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BIOGHIST REQUIRED The School of Journalism was established through monies left to Columbia University in the will of Joseph Pulitzer who passed away in 1911. As he wrote in his will, "There are now special schools for instruction for lawyers, physicians, clergymen, military and naval officers, engineers, architects and artists, but none for the instruction of journalists. That all other professions and not journalism should have the advantage of special training seems to me contrary to reason." [pp. 3-4, "Extracts from the Will of Joseph Pulitzer, died, October 29, 1911"]. The original agreements regarding the establishment and organization of the school were made in 1903 and 1904, but the school did not actually open until 1912 -- a year after Pulitzer died. The School of Journalism began as an undergraduate school offering a B.Litt. Degree to its graduates, but in 1935 the School became the first in the nation to adopt a program exclusively at the graduate level.

From the guide to the School of Journalism Founding Documents, 1892-1912, [Bulk Dates: 1903-1904], (Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library)

Throughout the mid-to-late 1960s the Columbia campus was a hub of political activity: teach-ins, Sundial rallies against the Vietnam War, demonstrations against class rank reporting, and confrontations with military recruiters. Concurrent with these events, the University had begun construction on a new gymnasium in Morningside Park. Columbia's plan to build a new gym had been in the planning stages since 1959, but had been delayed repeatedly by financial challenges. By the mid 1960s, the decision to build a gym in city-owned Morningside Park created increasing negative feelings among government officials, community groups, and students. Many students were offended by the design, as it provided access for the University community at the higher level of the building while residents of the access fore members of the surrounding Harlem community would enter on the lower level; what was perceived as obvious inequity prompted cries of segregation.

In February 1967, the first sit-in at Columbia took place in Dodge Hall, by 18 members of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) protesting CIA recruitment on campus. Other protests erupted: opposition to the University's submission of student class rankings to Selective Service Boards, military recruitment on campus and University involvement in the Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA). On April 21, 1967, the first clash between students erupted when 800 anti-recruitment demonstrators were confronted by 500 students favoring the policy of open recruitment on campus. The disruptions of military recruiters by students prompted University President Grayson Kirk to issue a ban against picketing and demonstrations in all University buildings as of September 25, 1967.

In March 1968, demands for Columbia to resign from its affiliation with the IDA came in the form of more sit-in demonstrations, this time held in Low Memorial Library. Despite limited enforcement of his ban prior to this event, President Kirk, in conjunction with the Administration, placed six anti-war student activists-all SDS leaders known as the "IDA Six"- on probation for violation of the ban on indoor demonstrations.

The Strike Coordinating Committee (SCC), formed by the Columbia chapter of SDS, was composed of representatives from throughout the University and from other student organizations and quickly assumed the mantle of strike leadership from the Columbia University Student Council and the Coalition of Student Leaders. The Columbia chapter of SDS, led by its chairman Mark Rudd, took an early lead on a cluster of issues that prompted student unrest and ultimately the strike. Among them were the proposed gymnasium and other instances of campus expansion into the surrounding community, the University's relationship with the IDA, R.O.T.C. and military research recruiting, and conditions for campus workers.

Partly in response to the fate of the "IDA Six", Mark Rudd and SDS, as well members of the Society of African-American Students (SAS), rallied at the campus Sun Dial on Tuesday, April 23. After a failed attempt to get inside Low Library to present President Kirk with a list of demands, members of the crowd were encouraged to proceed to Morningside Drive where there was an attempt to break into the gymnasium construction site. They were restrained by police and some were arrested. The demonstrators did not return to the Sundial as originally planed, instead they headed into Hamilton Hall, the main classroom building on campus and also home to the office of Dean Henry Coleman, and stayed the night.

Around midnight, the SAS leaders held a caucus and decided that the ongoing occupation of Hamilton should be a blacks-only project. Mark Rudd and SDS followers were surprised, but did not challenge this arrangement and all white protestors left quietly. The white evictees of Hamilton Hall took over Low Library the following day. On Day 2 graduate students refused to leave Avery Hall when told it was closing at 5:30 pm as a preventative measures to thwart strikers. Fayerweather and Mathematics were also eventually occupied by other groups of students.

The April 1968 protests saw faculty groups formed with the intention of mediating resolutions to the stand-off. Faculty in Philosophy 301 formed an Ad Hoc Faculty Group (AHFG), which was chaired by Political Scientist Alan Westin and directed by an AHFG steering committee. Membership in AHFG was based on support of three resolutions: immediate suspension of gym construction; establishment of a tripartite disciplinary mechanism; and a commitment by faculty signers to put themselves between police and students should police be called on campus.

