United States. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

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In March 1972 President Richard Nixon called for an "intensive study" and requested a plan for developing a "safe, fast, and efficient nationwide blood collection and distribution system." Nixon's request was the result of several independent events and initiatives throughout the late 1960s that focused on the U.S. lack of an efficient system for maintaining a sufficiently ample, risk-free national blood supply. The primary aim of the policy was to eliminate the nation's dependence on an oft-contaminated blood supply, with its associated public health problems, by developing an all-volunteer donation system, and thus improving the quality of the supply of blood and development of an appropriate ethical climate for increasing the use of human tissues for therapeutic medical purposes.

From the description of U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, national blood policy records, 1969-1981. (National Library of Medicine). WorldCat record id: 14337936

Beginning in 1932, the Public Health Service began a study of the effects of untreated syphilis on black men in Macon County, Alabama. On August 24, 1972 Merlin K. DuVal, M.D., Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, announced the appointment of an ad hoc panel headed by Broadus N. Butler, president of Dillard University, to investigate the study. The panel was empowered to explore whether the study was justified, whether it should be continued, and if existing H.E.W. regulations properly protected the rights of patients. The final report of the panel was delivered on April 28, 1973.

From the description of Documents on the origin and development of the Tuskegee syphilis study, 1921-1973. (National Library of Medicine). WorldCat record id: 14322373

In March 1972 President Richard Nixon called for an "intensive study" and requested a plan for developing a "safe, fast, and efficient nationwide blood collection and distribution system." Nixon's request was the result of several independent events and initiatives throughout the late 1960s that focused on the U.S. lack of an efficient system for maintaining a sufficiently ample, risk-free national blood supply.

American blood supplies depended heavily on "commercial" blood, that is, blood acquired by private blood banks that paid its donors. The result was a large instance of hepatitis in patients receiving blood transfusions (there was no screening test for hepatitis at this time), significant national blood supply shortages, an inefficient distribution system, and extremely high charges for blood for hospital patients. Scientists had long recognized the problems in the ad hoc, commercial-volunteer system of supplying and regulating the nation's blood supply.

The Policy outlined 10 principle goals: (1) need for an adequate blood supply for treatment and diagnostic needs, (2) attain the highest standards of blood transfusion therapy and research; (3) universal access to national blood supply for anyone in need, regardless of economic status; (4) efficient collection, processing, storage and utilization of blood supply; (5) assure ample donation; (6) support educational programs to assure most appropriate and safe use of the supply; (7) employ full regulatory authority and seek additional authority to assure adherence to highest standards of blood banking; (8) support research in the full spectrum of blood banking and therapy activities; (9) include benefit in health care insurance programs to assure universal access to blood and blood products to anyone in need; (10) made DHEW responsible for implementation of the policy. The primary aim of the policy was to eliminate the nation's dependence on an oft-contaminated blood supply, with its associated public health problems, by developing an all-volunteer donation system, and thus improving the quality of the supply of blood and development of an appropriate ethical climate for increasing the use of human tissues for therapeutic medical purposes.

  • 1967: The National Blood Resource Education Program was established at the National Heart and Lung Institute (NIH).
  • 1970: National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council's "An evaluation of the utilization of human blood resources in the United States" calls for major reforms.
  • 1971: NBRP, NHLI and Booz, Allen, Hamilton contract for a study to collect data and report extensively on blood services in the U.S.
  • Fall 1971: NBC television documentary highlights numerous deficiencies in blood services, including periodic blood shortages, blood purchases from indigents and unhealthy populations, wastage of blood collected, and excessive hepatitis occurance.
  • Jan. 1972: DHEW Secretary Elliott Richardson calls for formation of an intra-Departmental Task Force to create a national blood policy.
  • March 1972: Nixon calls for HEW to develop a national plan for collecting and distributing blood.
  • Sep./Oct. 1972: Booz, Allen, Hamilton report published documenting many problems with organization and practice in blood services
  • Dec. 1972: Draft National Blood Policy prepared.
  • July 1973: DHEW Secretary Caspar Weinberger announces National Blood Policy and issues call for public and private sectors to develop implementation schemes.
  • Sep. 1974: DHEW publishes in the Federal Register its evaluation and comments on the implementation plan. Important was the creation of the private sector American Blood Commission to provide a single locus for blood services accountability within the private sector.

