American public health association

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The American Public Health Association was founded in 1872 as a professional organization of physicians, nurses, educators, sanitary engineers, environmentalists, social workers, optometrists, podiatrists, pharmacists, dentists, hygienists, and other community health specialists. In pursuit of its goal of protecting and promoting personal and environmental health, the APHA offers services including the promulgation of standards, the establishment of uniform practices and procedures, development of the etiology of communicable diseases, research in public health areas, and the exploration of various types of medical care programs and their relation to pubic health.

From the description of American Public Health Association records, 1938-1972 (inclusive). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702206487

The American Public Health Association was founded in 1872 as a professional organization of physicians, nurses, educators, sanitary engineers, environmentalists, social workers, optometrists, podiatrists, pharmacists, dentists, hygienists, and other community health specialists. In pursuit of its goal of protecting and promoting personal and environmental health, the APHA offers services including the promulgation of standards, the establishment of uniform practices and procedures, development of the etiology of communicable diseases, research in public health areas, and the exploration of various types of medical care programs and their relation to pubic health.

The American Public Health Association (A.P.H.A.) Papers were collected by Arthur J. Viseltear while he was conducting research on the development of the A.P.H.A.'s Medical Care Section. The papers, which extend from 1938 to 1972, document A.P.H.A.'s official recognition of medical care as a discipline within the public health profession through the establishment during the 1940s of two successive medical care subdivisions within the organization. The recognition of medical care, though controversial and divisive, represented a critical step in the development of both the A.P.H.A. and the public health profession.

Medical care, which concerns the costs, organization, and delivery of health services, began to develop as a field within public health during the 1920s. C.-E. A. Winslow and other progressive public health leaders recognized that progress in medical science was resulting in increasingly fragmented, costly, and unevenly distributed health services, and they maintained that the traditional division between medicine and public health (which limited the latter field to sanitation, preventive medicine and public health education) was artificial and unrealistic. They further argued that the profession and the A.P.H.A. should play an advocacy role in developing comprehensive national plans for improving and rationalizing the delivery of health services.

Traditionalists within the A.P.H.A. and the profession, for a variety of reasons, opposed the expansion of public health into areas which had been limited to medical practitioners. One of their chief concerns was that partisanship on social issues would dilute the profession's effectiveness and would generate an intense reaction among physicians. Tension between the two groups increased during the 1930s and 1940s as compulsory federal health insurance, which was supported either in whole or in part by many advocates of medical care, became the subject of a heated national debate in Congress and in the press.

The advocates of medical care made halting progress during the 1930s and early 1940s towards making the organization address medical care issues and recognize medical care as a discipline. An important milestone was achieved in early 1944 when the Subcommittee on Medical Care was formed within the Committee on Administrative Practice. During 1944 the subcommittee drafted a report, "Medical Care in a National Health Program," which endorsed the adoption of a comprehensive national health program. After lengthy debate the report was adopted as an official statement of A.P.H.A. policy at the organization's annual meeting in October 1944. In 1945 the Subcommittee on Medical Care began an ambitious program of studies which were largely funded by annual operating grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.

The Subcommittee on Medical Care occupied an anomalous position within the organizational structure of the A.P.H.A. Its scope was broader than that of the Committee on Administrative Practice (C.A.P.), its parent body, yet it could be dissolved at the will of the C.A.P. Therefore, some supporters of medical care sought to achieve a stronger and more secure status for their discipline within the A.P.H.A. hierarchy. In early 1948 the subcommittee chairman appointed a Committee for the Creation of a Medical Care Section (C.C.M.C.S.), and shortly thereafter the committee secretary announced that the establishment of a Medical Care Section would be proposed to the A.P.H.A. Governing Council at the annual meeting scheduled for November. Since the A.P.H.A. sections represented the functional categories into which the public health profession was divided, section status for medical care would give individuals involved in diverse aspects of medical care and social medicine an equal voice with other traditional divisions of the profession.

During the summer and fall the C.C.M.C.S. canvassed unaffiliated members and non-members of the A.P.H.A. and prepared a series of documents supporting the creation of the section. A motion for the creation of a Medical Care Section was presented to the Governing Council during its meeting on November 11, 1948. After lengthy debate, including eloquent presentations by Winslow and Haven Emerson respectively supporting and opposing the motion, it was carried by a vote of 55 to 16. The creation of the section did not eliminate the Subcommittee on Medical Care. The subcommittee, which had both funding and an active program, continued to function until 1957.

