Gamble, Clarence James, 1894-

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Gamble (1894-1966) (Harvard, M.D. 1920) became involved in the birth control movement in 1929 when he helped to establish the Maternal Health Clinic and Committee in Cincinnati and became associated with a Philadelphia clinic. In 1933 he chaired the board of Philadelphia Maternal Health Centers, and began a term as president of the Pennsylvania Birth Control Federation. He later served in an executive capacity with the Birth Control Federation and Planned Parenthood Federation of America. He provided funding for research for the National Committee for Maternal Health and supported field tests for contraceptives. In 1957 he established the Pathfinder Fund to advise and work with major family planning agencies. In addition, he did research on family planning and population control and taught at the Harvard Medical School.

From the description of Papers of Clarence J. Gamble, 1920-1966 (bulk). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 86145195

Clarence Gamble was born into one of America's wealthiest mercantile families (Proctor & Gamble) and was educated at Princeton University and Harvard Medical School. A man with a mission for using his considerable wealth and intellectual expertise for the good of mankind, Gamble devoted his life to “The Great Cause”--his goal of making each and every child birth the result of a conscious decision on the part of responsible parents.** From the late 1920s until his death in 1966, Gamble took part in almost every important gain in behalf of planned parenthood: initiating, directing, or financing a considerable number of programs advancing the cause of population control. As his efforts to work through and with the professional organizations in the field left much to be desired, Gamble eventually formed the Pathfinder Fund, which served as a family foundation for the remainder of his lifetime, but has since acquired a highly competent professional staff which advises and works with major worldwide family planning agencies.

* James Reed centers his book, From Private Vice to Public Virtue: The Birth Control Movement and American Society Since 1830 (New York: Basic Books Inc., 1978) around the efforts of Sanger, Dickinson, and Gamble. ** A full-length biography, Every Child a Wanted Child: Clarence James Gamble, M.D., and his Work in the Birth Control Movement (Boston: Countway Library Associates, 1978) has been written by Doone and Greer Williams and edited by Emily P. Flint. Both the Williams and Reed books have drawn heavily on the papers in the Gamble Archive.

  • 1894: born on January 10 at Cincinnati, Ohio
  • 1910: graduated from Occidental Academy, Pasadena, California
  • 1910 - 1911 : spent freshman year at Occidental College
  • 1911 - 1914 : attended Princeton University and was awarded Litt. B. magna cum laude
  • 1914 - 1915 : worked for California State Commission on Immigrants and Housing
  • 1915 - 1916 : returned to Princeton University and received M.A. degree in the biological sciences
  • 1916 - 1920 : attended Harvard Medical School and was awarded M.D. degree
  • 1920 - 1922 : served 18-month internship under Dr. Richard C. Cabot at Massachusetts General Hospital
  • 1922: suffered multiple injuries in private airplane crash in July
  • 1923: began work in the Laboratory of Pharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania under Dr. A. N. Richards
  • 1924: married Sarah Bradley on June 21
  • 1925 - 1928 : worked with Dr. Isaac Starr, Jr., on studies of cardiac output
  • 1929: beginning of birth control activities: became associated with Philadelphia clinic; helped to establish maternal Health Clinic and Committee in Cincinnati
  • 1930: sent Elsie Wulkop to Detroit for birth control organization
  • 1932 - 1933 : served as chairman of the board of Philadelphia Maternal Health Centers
  • 1933: began term as president of Pennsylvania Birth Control Federation
  • 1934: provided funding for Standards Program of the National Committee for Maternal Health (NCMH)
  • 1935: provided funding for the R.L. Dickinson Research Fellowship at New York University through NCMH; initiated contraceptive field test at Logan, West Virginia, under sponsorship of NCMH; became associated with the American Birth Control League
  • 1936: sent Phyllis Page to Puerto Rico for birth control organization and to Berea, Kentucky, for contraceptive project
  • 1937: became associated with Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau; began conducting spermicidal times laboratory tests with R.L. Brown
  • 1938: moved from Philadelphia to Milton, Massachusetts; helped to initiate first state public health contraceptive program in North Carolina
  • 1939 - 1941 : served on Board of Directors and Executive Committee of Birth Control Federation of America
  • 1942: continued service on Board of Directors and Executive Committee of Planned Parenthood Federation of America; appointed instructor in physical diagnosis at Harvard Medical School
  • 1944: began work in behalf of sterilization as a means of birth control through Birthright, Inc.
  • 1946: proposed experiment in population control in Puerto Rico; became director of the Population Reference Bureau's College Project
  • 1947 - 1948 : worked in behalf of sterilization through the Human Betterment Leagues of North Carolina and Iowa
  • 1948: attended International Conference on Population and World Resources at Cheltenham, England
  • 1949: established Human Betterment Federation for work in behalf of sterilization through state leagues; helped with family planning study initiated by Dr. Yoshio Koya in Japan
  • 1950: publication of Human Sterilization (with Dr. R.L. Dickinson)
  • 1951: proposed pilot study to test control of population growth in India (later known as India-Harvard-Ludhiana Project or Khanna Study)
  • 1952: appointed research associate in anatomy at Harvard Medical School
  • 1953 - 1954 : first and second field trips by C.J. and R.B. Gamble
  • 1954: sponsored tests of Dr. Sanyal's oral contraceptive in India; attempted to channel family planning efforts through the International Planned Parenthood Association (IPPF); hired Margaret Roots and Edith Gates as NCMH field representatives in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East
  • 1956: helped arrange for oral contraceptive tests at Ryder Memorial Hospital, Humacao, Puerto Rico
  • 1957 - 1958 : established the Pathfinder Fund
  • 1958: appointed research associate in population studies at Harvard School of Public Health
  • 1961: IUD added to Ryder Hospital Project in Puerto Rico; separate department of population problems proposed at Harvard School of Public Health
  • 1962: IUD mailings initiated by Pathfinder Fund
  • 1964: David Burlson hired to supervise Pathfinder's worldwide IUD project
  • 1965 - 1966 : plans for future direction of Pathfinder Fund prompted by CJG's failing health
  • 1966: died on July 15 at Kennebec Point, Maine