From the guide to the U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, National Blood Policy Records, 1969-1981, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)

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referencedIn Benjamin Everett Jordan Papers, 1896-1974 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Krantz, Goldie, 1915-1976. Goldie Krantz papers, 1928-1977 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Fitch, William C. Reminiscences of William C. Fitch, Sr. : oral history, 1966. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Robert C. Mardian Papers, 1957-1995 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Idaho Farmworker Policy Research Project Collection, 1918-2006, bulk 1980-2000 Boise State University Library, Special Collections and Archives
referencedIn Manhattan College. Higher education collection, 1938-1980. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Gardner, John W. (John William), 1912-2002,. Reminiscences of John W. Gardner : oral history, 1998. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Hobby, Oveta Culp, 1905-1995. Oveta Culp Hobby papers, 1901-1996. Rice University, Fondren Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adkins, Bertha Sheppard, 1906-1983. person
associatedWith Alabama. Attorney General's Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Alabama Medicaid Agency. corporateBody
associatedWith Albert, Carl Bert, 1908-2000. person
associatedWith Allegheny County (Pa.). Health Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Altmeyer, Arthur J. (Arthur Joseph), 1891-1972. person
associatedWith American Medical Association. Dept. of Investigation. corporateBody
associatedWith American Montessori Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Ames, Louise Bates. person
associatedWith Anna Chennault person
associatedWith Arizona State University. College of Education. corporateBody
associatedWith Auerbach Associates. corporateBody
associatedWith Backus, R.C. person
associatedWith Badolato, Dominic J. person
associatedWith Beasley, Thaddeus Vernon. person
associatedWith Bell, Joanne person
associatedWith Bell-Lucas, Sarah M., 1937- person
associatedWith Berry, George Packer, 1898- person
associatedWith Black, Creed Carter, 1925- person
associatedWith Boise State University. Anthropology Department corporateBody
associatedWith Bradshaw, Herbert Clarence, 1908-1976 person
associatedWith Brady, Rodney Howard 1933- person
associatedWith Brigham Young University. Dept. Communicative Disorders. corporateBody
associatedWith Burns, Virginia person
associatedWith Butler, Broadus N. person
associatedWith Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998 person
associatedWith Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. person
associatedWith Califano, Joseph A., 1931- person
correspondedWith Cardinal Health Agency (Lumberton, N.C.). corporateBody
associatedWith Carstenson, Blue. person
associatedWith Celebrezze, Anthony J. person
associatedWith Celebrezze, Anthony J. (Anthony Joseph), 1910-1998. person
associatedWith Church, Roberta. person
associatedWith Cohen, Wilbur J. (Wilbur Joseph), 1913-1987. person
associatedWith Committee on the Status of Women at Harvard person
associatedWith Committee on the Status of Women at Harvard. corporateBody
associatedWith Cornell University. Public Affairs Associates' Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Cornell University. Treasurer's Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Corson, Dale R. person
associatedWith Coston, Dean W. (Dean Walter), 1923- person
associatedWith Davis, John Bradford, 1921- person
associatedWith Dearing, Warren Palmer, 1905 - person
associatedWith DeLong, Vaughn Russell, 1903- person
associatedWith Dryden, Muriel Anne, 1911- person
associatedWith Dunham, Ethel Collins, 1883-1969. person
associatedWith Dunkle, Margaret. person
associatedWith Eagle, Jacqueline person
associatedWith Eliot, Martha M. (Martha May), b. 1891. person
associatedWith Esselstyn, Caldwell B., 1902-1975. person
associatedWith Falk, I. S. (Isidore Sydney), 1899-1984. person
associatedWith Farmer, James Leonard, Jr., 1920-1999 person