After six days of standoff, some 1,000 policemen forcibly reclaimed the occupied buildings on behalf of the Administration resulting in 712 arrests and 148 reports of injury. For the remainder of the academic year, the University was in chaos. Formal education more or less ceased as large numbers of students and many faculty lent support to the SCC, an umbrella group for the protesters. A second occupation of Hamilton Hall from May 21-22 led to an even more violent confrontation with the police. Even commencement was marred, as most of the graduating class walked out of the ceremony being held in The Cathedral of St. John The Divine to attend a counter-commencement on Low Plaza. Eventually campus disorder gave way to efforts toward restructuring the University, especially after the more moderate student protestors split from the SCC and created Students for a Restructured University (SRU). Among the new elements was the establishment of the University Senate as a representative body for the entire University community.

Immediately following the clearing of occupied buildings, the Ad Hoc Faculty Group convened to vote for support of the strikers and to admonish the administration. Chair Alan Westin would not bring this matter to vote and instead left the meeting. The remaining group reestablished itself as the Independent Faculty Group (IFG) and voted to support the strike.

The same day, Joint Faculties met to consider both pro-administration and anti-administration resolutions. An intermediate resolution was approved in the creation of the Executive Committee of the Faculty, who proposed the creation of an outside fact finding commission on May 2. On May 7, the Fact Finding Commission, composed of five members and chaired by Harvard law professor Archibald Cox, convened. The report Crisis at Columbia, highly critical of the administration, was published in October. The University's affiliation with the IDA was eventually severed, gymnasium construction was halted, the ROTC left campus, military and CIA recruiting stopped, and in August President Kirk resigned with Andrew Cordier named as acting President. Springtime building occupations continued for the next few years, but were eventually replaced by other, less politically minded, activities.

The protests achieved two of the stated goals of the protest: Columbia disaffiliated from the IDA and it scrapped the plans for the controversial gym, building a subterranean physical fitness center under the north end of campus instead.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, student protests addressed other campus issues, namely Columbia's control of real estate in the Morningside Heights area and its relationship to the local community. Several student groups emerged with a focus on local issues such as New York City housing, schools, transit, labor, electoral politics, and support for the Black Panthers and political prisoners.

Protests, which some might characterize as a right of passage, have been a fixture of the Columbia experience throughout its history. However, the occupation of five University buildings in April 1968 signaled a sea change in the way in which students would not only interact with Columbia administration, but in universities throughout the nation.

From the description of University Protest and Activism Collection, 1958-1999 (Bulk dates 1968-1972). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702344548

Benjamin Franklin Miller: Benjamin Franklin Miller received an A.B. degree from Columbia College in 1830.

Walter Trimble: Walter Trimble (1857-1926) graduated from the School of Law in 1881. He was a partner at the Wyatt and Trimble law firm and later president of the Bank for Savings.

Jonathan M. Wainwright: Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright (1864-1945) was the grandson of J. M. Wainwright, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York and cousin of the decorated WWI veteran of the same name. Wainwright graduated from Columbia College in 1881 and the School of Law in 1886. He joined the military after graduation and ultimately reached the rank of lieutenant colonel. He became a member of the New York State Assembly from 1902 to 1907, was New York State Senator from 1908 to 1912, and was a member of Congress from 1923 to 1931. Wainwright was an active member of the Military Affairs Committee at both the state and national level throughout his political career, and from 1921 to 1923 served as the Assistant Secretary of War.

Edwin R.A. Seligman: Seligman was a graduate student in both the School of Political Science and the School of Law. He received his LL.B in 1884 and a Ph.D. in 1885, and taught at Columbia until his retirement in 1931. He was a member of both the city and state committees on taxation and finance and an expert to the League of Nations Committee on Economics and Finance, 1922 -1923. He was a founding member of the American Economic Association in 1885 and served as president from 1902 to 1904. Seligman was also a book collector and a social activist.

Jacob S. Langthorn: Langthorn (1867-1955), Class of 1891, Engineering, began his career as development engineer for the New York City Board of Water Supply, later becoming commissioner of the Board. For several years he was president of the engineering contractors firm Langthorn and Smith. He was the author of several books on engineering, former director of the American Society of Civil Engineering, and governor of the Columbia University Club. Langthorn retired in 1937 as consulting engineer to the president of the Borough of Manhattan.

Lewis S. Bigelow: Lewis Sherrill Bigelow (1863-1933) graduated from Philips Exeter Academy in 1882 and Yale University in 1887. He did post-graduate work at Columbia University and received a law degree from the University of Michigan. After working for several years at his father's law firm, Bigelow, Flandreau, and Squires, in St. Paul, Bigelow came to New York and joined the staff of the "Sun." He devoted the later years of his life to literary work.