By establishing the Medical Care Section, A.P.H.A. officially recognized that the organization, costs, and delivery of health services were within the purview of public health. By so doing, the A.P.H.A. has become a primary organization promoting public health. For a comprehensive history of the development of medical care, see Arthur J. Viseltear, "Emergence of the Medical Care Section of the American Public Health Association, 1926-1948," American Journal of Public Health, vol. 63, No. 11 (Series III, folder 33).

From the guide to the American Public Health Association records, 1938-1972, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf American Public Health Association. [Annual reports], 1992- Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, IUPUI
creatorOf American Public Health Association. American Public Health Association records, 1938-1972 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease. Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease records, 1909-1915. Rockefeller Archive Center, Rockefeller University, Pocantico Hills
referencedIn Eliot, Martha M. (Martha May), b. 1891. Papers, 1870-1978 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Joseph Meredith Toner Collection of Manuscripts, 1741-1896 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Terris, Milton, 1915-. Milton Terris papers, 1944-1968 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. Lasker Award Archives, 1944-87 (bulk 1962-1987). National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Ira Vaughn Hiscock Papers, 1920-1974 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Hamilton, Alice, 1869-1970. Papers 1909-1965 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Academy of Medicine of Cleveland. [Medical societies collection of programs, etc.]. Stanford University, Lane Medical Library
referencedIn School of Public Health (University of Michigan) records, 1909-2010, 1941-2004 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Breed, Robert S. (Robert Stanley), 1877-1956. Robert Stanley Breed papers, [ca. 1901-1943]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Insley, Virginia, 1912-. Papers, 1902-1994 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Caldwell B. Esselstyn papers, 1945-1964 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Silver, George A. George A. Silver papers, 1946-1999 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Bugher, John C., 1901-1970. Papers, 1950-1966. Rockefeller Archive Center, Rockefeller University, Pocantico Hills
referencedIn Papers, 1810-1984 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn University of Michigan. School of Public Health. School of Public Health (University of Michigan) records, 1909-[ongoing] (bulk 1941-1989). University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Lasker, Mary. Mary Lasker papers, 1940-1993. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Reeves, James E. (James Edmund), 1829-1896. President's address delivered at the opening of the 13th annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Dec. 8, 1885. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Brown, Clara Adele, 1895-1986. Adele Brown personal correspondence and records, 1895-1986. SUNY Oswego, Penfield Library
referencedIn Charles-Edward Amory Winslow papers, 1874-1977, 1915-1945 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Papers, 1915-1965 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf American Public Health Association. Letter to Henry Charles Lea, 1881. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Krantz, Goldie, 1915-1976. Goldie Krantz papers, 1928-1977 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Goldie Krantz papers, 1928-1977 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company contracts, 1831-1979 (inclusive) 1880-1940 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. Lasker Award archives, 1944-1987 (bulk 1962-1987). National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Lee Kaufer Frankel collection, undated, 1889-1933, 1936-1938, 1942-1944 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn H.J. Conn papers, 1911-1959. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Moore, Veranus A. (Veranus Alva), 1859-1931. Veranus A. Moore papers, 1836-1958. Cornell University Library
referencedIn John H. Romani papers, 1957-1991, 1970-1990 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Rosen, George, 1910-. George Rosen papers, 1912-1978 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 26: Office Of The Secretary, Incoming Corres..
referencedIn Veranus A. Moore papers, 1836-1958 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf American Public Health Association records, 1938-1972 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation - Albert Lasker Awards Archives, 1944- History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Additional papers of Mary Steichen Calderone, (inclusive), (bulk), 1914-1989, 1960-1989 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Additional papers of Ellen K. Silbergeld, 1982-2001 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Harold J. Mayers papers, 1948-1976 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Henry F. Vaughan Papers, 1913-1971 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Ingbar, Mary Lee. Papers, 1946-1996. Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn Esselstyn, Caldwell B., 1902-1975. Caldwell B. Esselstyn papers, 1945-1964 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Papers, 1902, 1913-1994 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Viseltear, Arthur J. (Arthur Jack), 1938-. Arthur Jack Viseltear papers, 1953-1990 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Sundwall, John, 1880-1950. John Sundwall papers, 1921-1944. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn American Medical Association. Dept. of Investigation. Records. American Public Health Association-American Rescue Workers (inclusive), 1919-1959. American Medical Association,James S. Todd Memorial Library