associatedWith Fitch, William C. person
correspondedWith Flynt, John James, 1914-2007. person
associatedWith Fogarty, John Edward, 1913-1967 person
associatedWith Folsom, Marion Bayard, 1893-1976. person
associatedWith Frances Humprey Howard person
associatedWith Furman, Bess, 1894-1969. person
associatedWith Gardner, John W. (John William), 1912-2002, person
associatedWith Granger, Shelton B., 1921-. person
associatedWith Halperin, Samuel, 1930- person
associatedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
associatedWith Hanes, R. Philip, 1926- person
associatedWith Hardy, Harriet Louise, 1906- person
associatedWith Harriet Louise Hardy, 1906- person
associatedWith Henderson, David Newton, 1921- person
associatedWith Higher Education Resource Services (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Hill, George Watts, 1926-2002. person
associatedWith Hobby, Oveta Culp, 1905-1995 person
correspondedWith Hocking, William Ernest, 1873-1966 person
associatedWith Hughes, Joyce A., b. 1940. person
associatedWith Illinois. Dept. of Public Health. corporateBody
associatedWith International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, Lodge 707 (Middletown, Conn.) corporateBody
associatedWith Jones, Boisfeuillet. person
associatedWith Jordan, Benjamin Everett person
associatedWith Judd, Orrin G. person
associatedWith Justice, William Wayne, 1920-2009 corporateBody
associatedWith Katherine (Brownell) Oettinger, 1903- person
associatedWith Keneally, Henry J. person
associatedWith Kentucky Commission on Aging. corporateBody
associatedWith Kentucky. Dept. for Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services. corporateBody
associatedWith Kentucky. Dept. for Social Services. Division of Family Services. corporateBody
associatedWith Kentucky. Division of Epidemiology. corporateBody
associatedWith Klopsteg, Paul E. (Paul Ernest), 1889- person
associatedWith Knutson, Cornelia Gjesdal, 1912- person
associatedWith Krantz, Goldie, 1915-1976. person
associatedWith Lambertsen, Eleanor C., 1916- person
associatedWith Latino Project (Philadelphia, Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith Lee, Bernice person
associatedWith Lee, Philip Randolph, 1924- person
associatedWith Levin, Harry, 1912-1994 person
associatedWith Manhattan College. corporateBody
associatedWith Mardian, Robert Charles, 1923-2006. person
associatedWith Mardian, Robert C. (Robert Charles), 1923- person
associatedWith Margaret Dunkle person
associatedWith Marland, Sidney Percy. person
associatedWith Marston, Robert Q., 1923- person
associatedWith MARTHA MAY ELIOT, 1891-1978 person
associatedWith MARY ELIZABETH SWITZER, 1900-1971 person
associatedWith MARY STEICHEN CALDERONE person
associatedWith Mathews, Forrest David, 1935- person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
correspondedWith McKissick, Floyd B. (Floyd Bixler), 1922- person
associatedWith Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area. corporateBody
associatedWith Miles, Rufus E. person
associatedWith Miller, Paul A. 1917- person
associatedWith Minneapolis (Minn.). corporateBody
associatedWith Minneapolis (Minn.). corporateBody
associatedWith Minnesota. Chronic Disease Control Section. corporateBody
associatedWith Minnesota. Dept. of Health. corporateBody
associatedWith Minnesota. Dept. of Health. Commissioner's Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Minnesota. Dept. of Public Welfare. corporateBody
associatedWith Minnesota. Division of Disease Prevention and Control. corporateBody
associatedWith Minnesota. State Council on Vocational Technical Education. corporateBody
associatedWith Mitchell, Ian, Dr. person
associatedWith Nalbandov, Andrew V. (Andrew Vladimir), 1912- person
associatedWith Nash, Ruth Cowan, 1901- person
associatedWith Nathan, Richard P. person
associatedWith Nathan, Richard P. person
associatedWith National Blood Resource Education Program (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute corporateBody
associatedWith National Science Foundation Special Committee on Medical Research corporateBody
associatedWith National Science Foundation (U.S.). Special Committee on Medical Research. corporateBody