Lynn Thorndike: Lynn Thorndike (1882-1965), a medievalist, graduated from Columbia College in 1905 and received his Ph.D. from Columbia in 1911. He was a professor at the University for twenty-six years and actively published throughout his career. Thorndike was the president of the American Historical Association in 1955 and was one of the first thirty fellows named to the Mediaeval Academy of America.

Carl Trischka: Carl Trischka graduated from the School of Mines in 1913.

James Ackerman was a student of Paul Oskar Kristeller.

Douglas Fraser was a professor of art history and archeology at Columbia University. He specialized in the African art and architecture and the art of Oceania. He published extensively on "primitive art." He received his art historical training at Columbia before becoming a member of the faculty.

James G. Banner, Jr.: James Banner was a graduate student in history in the early 1960s.

From the description of Lecture notes collection, 1817-1961 [Bulk Dates: 1877-1913]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 652737416

Classes were first held at King's College (now Columbia University) in 1754 inside the vestry room of the Trinity Church schoolhouse on lower Broadway. This room housed classes until 1760 when the school moved to a building on Park Place in downtown Manhattan, near the present site of City Hall. Founded by royal charter of King George II of England, King's College was the only institution of collegiate rank in New York at the time. Classes were suspended during the American Revolution in 1776 and the building was used as a barrack and hospital for both British and American troops. When instruction resumed eight years later, King's College changed its name to Columbia, in keeping with the contemporary political climate.

Classes continued in the Park Place campus until 1857, when, to accommodate its continuing expansion, the campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue, occupying a tract of land previously owned by The New York Deaf and Dumb Institution. Surrounded by vacant lots and underdeveloped land, this campus was virtually rural. This location was favored to the alternative: relocating to the remote Botanic Gardens, three miles outside of New York. The forty years at this Madison Avenue campus saw the foundation of the School of Mines and School of Political Science and the inclusion of the College of Physicians and Surgeons as part of Columbia. In 1897, Columbia left the Madison Avenue campus; the following year the Berkeley School bought the land and destroyed most of the buildings.

The University made a third move in 1897, occupying four blocks in the area now known as Morningside Heights, between 116th and 120th Streets and Amsterdam Avenue and Broadway (then known as The Boulevard). This land belonged to the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum, which was owned by the New York City Hospital. Under the leadership of President Seth Low, the architecture firm of McKim, Mead & White was commissioned to design an urban academic village on this site and the asylum's land was forever transformed with the domed Low Memorial Library overlooking a stately collection of Renaissance influenced buildings. The initial phase of construction between 1895 and 1897 saw the erection of Low Library, Schermerhorn Hall, Fayerweather Hall, and University Hall (later demolished).

The expansion of the Morningside Heights campus continued steadily throughout the twentieth century with St. Paul's Chapel, the School of Mines (now Lewisohn Hall) and Hamilton Hall, all constructed between 1903 and 1907. Kent Hall, Philosophy Hall and Avery Hall were constructed between 1909 and 1911; the early 1920s saw the completion of Dodge Hall, John Jay Hall and Pupin Hall. Expansion continued throughout the ensuing decades, with the School of International Affairs completed in 1970 and a large East Campus Housing project developed between 1977 and 1981. The most recent major addition to Morningside Heights' campus is Alfred Lerner Hall, a modern glass structure that replaced Ferris Booth Hall as the student center in 2000.

The University began expansion plans in 2004 in the Manhattanville area, also named "West Harlem," bordered by 129th to 133rd Streets and between Broadway and 12th Avenue. The proposed construction is expected to provide a total of 6.8 million square feet of space above- and below-grade for teaching, academic research, and civic and commercial activity, as well as below-grade parking and facilities support. This is a multi-phased project with completion expected in 2030.

From the description of Buildings and grounds collection, 1755-2007 [Bulk Dates: 1880-2000]. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 472464313

Columbia University was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of King George II of England. It is the oldest institution of higher learning in the State of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. King's College was founded in downtown colonial Manhattan and its campus continues to reside on Manhattan island in New York City.

King's College suspended classes in 1776 and was renamed Columbia College by Charter of 1784 after the American Revolution. According to University Attorney John Pine, in "Charters, Acts of the Legislature, Official Documents and Records" (New York: Printed for the University, 1920), the Charter of 1787 repealed the prior, which had deprived King's College of its Charter, corporate rights and property, and restored such to the Trustees of the College. The first significant anniversary recognized by the College is the semi-centennial of the Charter of 1787, celebrated in 1837. Later, the centennial of the College was celebrated corresponding to the establishment and charter dates in 1854 and 1887.

