Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998

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Mary Steichen Calderone (July 1, 1904 – October 24, 1998) was an American physician and a public health advocate for sexual education. Her most notable feat was overturning the American Medical Association policy against the dissemination of birth control information to patients.

Calderone served as president and co-founder of the Sex Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) from 1954 to 1982. She was also the medical director for Planned Parenthood. She wrote many publications advocating open dialogue and access to information at all ages. Her extensive work with popularizing sexuality education has often been compared to Margaret Sanger's campaign for birth control.

Calderone was born in New York, New York on July 1, 1904. Biographer Jeffrey Moran suggests that her bohemian childhood with her famous father, Edward Steichen, her uncle poet Carl Sandburg, and Quaker upbringing influenced her liberal outlook on sex as well as contributed to her opinionated and passionate nature.

Calderone attended the Brearley School in New York City for her secondary education. She matriculated at Vassar College, graduating in 1925 with an A.B. in Chemistry. Calderone decided to go into theatre and studied for three years at the American Laboratory Theater. She was the model for the figures on the Pratt Institute flagpole, whose bronze was sculpted by her uncle Willard Dryden Paddock, and was erected in 1926 to commemorate the soldiers who served in World War I.

Calderone married actor W. Lon Martin and had two daughters, Nell, who died at age 8 of pneumonia, and Linda.

She abandoned acting and divorced in 1933. The death of her eight-year-old daughter Nell, along with dashed acting dreams and a divorce, plunged Calderone into depression. After a series of psychoanalytic tests, she decided to return to school and study medicine. She was 30 years old.

She obtained her M.D. degree from the University of Rochester medical school in 1939. She then received an M.P.H. from Columbia University in 1942. During this time she interned at hospitals and clinics, one belonging to Dr. Frank A. Calderone, whom she married in 1941. Frank Calderone was then a district health officer in New York and eventually became the chief administrative officer of the World Health Organization. Mary Calderone worked as a physician in the Great Neck, New York public school system. The couple had two daughters, Francesca (1943) and Maria (1946).

In 1953, Calderone joined the staff of the controversial Planned Parenthood Federation of America as its Medical Director. Her tenure there was prolific. In 1958, she organized a national conference that instigated the movement to legalize abortion. Her biggest success at Planned Parenthood came in 1964 when she overturned the American Medical Association policy against physicians disseminating information on birth control. Calderone did not believe that her work should be limited to preventive measures against pregnancy. Letters arrived at Planned Parenthood daily asking questions about not just sex, but sexuality at large. Calderone came to the realization that sexuality did not just equate to genitality, and that sex education was sorely lacking from American society.

With the conviction that "handing out contraceptives was not enough," Calderone quit her position at Planned Parenthood in 1964 and established the Sex Information and Education Council of the United States, Inc. (SIECUS). Driven by Calderone's dynamic talks across the nation and its mission statement, "to establish man's sexuality as a health entity," the organization became an essential umbrella group for school administrators, sex educators, physicians, social activists, and parents seeking to access information about teaching sexuality education. Calderone and her organization became recognized and respected with the message of sex as a positive force, but opponents also watched her closely. Calderone's insistence that sex education should begin as early as kindergarten did not impress religious conservative groups like MOMS (Mothers Organized for Moral Stability) and MOTOREDE (Movement to Restore Decency), who called Calderone the leader of the "SIECUS stinkpot." A bestselling 1968 pamphlet, Is the School House the Proper Place to Teach Raw Sex?, targeted SIECUS, calling Calderone the "SIECUS Sexpot" and claiming that she wanted to undermine Christian morality and corrupt children.

Calderone wrote several books on sex education: The Family Book about Sexuality and Talking with Your Child About Sex are two. Although she was adamant about sexual freedom, her beliefs did not align with the burgeoning sexual revolution of the late 1960s. Calderone believed that the sex act should be ultimately reserved for marriage, and that sexuality found its peak expression through the "permanent man-woman bond."

Calderone died on October 24, 1998 at the Longwood Nursing Home in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. She was 94.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Papers, 1873-1990 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts Records MS 359., 1859-2002, 1916-1960 Sophia Smith Collection
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. Papers, 1904-1983 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Charles S. Ascher Papers, 1926-1979. Columbia University. Rare Book an Manuscript Library
referencedIn Clothier, Florence, 1903-1987. Additional papers, 1934-1983 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts records, 1859-2002 (ongoing) (bulk 1916-1960). Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf Papers, 1904-1971 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Additional papers, 1922-1979 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1904-1971 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. Videotape collection of Mary Steichen Calderone, ca.1979-1985. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Clothier, Florence, 1903-1987. Papers, 1885-1982 (inclusive), 1916-1982 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Videotapes, 1979-1985 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project. Records, 1909-1984 (inclusive), 1973-1977 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Videotapes, 1979-1985 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen. [Videotape collection] [videorecording]. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Schlesinger-Rockefeller oral history project MS 416. Sophia Smith Collection
creatorOf Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America. Schlesinger-Rockefeller oral history project : transcripts, 1973-1975. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Additional papers, 1954-1983 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Mudd, Emily Hartshorne, 1898-. Papers: Series IV-VI, 1927-1990 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Interviews, 1973-1977 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. Additional papers, 1922-1979 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1885-1980, 1925-1980 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Ascher, Charles S. (Charles Stern), 1899-1980. Charles S. Ascher papers, 1926-1979. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Additional papers of Mary Steichen Calderone, (inclusive), (bulk), 1914-1989, 1960-1989 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Gamble, Clarence James, 1894-. Papers of Clarence J. Gamble, 1920-1966 (bulk). Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
creatorOf Additional papers, 1967-1982 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Eliot, Martha M. (Martha May), b. 1891. Papers, 1870-1978 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1898-1975 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. Additional papers, 1954-1983 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. Reminiscences of Mary Steichen Calderone : oral history, 1974. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. Additional papers, 1967-1982 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
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