referencedIn Florence Rena Sabin Papers MS 136., 1872-1985 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Isidore Sydney Falk papers, 1918-1984 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Florence Deakins Becker Papers, 1891-1963, (bulk 1910-1963) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn American School Health Association. American School Health Association collection of key leaders, 1822-2010 (bulk 1937-2008) Southern Illinois University, Morris Library
referencedIn Pearl L. Kendrick Papers, 1888-1979, 1930-1970 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Robert Stanley Breed papers, [ca. 1901-1943] Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Fronczak, Francis E. (Francis Eustace), 1874-1955. Papers, 1894-1947. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
referencedIn Papers, 1898-1975 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Records of the Assistants to the Directors, 1913-1999 (inclusive), 1927-1943 (bulk) Harvard Art Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Sally Lusk papers, 1975-2001 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Cornely, Paul B. (Paul Bertau), 1906-. Paul B. Cornely papers, 1925-1999. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Papers, 1946-2008. Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. Center for the History of Medicine.
referencedIn Romani, John Henry, 1925-. John H. Romani papers, 1957-1991 (bulk 1970-1990) University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Sabin, Florence Rena, 1871-1953. Papers, 1872-1985. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Ira Vaughan Hiscock papers, 1918-1979, 1925-1939 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Papers, 1909-1965 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers of Betty Friedan, 1933-1985 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Mayers, Harold J. Harold J. Mayers papers, 1948-1976 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Mary Lasker Papers, 1940-1993. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Edwin Schorer, M.D. collection 1913-1954. Mid-Continent Public Library, Administrative Headquarters
referencedIn Falk, I. S. (Isidore Sydney), 1899-1984. Isidore Sydney Falk papers, 1918-1984 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Arthur Jack Viseltear papers, 1953-1990 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Carl Edward Buck papers, 1932-1953 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Buck, Carl Edward, 1891-1953. Carl Edward Buck papers, 1932-1953. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn University of Michigan. School of Public Health. School of Public Health (University of Michigan) records, 1909-1984 (bulk 1941-1984). University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Conn, H. J. (Harold Joel), 1886-1975. Harold Joel Conn papers, 1911-1959. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Becker, Florence Deakins, 1878-1969. Florence Deakins Becker papers, 1891-1963 (bulk 1910-1963). Library of Congress
referencedIn Hiscock, Ira Vaughan, 1892-. Ira Vaughan Hiscock papers, 1918-1979 (inclusive), 1925-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Jones, Mark M. (Mark Manderville), 1890-1986. Papers, 1916-1965. Rockefeller Archive Center, Rockefeller University, Pocantico Hills
referencedIn Kendrick, Pearl L., 1890-1980. Pearl L. Kendrick papers, 1888-1979 (bulk 1930-1970). University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Myrtle Greenfield Papers, 1918-1967 New Mexico Health Historical Collection, UNM Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center.
referencedIn Vaughan, Henry F. (Henry Frieze), 1889-1979. Henry Frieze Vaughan papers, 1913-1971. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Kerr, Lorin E., 1909-. Lorin Edgar Kerr papers, 1941-1981 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn State Department of Health records, 1853, 1899-1901, 1910, 1921-1955, undated, bulk 1943-1949 Texas State Archives
referencedIn Wisconsin. Local Health Administration Section. Evaluation schedules for local health programs, 1945-1951. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Paul B. Cornely Papers, 1918-1999 (bulk 1953-1999) History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Dolan, Margaret Baggett, 1914-1974. Margaret Baggett Dolan papers, 1936-1974. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Lorin Edgar Kerr papers, 1941-1981 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Minnesota. Dept. of Health. Professional correspondence of Charles N. Hewitt, 1872-1895 (bulk 1884-1895). Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. corporateBody
associatedWith ALICE HAMILTON, 1869-1970 person
associatedWith American Medical Association. Dept. of Investigation. corporateBody
associatedWith American School Health Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Ames, Azel. person