Minor events occurred to commemorate the Sesquicentennial (150th). Among these activities, President Nicholas Murray Butler hosted a commemorative dinner, a special service was held at Earl Hall, and a University Convocation was given where several honorary degrees were awarded, mostly to faculty.

In 1929, a large collection of portraits, both paintings and sculpture, of faculty and alumni were donated to the University by various individuals in honor of the 175th anniversary of the 1754 founding of King's College. A convocation was held October 31, honoring notable alumni and faculty of the University.

The celebrations of the University bicentennial included large scale, world-wide programs under the leadership of President Grayson Kirk. Anniversary sponsored productions and events were held by other universities, libraries, and regional Columbia alumni committees. A traveling exhibit, convocations, conferences, lectures, and symposiums promoted the theme, "Man's Right to Knowledge and the Free Use Thereof."

Commemorative objects produced included a stamp issued by the United States Postal Service. A "Bicentennial Medal" was awarded during special convocations. A thorough description of the year-long events is documented in the University publication, Columbia's "Bicentennial: An Account of the Planning and Execution of a World-Wide Program of Observances Centering on the Theme Man's Right to Knowledge and the Free Use Thereof" (New York: Columbia University, 1956).

In 2004, the University marked another major anniversary celebration. The "Columbia 250th" Office organized festivities accompanying the celebration of Columbia University's 250th Anniversary of the 1754 founding of King's College. These festivities included concerts, lectures, symposia, special publications, exhibitions, various ceremonies, and dinners among other events. A University-sponsored film directed by Ric Burns was produced by Steeplechase Films, distributed and screened by alumni organizations as well as broadcast on local PBS stations.

From the description of Columbia University Founding Anniversaries Collection, 1837-2004. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 506482148

The first Commencement of King's College, as Columbia University was originally called, was held on June 21, 1758, in St. George's Chapel on Beekman Street in lower Manhattan. Seven men were graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and four honorary degrees were conferred. According to an observation in the New York Mercury on June 26, 1758, in this first ceremony there was an address given on the "Advantages of a liberal Education," and a Mr. Treadwell demonstrated the "Revolution of the Earth round the Sun" using both astronomical observations and the Theory of Gravity. Apparently he was successful in defending his thesis.

These exercises were conducted almost entirely in Latin during the King's College period, and for yet another century classical orations formed a regular part of the program. These orations, usually in English, are now presented at the Columbia College Class Day.

The academic costumes worn during the ceremony can be traced back to medieval times, perhaps as early as the twelfth century. The hood and gown served a practical purpose for students working in unheated buildings. It appears that the King's College students were the first Americans to wear the costume while in residence. [Pull Box 33 for additional information.].

During the pre-Revolutionary period, the Commencement procession passed through the city streets from the College building on Park Place to Trinity Church. When King's College became Columbia, in 1784, Commencement was held in various churches and halls throughout New York City. After the College moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, Commencement usually took place at the Academy of Music at Fourteenth Street and Irving Place. Since 1898 Commencement has been held on the Campus at Morningside, at first in the University gymnasium, and since 1926 outdoors on Low Plaza.

The eighteenth-century mace used in the ceremony also hearkens back to medieval times when the mace was used as a weapon. At that time it consisted of a stout club ending in a metal ball, usually spiked. The Columbia University mace was donated by Judge John Munro Woolsey, LL.B. '01, LL.D. '29. Historically, the mace was a symbol of authority displayed in British courts; Columbia's mace represents the authority vested in the University president to confer degrees on students and honorands and is carried in every commencement ceremony.

From the description of Commencement Collection, 1758- (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 299030084

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Columbia University was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of King George II of England. It is the oldest institution of higher learning in the State of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. King's College was founded in downtown colonial Manhattan and its campus continues to reside on Manhattan island in New York City.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED King's College suspended classes in 1776 and was renamed Columbia College by Charter of 1784 after the American Revolution. According to University Attorney John Pine, in "Charters, Acts of the Legislature, Official Documents and Records" (New York: Printed for the University, 1920), the Charter of 1787 repealed the prior, which had deprived King's College of its Charter, corporate rights and property, and restored such to the Trustees of the College. The first significant anniversary recognized by the College is the semi-centennial of the Charter of 1787, celebrated in 1837. Later, the centennial of the College was celebrated corresponding to the establishment and charter dates in 1854 and 1887.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Minor events occurred to commemorate the Sesquicentennial (150th). Among these activities, President Nicholas Murray Butler hosted a commemorative dinner, a special service was held at Earl Hall, and a University Convocation was given where several honorary degrees were awarded, mostly to faculty.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED In 1929, a large collection of portraits, both paintings and sculpture, of faculty and alumni were donated to the University by various individuals in honor of the 175th anniversary of the 1754 founding of King's College. A convocation was held October 31, honoring notable alumni and faculty of the University.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The celebrations of the University bicentennial included large scale, world-wide programs under the leadership of President Grayson Kirk. Anniversary sponsored productions and events were held by other universities, libraries, and regional Columbia alumni committees. A traveling exhibit, convocations, conferences, lectures, and symposiums promoted the theme, "Man's Right to Knowledge and the Free Use Thereof."

