institutions, becoming an important patron of science himself in the process . Bache was not just an administrator, but remained personally involved in field work.

Bache also led the reform of American science through his leadership of an elite group known as the "Lazzaroni" or scientific beggars. The goal of the Lazzaroni was to ensure that the nation's leading scientists kept control of the nation's scientific institutions, and they were instrumental in reforming the American Association for the Advancement of Science (of which Bache was president of in 1850). In his remarkably busy schedule, Bache was a member of the Lighthouse Board (1844-1845), superintendent of the Office of Weights and Measures (1844), and a prominent regent for the Smithsonian Institution, where he convinced fellow Lazzaroni Joseph Henry to become its first secretary. Bache also played a leading role in the creation of the National Academy of Sciences, serving as its first president. When the Americn Civil War broke out, Bache focused the Coast Survey to support the war effort, was vice president of the Sanitary Commision, a consultant to the army and navy on battle plans, a superintended for Philadelphia's defence plans, and a member of the Permanent Commission of the navy in charge of evaluating new weapons. Bache died in Newport, R.I. on February 17, 1867.

From the guide to the A. D. Bache Collection, 1833-1873, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Bancroft, George, 1800-1891. Letters, 1868, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Nancy Hale Papers 251., 1908 - 1989 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Palfrey family papers, 1713-1915. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Portrait file: Guide. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Butler, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1818-1893. Letter, 1867, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn William Warland Clapp correspondence, 1790-1891 (inclusive), 1840-1891 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Dana, Richard Henry, 1815-1882. Letters, 1861-1872, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909. Letter : Boston, to Rev. W.B. Sprague, 1865 Dec. 11. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Mori, Arinori, 1847-1889. Letter, 1872, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Hale Family Papers, 1698-1916, (bulk 1810-1909) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Thayer, William Sydney, 1830-1864. William Sydney Thayer papers, 1835-1901 (bulk 1835-1895). Library of Congress
referencedIn Autograph File, H, 1584-1988. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Banks, W. P. Letter, 1872, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Badeau, Adam, 1831-1895. Letter, 1873, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Gilman, Daniel Coit, 1831-1908. Letter, 1853, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Adams, Henry, 1838-1918. Letter, n.d., to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Letters to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1761-1904 (inclusive) 1820-1888 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf General Records of the Department of State. 1763 - 2002. Letters Sent by the Assistant Secretary of State
creatorOf A. D. Bache Collection, 1833-1873 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Hale, Charles, 1831-1882. Papers, 1858-1869. Gadsden Public Library
referencedIn William Sydney Thayer Papers, 1835-1901, (bulk 1835-1895) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Charles Sumner correspondence, 1829-1874. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Everett, Alexander Hill, 1790-1847. Hale family papers, 1698-1916 (bulk 1810-1909). Library of Congress
referencedIn Hill, Adams Sherman, 1833-1910. Papers, 1859-1864. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn John P. (John Prescott) Bigelow papers, 1805-1896 (inclusive) 1814-1863 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Whitney, A. D. T. (Adeline Dutton Train), 1824-1906. Letter, n.d., to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Read, John M. (John Meredith), 1797-1874. Letter, 1873, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909. Letters, 1851 June 3-1900 Jan. 25. Boston Athenaeum
creatorOf Hale family. Papers, 1787-1988 (bulk 1810-1963). Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf Curtis, George William, 1824-1892. Letters, 1871-1872, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf MacDonald, Alexander. Papers, 1863-1876. Massachusetts Historical Society
creatorOf Boston Chess Club. Speeches at banquet for Paul Morphy, 31 May 1859. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Hale Family Papers MS 71., 1787-1988 Sophia Smith Collection