From the guide to the Papers, 1920-1970s, (Center for the History of Medicine. Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Rose, Florence. Papers, 1832-1970 bulk 1920-1969. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Margaret Sanger Papers MS 138., 1761-1995, 1900-1966 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts records, 1859-2002 (ongoing) (bulk 1916-1960). Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Florence Rose Papers MS 134., 1832 - 1970, 1920-1969 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Martha Voegeli Papers MS 168., 1946-65 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966. Papers 1761-1995. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts Records MS 359., 1859-2002, 1916-1960 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn Ethel Remington Hepburn papers, 1933-1941. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project. Records, 1909-1984 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1893-1978 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers, 1810-1984 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project. Records, 1909-1984 (inclusive), 1973-1977 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Gamble, Sarah Merry Bradley, 1898-1984. Papers, 1810-1984 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Margaret Sanger Papers, 1900-1966, (bulk 1928-1940) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Papers, 1920-1970s Center for the History of Medicine. Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine.
creatorOf Gamble, Clarence James, 1894-. Papers of Clarence J. Gamble, 1920-1966 (bulk). Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn McKinnon, Edna Rankin, b. 1893. Audiotape collection of Edna Rankin McKinnon, ca. 1970 [sound recording]. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966. Margaret Sanger papers, 1900-1966 (bulk 1928-1940). Library of Congress
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project Records, 1909-1984 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Interviews, 1973-1977 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Voegeli, Martha. Papers, 1946-1965. Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf Hepburn, Ethel Remington. Ethel Remington Hepburn papers, 1933-1941. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Dorothy Hamilton Brush Papers MS 23., 1840-1969, 1936-1968 Sophia Smith Collection
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn National Committee on Maternal Health. Records, 1923-1959. Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
creatorOf Cabot, Richard C. (Richard Clarke), 1868-1939. Gamble-Cabot Cardiac Diagnoses Records and printed course notes, 1916-1944. Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn McKinnon, Edna Rankin, b. 1893. Papers, 1893-1978 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Brush, Dorothy Hamilton. Dorothy Hamilton Brush Papers, 1840-1968 (bulk 1936-68). Smith College, Neilson Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Birth Control League. corporateBody
associatedWith Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Birth Control Federation of America. corporateBody
correspondedWith Brush, Dorothy Hamilton person
associatedWith Cabot, Richard C. (Richard Clarke), 1868-1939. person
associatedWith Calderone, Mary Steichen. person
associatedWith Damon, Cecil A. person
associatedWith Edna Bertha (Rankin) McKinnon, 1893-1978 person
associatedWith Family Planning Oral History Project family
associatedWith Family Planning Oral History Project. corporateBody
associatedWith Family Planning Oral History Project. corporateBody
associatedWith Gamble, Sarah Merry Bradley, 1898-1984. person
associatedWith Gates, Edith M. person
associatedWith Hepburn, Ethel Remington. person
associatedWith Hepburn, Ethel Remington. person
associatedWith Human Betterment Federation. corporateBody
associatedWith International Planned Parenthood Federation. corporateBody
associatedWith Margaret Sanger Research Bureau. corporateBody
associatedWith McKinnon, Edna Bertha Rankin, 1893-1978. person
associatedWith McKinnon, Edna Rankin, b. 1893. person
associatedWith National Committee on Maternal Health. corporateBody
associatedWith Pathfinder Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Planned Parenthood Federation of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts corporateBody
associatedWith Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts. person
correspondedWith Provine, William B. person
associatedWith Rice-Wray, Edris, 1904- person
associatedWith Roots, Margaret F, 1895-1971. person
associatedWith Rose, Florence. person
associatedWith Rose, Florence, 1903-1969 person
associatedWith Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966 person
associatedWith SARAH MERRY (BRADLEY) GAMBLE, 1898-1984 person
associatedWith Stone, Abraham, 1890-1959. person
associatedWith Tietze, Christopher. person
correspondedWith Voegeli, Martha person
correspondedWith Voegeli, Martha. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
India
Asia
Puerto Rico
Africa
Subject
Childbirth--Statistics
Sterilization (Birth control)
Birth control
Birth control--Research
Contraception
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1894

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6br9bbj

Ark ID: w6br9bbj

SNAC ID: 16036409