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Commemorative objects produced included a stamp issued by the United States Postal Service. A "Bicentennial Medal" was awarded during special convocations. A thorough description of the year-long events is documented in the University publication, Columbia's "Bicentennial: An Account of the Planning and Execution of a World-Wide Program of Observances Centering on the Theme Man's Right to Knowledge and the Free Use Thereof" (New York: Columbia University, 1956).

BIOGHIST REQUIRED In 2004, the University marked another major anniversary celebration. The "Columbia 250th" Office organized festivities accompanying the celebration of Columbia University's 250th Anniversary of the 1754 founding of King's College. These festivities included concerts, lectures, symposia, special publications, exhibitions, various ceremonies, and dinners among other events. A University-sponsored film directed by Ric Burns was produced by Steeplechase Films, distributed and screened by alumni organizations as well as broadcast on local PBS stations

From the guide to the Columbia University Founding Anniversaries Collection, 1837-2004, (Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. University Archives)

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Classes were first held at King's College (now Columbia University) in 1754 inside the vestry room of the Trinity Church schoolhouse on lower Broadway. This room housed classes until 1760 when the school moved to a building on Park Place in downtown Manhattan, near the present site of City Hall. Founded by royal charter of King George II of England, King's College was the only institution of collegiate rank in New York at the time. Classes were suspended during the American Revolution in 1776 and the building was used as a barrack and hospital for both British and American troops. When instruction resumed eight years later, King's College changed its name to Columbia, in keeping with the contemporary political climate.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Classes continued in the Park Place campus until 1857, when, to accommodate its continuing expansion, the campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue, occupying a tract of land previously owned by The New York Deaf and Dumb Institution. Surrounded by vacant lots and underdeveloped land, this campus was virtually rural. This location was favored to the alternative: relocating to the remote Botanic Gardens, three miles outside of New York. The forty years at this Madison Avenue campus saw the foundation of the School of Mines and School of Political Science and the inclusion of the College of Physicians and Surgeons as part of Columbia. In 1897, Columbia left the Madison Avenue campus; the following year the Berkeley School bought the land and destroyed most of the buildings.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The University made a third move in 1897, occupying four blocks in the area now known as Morningside Heights, between 116th and 120th Streets and Amsterdam Avenue and Broadway (then known as The Boulevard). This land belonged to the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum, which was owned by the New York City Hospital. Under the leadership of President Seth Low, the architecture firm of McKim, Mead & White was commissioned to design an urban academic village on this site and the asylum's land was forever transformed with the domed Low Memorial Library overlooking a stately collection of Renaissance influenced buildings. The initial phase of construction between 1895 and 1897 saw the erection of Low Library, Schermerhorn Hall, Fayerweather Hall, and University Hall (later demolished).

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The expansion of the Morningside Heights campus continued steadily throughout the twentieth century with St. Paul's Chapel, the School of Mines (now Lewisohn Hall) and Hamilton Hall, all constructed between 1903 and 1907. Kent Hall, Philosophy Hall and Avery Hall were constructed between 1909 and 1911; the early 1920s saw the completion of Dodge Hall, John Jay Hall and Pupin Hall. Expansion continued throughout the ensuing decades, with the School of International Affairs completed in 1970 and a large East Campus Housing project developed between 1977 and 1981. The most recent major addition to Morningside Heights' campus is Alfred Lerner Hall, a modern glass structure that replaced Ferris Booth Hall as the student center in 2000.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The University began expansion plans in 2004 in the Manhattanville area, also named "West Harlem," bordered by 129th to 133rd Streets and between Broadway and 12th Avenue. The proposed construction is expected to provide a total of 6.8 million square feet of space above- and below-grade for teaching, academic research, and civic and commercial activity, as well as below-grade parking and facilities support. This is a multi-phased project with completion expected in 2030.