associatedWith National Union of Hospital and Health Care Employees. corporateBody
associatedWith Nestingen, Ivan A. (Ivan Arnold), 1921-1978. person
associatedWith New York (State). Dept. of Social Services. Commissioner's Office. Local District Liaison Unit. corporateBody
associatedWith Oettinger, Katherine Brownell, 1903- person
associatedWith Perkins, Roswell B. person
associatedWith Project on Equal Education Rights. corporateBody
associatedWith Project on the Status and Education of Women (Association of American Colleges) person
associatedWith Randolph, Theron G. person
associatedWith Rawles, Robert person
associatedWith Richardson, Elliot L., 1920-1999. person
associatedWith Richman, Harold, 1937-2009 person
associatedWith Rutgers University. Office of the Provost and Vice President. corporateBody
associatedWith Salber, Eva J., 1916-1990 person
associatedWith Scalise, Peter R., 1913-1990. person
associatedWith Silver, George A. person
associatedWith Southern Growth Policies Board. corporateBody
associatedWith Spong, William B. (William Belser), 1920-1997. person
associatedWith Stauber, Leslie A., 1907-1973 person
associatedWith Stephens, Robert G. (Robert Grier), 1913-2003. person
associatedWith Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.). Washington Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Suburban Health Planning Association (Oak Park, Ill.) corporateBody
associatedWith Switzer, Mary Elizabeth, 1900- person
associatedWith Syracuse University. Office for Academic Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith Taft, William Howard, 1915 August 7- person
associatedWith Taft, William Howard, 1945- person
associatedWith Terry, Luther L. 1911-1985. person
associatedWith Thye, Edward John, 1896-. person
associatedWith Tufts-Delta Health Center (Mound Bayou, Miss.) corporateBody
associatedWith Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Office of Economic Opportunity. Office of Operations. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Office of Economic Opportunity. Office of the Director. corporateBody
associatedWith United Ukrainian American Relief Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Connecticut. Office of Public Infomation corporateBody
correspondedWith University of Connecticut. President's Office. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Michigan. Women's Athletics. corporateBody
associatedWith University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chancellor. corporateBody
associatedWith University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chancellor. corporateBody
associatedWith University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Equal Opportunity/ADA Office. corporateBody
associatedWith University of North Carolina (System). Division of Legal Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. School of Nursing. corporateBody
associatedWith Veneman, John G., 1925-1982. person
associatedWith Vidal, Gore, 1925- person
associatedWith Wahl, Henry C. person
associatedWith Walker, Matthew, 1906-1978. person
associatedWith Walter E. Fernald State School. corporateBody
associatedWith Ware, Willis H. person
associatedWith Watts, John C. (John Clarence), 1902-1971. person
associatedWith Weinberger, Caspar W. person
associatedWith Weinberger, Caspar W. person
associatedWith Williamson, Kenneth. person
associatedWith Winston, Ellen, 1903-1984. person
associatedWith Wisconsin. Dept. of Public Instruction. corporateBody
associatedWith Withers, Carl person
associatedWith Wolfe, Corinne Howell, person
associatedWith Wolfe, Corinne Howell, 1912- person
associatedWith Woon, Henry, 1926- person
associatedWith Ximenes, Vicente 1919- person
associatedWith Yankelovich, Daniel. person
associatedWith Younger, J. Arthur (Jesse Arthur), 1893-1967. person
associatedWith Zamora, Aguinaldo, person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Alabama
United States
United States
United States
United States
Subject
Blood banks
government publicity
African Americans
Public health
Health policy
Syphilis
Human Experimentation
Occupation
Activity

Corporate Body

Active 1964

Active 1970

Information

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