creatorOf Blackwell, Henry Browne, 1825-1909. Letter, 1876, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Howells family papers, 1850-1954 (inclusive). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Ticknor, George, 1791-1871. Letter, 1854, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891. Letter, 1866, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Robert Carter letters from various correspondents, 1851-1898 (inclusive), 1851-1862 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Winthrop, Robert C. (Robert Charles), 1809-1894. Letter, 1872, to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Poore, Benjamin Perley, 1820-1887. Letter, n.d., to Charles Hale. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, Henry, 1838-1918. person
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873 person
associatedWith Babbage, Charles, 1791-1871 person
associatedWith Bache, A. D., (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867 person
associatedWith Bache, Albert Dabadie, 1832-1895 person
associatedWith Badeau, Adam, 1831-1895. person
associatedWith Bancroft, George, 1800-1891. person
associatedWith Banks, W. P. person
associatedWith Barnes, H. B. (Henry Broughton) person
associatedWith Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891. person
associatedWith Bigelow, John P. (John Prescott), 1797-1872 person
associatedWith Blackwell, Henry Browne, 1825-1909. person
associatedWith Bond, W. C. (William Cranch), 1789-1859 person
associatedWith Boston Chess Club. corporateBody
associatedWith Brewster, David, Sir, 1781-1868 person
associatedWith Brewster, Sir David person
associatedWith Butler, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1818-1893. person
associatedWith Carter, Robert, 1819-1879 person
associatedWith Chambers, Robert, 1802-1871 person
associatedWith Cheney, T. Apoleon (Theseus Apoleon), 1830-1878 person
associatedWith Clapp, William Warland, 1826-1891 person
associatedWith Combe, George, 1788-1858 person
associatedWith Cooper, Peter, 1791-1883 person
associatedWith Curtis, George William, 1824-1892. person
associatedWith Dana, Richard Henry, 1815-1882. person
associatedWith Dickins, Asbury, 1780-1861 person
associatedWith Fessenden, W. P. (William Pitt), 1806-1869 person
associatedWith Gilman, Daniel Coit, 1831-1908. person
associatedWith Hale, Charles person
associatedWith Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909. person
associatedWith Hale family family
associatedWith Hale family. family
associatedWith Hale Family family
associatedWith Hale, Nancy, 1908- person
associatedWith Hilgard, Julius Erasmus, 1825-1891 person
associatedWith Hill, Adams Sherman, 1833-1910. person
associatedWith King, Horatio, 1811-1897 person
associatedWith Lee, Samuel Phillips, 1812-1897 person
correspondedWith Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 person
associatedWith MacDonald, Alexander. person
associatedWith Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889 person
associatedWith Mori, Arinori, 1847-1889. person
associatedWith Paine, Robert Treat, 1803-1885 person
associatedWith Paine, R. T. person
correspondedWith Palfrey family. family
associatedWith Poore, Benjamin Perley, 1820-1887. person
associatedWith Potter, Alonzo, 1800-1865 person
associatedWith Quetelet, Adolphe, 1796-1874 person
associatedWith Read, John M. (John Meredith), 1797-1874. person
associatedWith Redfield, W. C. (William C.), 1789-1857 person
associatedWith Ruggles, Samuel B., (Samuel Bulkley), 1800-1881 person
associatedWith Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906 person
associatedWith Schumacher, Heinrich Christian, 1780-1850 person
associatedWith Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872 person
associatedWith Sparkes, Jared person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Spencer, Charles Achilles, 1813-1881 person
associatedWith Stevenson, Alan, 1807-1865 person
associatedWith Stevenson, David person
associatedWith Stevenson, David, 1815-1886 person
associatedWith Stevenson, Robert, 1772-1850 person
correspondedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
correspondedWith Thayer, William Sydney, 1830-1864. person
associatedWith Ticknor, George, 1791-1871. person
associatedWith Tilghman, Tench, 1810-1874 person
associatedWith Toucey, Isaac, 1792-1869 person
associatedWith Upsher, Able Percey person
associatedWith Vroom, Peter Dumont, 1791-1873 person
associatedWith Whitney, A. D. T. (Adeline Dutton Train), 1824-1906. person
associatedWith Winthrop, Robert C. (Robert Charles), 1809-1894. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Egypt
United States
Subject
Girard College
United States Coast Survey
Geological Survey of the State of New Jersey
Arabic language
Science and technology
Antebellum Politics
Cooper Union
Lighthouse
Geology
Diplomatic and consular service, Egyptian
Education
Diplomatic and consular service, American
Early National Politics
National Academy of Sciences
Natural history
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1831

Death 1882

English

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