From the guide to the Buildings and grounds collection, 1755-2012, [Bulk Dates: 1880-2000]., (Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library)

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Throughout the mid-to-late 1960s the Columbia campus was a hub of political activity: teach-ins, Sundial rallies against the Vietnam War, demonstrations against class rank reporting, and confrontations with military recruiters. Concurrent with these events, the University had begun construction on a new gymnasium in Morningside Park. Columbia's plan to build a new gym had been in the planning stages since 1959, but had been delayed repeatedly by financial challenges. By the mid 1960s, the decision to build a gym in city-owned Morningside Park created increasing negative feelings among government officials, community groups, and students. Many students were offended by the design, as it provided access for the University community at the higher level of the building while access for members of the surrounding Harlem community would enter on the lower level; what was perceived as obvious inequity prompted cries of segregation.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED In February 1967, the first sit-in at Columbia took place in Dodge Hall, by 18 members of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) protesting CIA recruitment on campus. Other protests erupted: opposition to the University's submission of student class rankings to Selective Service Boards, military recruitment on campus and University involvement in the Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA). On April 21, 1967, the first clash between students erupted when 800 anti-recruitment demonstrators were confronted by 500 students favoring the policy of open recruitment on campus. The disruptions of military recruiters by students prompted University President Grayson Kirk to issue a ban against picketing and demonstrations in all University buildings as of September 25, 1967.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED In March 1968, demands for Columbia to resign from its affiliation with the IDA came in the form of more sit-in demonstrations, this time held in Low Memorial Library. Despite limited enforcement of his ban prior to this event, President Kirk, in conjunction with the Administration, placed six anti-war student activists-all SDS leaders known as the “IDA Six”- on probation for violation of the ban on indoor demonstrations.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The Strike Coordinating Committee (SCC), formed by the Columbia chapter of SDS, was composed of representatives from throughout the University and from other student organizations and quickly assumed the mantle of strike leadership from the Columbia University Student Council and the Coalition of Student Leaders. The Columbia chapter of SDS, led by its chairman Mark Rudd, took an early lead on a cluster of issues that prompted student unrest and ultimately the strike. Among them were the proposed gymnasium and other instances of campus expansion into the surrounding community, the University's relationship with the IDA, R.O.T.C. and military research recruiting, and conditions for campus workers.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Partly in response to the fate of the "IDA Six", Mark Rudd and SDS, as well members of the Society of African-American Students (SAS), rallied at the campus Sun Dial on Tuesday, April 23. After a failed attempt to get inside Low Library to present President Kirk with a list of demands, members of the crowd were encouraged to proceed to Morningside Drive where there was an attempt to break into the gymnasium construction site. They were restrained by police and some were arrested. The demonstrators did not return to the Sundial as originally planed, instead they headed into Hamilton Hall, the main classroom building on campus and also home to the office of Dean Henry Coleman, and stayed the night.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Around midnight, the SAS leaders held a caucus and decided that the ongoing occupation of Hamilton should be a blacks-only project. Mark Rudd and SDS followers were surprised, but did not challenge this arrangement and all white protestors left quietly. The white evictees of Hamilton Hall took over Low Library the following day. On Day 2 graduate students refused to leave Avery Hall when told it was closing at 5:30 pm as a preventative measures to thwart strikers. Fayerweather and Mathematics were also eventually occupied by other groups of students.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The April 1968 protests saw faculty groups formed with the intention of mediating resolutions to the stand-off. Faculty in Philosophy 301 formed an Ad Hoc Faculty Group (AHFG), which was chaired by Political Scientist Alan Westin and directed by an AHFG steering committee. Membership in AHFG was based on support of three resolutions: immediate suspension of gym construction; establishment of a tripartite disciplinary mechanism; and a commitment by faculty signers to put themselves between police and students should police be called on campus.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED After six days of standoff, some 1,000 policemen forcibly reclaimed the occupied buildings on behalf of the Administration resulting in 712 arrests and 148 reports of injury. For the remainder of the academic year, the University was in chaos. Formal education more or less ceased as large numbers of students and many faculty lent support to the SCC, an umbrella group for the protesters. A second occupation of Hamilton Hall from May 21-22 led to an even more violent confrontation with the police. Even commencement was marred, as most of the graduating class walked out of the ceremony being held in The Cathedral of St. John The Divine to attend a counter-commencement on Low Plaza. Eventually campus disorder gave way to efforts toward restructuring the University, especially after the more moderate student protestors split from the SCC and created Students for a Restructured University (SRU). Among the new elements was the establishment of the University Senate as a representative body for the entire University community.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Immediately following the clearing of occupied buildings, the Ad Hoc Faculty Group convened to vote for support of the strikers and to admonish the administration. Chair Alan Westin would not bring this matter to vote and instead left the meeting. The remaining group reestablished itself as the Independent Faculty Group (IFG) and voted to support the strike.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The same day, Joint Faculties met to consider both pro-administration and anti-administration resolutions. An intermediate resolution was approved in the creation of the Executive Committee of the Faculty, who proposed the creation of an outside fact finding commission on May 2. On May 7, the Fact Finding Commission, composed of five members and chaired by Harvard law professor Archibald Cox, convened. The report Crisis at Columbia, highly critical of the administration, was published in October. The University's affiliation with the IDA was eventually severed, gymnasium construction was halted, the ROTC left campus, military and CIA recruiting stopped, and in August President Kirk resigned with Andrew Cordier named as acting President. Springtime building occupations continued for the next few years, but were eventually replaced by other, less politically minded, activities.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED The protests achieved two of the stated goals of the protest: Columbia disaffiliated from the IDA and it scrapped the plans for the controversial gym, building a subterranean physical fitness center under the north end of campus instead.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED In the late 1960s and early 1970s, student protests addressed other campus issues, namely Columbia's control of real estate in the Morningside Heights area and its relationship to the local community. Several student groups emerged with a focus on local issues such as New York City housing, schools, transit, labor, electoral politics, and support for the Black Panthers and political prisoners.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Protests, which some might characterize as a right of passage, have been a fixture of the Columbia experience throughout its history. However, the occupation of five University buildings in April 1968 signaled a sea change in the way in which students would not only interact with Columbia administration, but in universities throughout the nation.