associatedWith Atwater, Reginald Myers, 1892-1957. person
correspondedWith Becker, Florence Deakins, 1878-1969. person
associatedWith Betty Friedan person
associatedWith Bierman, Pearl. person
associatedWith Bierman, Pearl. person
associatedWith Breed, Robert S. (Robert Stanley), 1877-1956. person
associatedWith Breslow, Lester, 1915- person
associatedWith Brewster, Agnes. person
associatedWith Brewster, Agnes. person
associatedWith Brindle, James. person
associatedWith Brindle, James. person
associatedWith Brown, Clara Adele, 1895-1986. person
associatedWith Buck, Carl Edward, 1891-1953. person
associatedWith Bugher, John C., 1901-1970. person
associatedWith Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998 person
associatedWith Carroll, Terence E. person
associatedWith Carroll, Terence E. person
associatedWith Clark, Dean Alexander, 1905- person
associatedWith Conn, H. J. (Harold Joel), 1886-1975. person
associatedWith Cornely, Paul B. (Paul Bertau), 1906- person
associatedWith Davis, Michael Marks, 1879-1971. person
associatedWith Dearing, Warren Palmer. person
associatedWith Dearing, Warren Palmer. person
associatedWith Dixon, James. person
associatedWith Dixon, James. person
associatedWith Dolan, Margaret Baggett, 1914-1974. person
associatedWith Eliot, Martha M. (Martha May), b. 1891. person
associatedWith Ellen K. Silbergeld person
associatedWith Emerson, Haven, 1874-1957. person
associatedWith Esselstyn, Caldwell B., 1902-1975. person
associatedWith Falk, I. S. (Isidore Sydney), 1899-1984. person
associatedWith Falk, Leslie A. person
associatedWith Frankel, Lee Kaufer, 1867-1931 person
associatedWith Fronczak, Francis E. (Francis Eustace), 1874-1955. person
associatedWith Goldmann, Franz, 1895- person
associatedWith Greenfield, Myrtle, 1884-1967 person
associatedWith Halverson, Wilton Lee. person
associatedWith Hamilton, Alice, 1869-1970. person
associatedWith Harvard Art Museum. Director's Office. corporateBody
correspondedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878 person
associatedWith Hiscock, Ira Vaughan, 1892- person
associatedWith H. J.(Harold Joel), Conn 1886-1975. person
correspondedWith Houghton Mifflin Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Huxley, Matthew. person
associatedWith Huxley, Matthew. person
associatedWith Ingbar, Mary Lee. person
associatedWith Insley, Virginia, 1912- person
correspondedWith Jarvis, Edward person
associatedWith Jones, Mark M. (Mark Manderville), 1890-1986. person
associatedWith Kendrick, Pearl L., 1890-1980. person
associatedWith Kerr, Lorin E., 1909- person
associatedWith Kerr, Lorin Edgar, 1909- person
associatedWith Kimmey, James Richard, 1935- person
associatedWith Kline, Howard M. person
associatedWith Kline, Howard M. person
associatedWith Kramer, Nathan. person
associatedWith Kramer, Nathan. person
associatedWith Krantz, Goldie, 1915-1976. person
associatedWith Lasker, Mary. person
associatedWith Lusk, Sally person
associatedWith MARTHA MAY ELIOT, 1891-1978 person
correspondedWith MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR SOCIAL HEALTH corporateBody
associatedWith Mayers, Harold J. person
associatedWith Mayers, Harold J. person
associatedWith Minnesota. Dept. of Health. corporateBody
associatedWith Moore, Veranus A. (Veranus Alva), 1859-1931. person
associatedWith Mountin, Joseph Walter, 1891-1952. person
associatedWith Muller, Jonas Norman, 1920-1969. person
associatedWith Myers, Beverlee A. person
associatedWith Perrott, George St. J. person
associatedWith Reeves, James E. (James Edmund), 1829-1896. person
associatedWith Riedel, Donald C., 1934- person
associatedWith Roberts, Dean W. person
associatedWith Roberts, Dean W. person
associatedWith Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease. corporateBody
associatedWith Roemer, Milton Irwin, 1916- person
associatedWith Romani, John Henry, 1925- person
associatedWith Rorem, Clarence Rufus, 1894- person
associatedWith Rosenfeld, Leonard S. person
associatedWith Rosen, George, 1910- person
associatedWith Sabin, Florence Rena, 1871-1953 person
associatedWith SARAH MERRY (BRADLEY) GAMBLE, 1898-1984 person
associatedWith Schoen, Max Howard, 1922- person
associatedWith Silver, George A. person
associatedWith Sinai, Nathan, 1894- person
associatedWith Sinai, Nathan, 1894-2000 person
associatedWith Solon, Jerry A. person
associatedWith Sundwall, John, 1880-1950. person
associatedWith Terris, Milton, 1915- person
associatedWith Texas. State Dept. of Health. corporateBody
associatedWith Toner, Joseph M. (Joseph Meredith), 1825-1896 person
associatedWith University of Michigan. School of Public Health. corporateBody
associatedWith Vaughan, Henry F. (Henry Frieze), 1889-1979. person
associatedWith Virginia Insley person
associatedWith Viseltear, Arthur Jack, 1938- person
associatedWith Weinerman, Edwin Richard, 1917- person
associatedWith Weinerman Memorial Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Winslow, C.-E. A. 1877-1957. person
associatedWith Wisconsin. Local Health Administration Section. corporateBody
correspondedWith Woodworth, J. W. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Subject
Medical care
Endowments--Statistics
Scientific organizations
Endowments--Finance
Medicine
Medicine, Rural
Public health
Endowments
Health boards
Public health--United States
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1992

Americans

English

Information

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