From the guide to the University Protest and Activism Collection, 1958-1999, [Bulk Dates: 1968-1972]., (Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. University Archives)

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Benjamin Franklin Miller: Benjamin Franklin Miller received an A.B. degree from Columbia College in 1830.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Walter Trimble: Walter Trimble (1857-1926) graduated from the School of Law in 1881. He was a partner at the Wyatt and Trimble law firm and later president of the Bank for Savings.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Jonathan M. Wainwright: Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright (1864-1945) was the grandson of J. M. Wainwright, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York and cousin of the decorated WWI veteran of the same name. Wainwright graduated from Columbia College in 1881 and the School of Law in 1886. He joined the military after graduation and ultimately reached the rank of lieutenant colonel. He became a member of the New York State Assembly from 1902 to 1907, was New York State Senator from 1908 to 1912, and was a member of Congress from 1923 to 1931. Wainwright was an active member of the Military Affairs Committee at both the state and national level throughout his political career, and from 1921 to 1923 served as the Assistant Secretary of War.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Edwin R.A. Seligman: Seligman was a graduate student in both the School of Political Science and the School of Law. He received his LL.B in 1884 and a Ph.D. in 1885, and taught at Columbia until his retirement in 1931. He was a member of both the city and state committees on taxation and finance and an expert to the League of Nations Committee on Economics and Finance, 1922 -1923. He was a founding member of the American Economic Association in 1885 and served as president from 1902 to 1904. Seligman was also a book collector and a social activist.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Jacob S. Langthorn: Langthorn (1867-1955), Class of 1891, Engineering, began his career as development engineer for the New York City Board of Water Supply, later becoming commissioner of the Board. For several years he was president of the engineering contractors firm Langthorn and Smith. He was the author of several books on engineering, former director of the American Society of Civil Engineering, and governor of the Columbia University Club. Langthorn retired in 1937 as consulting engineer to the president of the Borough of Manhattan.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Lewis S. Bigelow: Lewis Sherrill Bigelow (1863-1933) graduated from Philips Exeter Academy in 1882 and Yale University in 1887. He did post-graduate work at Columbia University and received a law degree from the University of Michigan. After working for several years at his father's law firm, Bigelow, Flandreau, and Squires, in St. Paul, Bigelow came to New York and joined the staff of the "Sun." He devoted the later years of his life to literary work.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Lynn Thorndike: Lynn Thorndike (1882-1965), a medievalist, graduated from Columbia College in 1905 and received his Ph.D. from Columbia in 1911. He was a professor at the University for twenty-six years and actively published throughout his career. Thorndike was the president of the American Historical Association in 1955 and was one of the first thirty fellows named to the Mediaeval Academy of America.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Carl Trischka: Carl Trischka graduated from the School of Mines in 1913.

James S. Ackerman: James Ackerman was a student of P.O. Kristeller's.

Douglas Fraser: Douglas Fraser was a professor of art history and archeology at Columbia University. He specialized in the African art and architecture and the art of Oceania. He published extensively on "primitive art." He received his art historical training at Columbia before becoming a member of the faculty.

BIOGHIST REQUIRED James G. Banner, Jr.: James Banner was a graduate student in history in the early 1960s.

From the guide to the Lecture notes collection, 1817-1961, [Bulk Dates: 1877-1913]., (Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library University Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Columbia University. Archives. Columbia University Founding Anniversaries Collection, 1837-2004. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Columbia University. Archives. Commencement Collection, 1758- Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Buildings and grounds collection, 1755-2012, [Bulk Dates: 1880-2000]. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Columbia University Founding Anniversaries Collection, 1837-2004 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University Archives
creatorOf University Protest and Activism Collection, 1958-1999, [Bulk Dates: 1968-1972]. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University Archives
creatorOf Columbia University. Archives. Buildings and grounds collection, 1755-2007 [Bulk Dates: 1880-2000]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Lecture notes collection, 1817-1961, [Bulk Dates: 1877-1913]. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University Archives
creatorOf Columbia University. Archives. University Protest and Activism Collection, 1958-1999 (Bulk dates 1968-1972). Nolan, Norton & Company, Incorporated
creatorOf School of Journalism Founding Documents, 1892-1912, [Bulk Dates: 1903-1904] Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Columbia University. Archives. Lecture notes collection, 1817-1961 [Bulk Dates: 1877-1913]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alumni Federation of Columbia University. corporateBody
associatedWith Black Panther Party. corporateBody
associatedWith Burgess, John William, 1844-1831 person
associatedWith Burgess, John William, 1844-1931. person
associatedWith Butler, Nicholas Murray, 1862-1947 person
associatedWith Chandler, Charles Frederick, 1836-1925 person
associatedWith Chandler, Charles Frederick, 1836-1925. person
associatedWith College students corporateBody
associatedWith College students corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia-Barnard Citizenship Council. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia Spectator. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia Spectator. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. Dept. of Buildings and Grounds. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. Division of Facilities Management. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. East Campus. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. Observatory. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University Student Coordinating Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University. Students' Afro-American Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Committee for the Defense of Property Rights. corporateBody
associatedWith Community Action Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Cordier, Andrew W. 1901- person
associatedWith Cordier, Andrew W. (Andrew Wellington), 1901- person
associatedWith Cox, Archibald, 1912- person
associatedWith Deane, Herbert A. person
associatedWith December Fourth Movement. corporateBody
associatedWith Eliot, Charles William, 1834-1926 person
associatedWith Emerson, Harold E. person
associatedWith Emerson, Harold E. person
associatedWith Employees for March 25th. corporateBody
associatedWith Faculty Peace Action Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith King's College (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith King's College (New York, NY) corporateBody
associatedWith Kirk, Grayson L. 1903- person
associatedWith Kunen, James S., 1948- person
associatedWith Lang, Serge, 1927-2005. person
associatedWith Lindsay, John V., person
associatedWith Lindsay, John V., (John Vliet). person
associatedWith Low Memorial Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Low, Seth, 1850-1916. person
associatedWith McGill, William J. 1922- person
associatedWith McKim, Mead & White. corporateBody
associatedWith Morningside Housing Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Osgood, Herbert L. 1855-1918. person
associatedWith Osgood, Herbert L. (Herbert Levi), 1855-1918 person
associatedWith Progressive Labor Party. corporateBody
associatedWith Pulitzer, Joseph, 1847-1911 person
associatedWith Radical Faculty Group. corporateBody
associatedWith Rockefeller Center. corporateBody
associatedWith Rudd, Mark. person
associatedWith Seligman, Edwin R. A. 1861-1939. person
associatedWith Seligman, Edwin R. A. (Edwin Robert Anderson), 1961-1939 person
associatedWith Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam a.k.a. SMC. corporateBody
associatedWith Student Mobilization Committee (U.S.). corporateBody
associatedWith Students for a Democratic Society (U.S.). corporateBody
associatedWith Students for a Free Campus. corporateBody
associatedWith Students for a Reconstructed University a.k.a. SRU. corporateBody
associatedWith Students for a Restructured University a.k.a. SRU. corporateBody
associatedWith Truman, David Bicknell, 1913- person
associatedWith Walsh, Lawrence E. person
associatedWith Woodberry, George Edward, 1855-1930 person
associatedWith Woodberry, George Edward, 1855-1930. person
associatedWith Zinn, Howard, 1922- person
associatedWith Zinn, Howard, 1922-2010. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
New York (State)--New York
New York (State)--New York
Columbia University Archives
New York (State)--New York
Subject
Lectures and lecturing--New York (State)--New York
Draft resisters--Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975
Civil rights movement
Social movements
Peace movements
College buildings
Auditoriums
School sites
Student--Administrators relationships
Lectures and lecturing
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975
School lands
Vietnam War, 1961-1975
Classrooms
Library architecture
Universities and colleges
Academic costume
Student movements
Academic decorations of honor
Building sites--Planning
Student movements--New York (State)--New York
School buildings
Universities and colleges--New York (State)--New York
Library buildings
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1958

Active 1999

Information

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