Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888

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Ephraim George Squier (1821-1888) and Dr. Edwin Hamilton Davis (1811-1888) of Chillicothe, Ohio were antiquarian authors who became authorities in the field of Indian antiquities. Mr. Squier was editor of the Scioto Gazette in Ohio when he began investigating the moundbuilders of the Scioto Valley under the tutelage of Dr. Davis, an Ohio physician who wrote for several historical and medical journals. Squier was later appointed Charge d'affaires to Guatemala and other Central American states and negotiated the preliminary agreements which led to the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty in 1850.

From the description of Papers, 1847-1848. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 218551737

Squier was an author and diplomat, secretary, 1853, of the Honduras Interoceanic Railway.

From the description of Letter : New York, to J.W. Doughty, 1870 Oct. 15. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 30806827

American archaeologist, diplomat and businessman.

From the description of Letter to Fitz-Greene Halleck [manuscript], 1842 March 18. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647923956

Archeologist, diplomat, and businessman.

From the description of The papers of Ephraim George Squier, 1841-1848. (University of California, Berkeley). WorldCat record id: 214955710

Squier was a journalist, diplomat, and archaeologist. He edited newspapers in New York and Ohio, and wrote books on Native American antiquities and the Civil War. Squier negotiated a treaty for an interoceanic canal across Nicaragua, and was involved in plans to build a railroad across Honduras. About 1860 he became chief editor for Frank Leslie's Publishing House. He married Miriam Florence Follin, who later married Frank Leslie.

From the description of Papers, 1838-1905. (Indiana Historical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 33804797

Journalist, diplomat, and archaeologist, Squier was born in Bethlehem, N.Y. He edited various newspapers in New York, Connecticut, and Ohio from 1842 to 1846. He collaborated with Edwin H. Davis studying the remains of Mound Builders in Ohio. The result of their research appeared in the first publication of the Smithsonian Institution. He was commissioner to Peru (1863-1865) and was successful in settling financial claims between the two countries. He later returned to his work with the publishing house of Frank Leslie. (DAB)

From the guide to the Claims Brought Before the United States and Peru Mixed Claims Commission, 1863-1864, (Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University)

Diplomat, journalist and archeologist.

From the description of Papers, 1847-1894 (bulk 1849-1859). (New York University, Group Batchload). WorldCat record id: 58778904

Ephraim George Squier (1821-1888), a journalist, archaeologist and diplomat, was an authority on Central America. He held a number of consular and diplomatic posts in Latin America.

From the description of Letter : New York to Hon. J. M. Mason, 1853 February 19. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122640072

Ephraim G. Squier, an archaeologist, author and diplomat, went to Central America in 1849 as chargé d'affaires, and returned in 1853 to make surveys for the Honduras Interoceanic Railway. He served as U.S. commissioner to Peru (1863-65) and as consul general of Honduras in New York in 1868. Squier wrote many books on Central and South America.

From the description of Papers of E. G. Squier, 1852-1858. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 122288696

Archeologist and diplomat.

From the description of Papers, ca. 1845-1870. (Rhinelander District Library). WorldCat record id: 18727444

Ephraim Squier was a diplomat, archaeologist, traveler and author.

From the description of Letter to "Dear Gov." and portrait of Ephraim Squier. 1866. (Haverford College Library). WorldCat record id: 173972923

Archaeologist, diplomat, and businessman.

From the description of Papers of E. G. Squier. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71132858

Journalist, diplomat, and archaeologist, Squier was born in Bethlehem, N.Y. He edited various newspapers in New York, Connecticut, and Ohio from 1842 to 1846. He collaborated with Edwin H. Davis studying the remains of Mound Builders in Ohio. The result of their research appeared in the first publication of the Smithsonian Institution. He was commissioner to Peru (1863-1865) and was successful in settling financial claims between the two countries. He later returned to his work with the publishing house of Frank Leslie.(DAB)

From the description of Claims brought before the United States and Peru Mixed Claims Commission, 1863-1864. (Harvard Law School Library). WorldCat record id: 235991916

Archaeologist, diplomat, author, editor, and businessman.

From the description of E.G. Squier papers, 1841-1888 (bulk 1846-1874). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981199

Archaeologist, diplomat, and author.

An investigator of antiquities in the Mississippi Valley and the state of New York, Squier subsequently was appointed to various diplomatic posts in Central and South America, regions which also became the subject of his archaeological and historical research and writing.

From the description of Letter : New York, [N.Y.], to [John Russell] Bartlett, 1870 Dec. 11. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 40222331

Biographical Note

  • 1821, June 17: Born, Bethlehem, N.Y.
  • 1842 - 1845 : Journalist and editor, Poets' Magazine,New York State Mechanic, and Hartford Evening Journal
  • 1845: Publisher, Scioto Gazette (Chillicothe, Ohio)
  • 1847 - 1848 : Clerk, Ohio House of Representatives
  • 1848: Published with Edwin Hamilton Davis Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (New York: Bartlett and Welford; Cincinnati: J.M. and U.P. James; Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 306 pp.)
  • 1849 - 1850 : Chargé d'affaires, Guatemala
  • 1851: Published Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 188 pp.)
  • 1852: Published Nicaragua; Its People, Scenery, Monuments, and the Proposed Inter-oceanic Canal (New York: D. Appleton & Co. 2 vols.)
  • 1853: Secretary, Honduras Interoceanic Railway Co.
  • 1858: Published The States of Central America (New York: Harper & Brothers. 782 pp.) Married Miriam Florence Folline (later divorced)
  • 1860: Editor, publishing firm of Frank Leslie
  • 1861: Supervised Frank Leslie's Pictorial History of the American Civil War (New York: F. Leslie, 1861-1862, 2 vols.)
  • 1863 - 1865 : United States United States Peru Republic of Peru United States Commissioner to Peru
  • 1867: Delegate of the American Ethnological Society to the Anthropological Congress of Paris for 1867
  • 1868: Honduras Republic of Honduras New York, N.Y. New York City Chelsea New York Consul-General of Honduras,New York, N.Y.
  • 1870: Published Honduras; Descriptive, Historical, and Statistical (London: Trubner & Co. 278 pp.)
  • 1871: President, Anthropological Society of New York
  • 1874 - 1888 : Suffered intermittent periods of mental illness
  • circa 1874: Remarried Miriam Florence Folline Squier Leslie
  • 1877: Published Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (London: Macmillan and Co. 599 pp.)
  • 1888, Apr. 17: Died, Brooklyn, N.Y.

From the guide to the E. G. Squier Papers, 1841-1888, (bulk 1846-1874), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Ephraim Squier (1821-1886) is well known in American anthropology. The son of Joel Squier (1798-1891), a Methodist minister, and Katherine Kilmer Squier (1797-1833), Ephraim was born in Bethlehem, New York. Because of his father's itinerant preaching and sparse income, Squier had little opportunity to receive a formal education and thus attended school intermittently. At his father's behest, he initially began his career as a teacher. Realizing his disdain for pedagogy, Squier then trained to be a civil engineer. This career, however, did not prove to be lucrative. Having an interest in poetry, Squier became increasingly engaged in writing and was eventually drawn to journalism. In the early 1840's, he edited and published several unsuccessful magazines and journals, such as the short-lived Poet's Magazine . He then edited and wrote for The New York State Mechanic, publishing articles on prison reform. His gradual involvement in politics and social issues led to a position in 1843 as co-editor of the Hartford Journal, for which he wrote articles in support of the Whig party. In 1845, he took a job in Chillicothe, Ohio, as editor of the Scioto Gazette, a publication that also had Whig inclinations.

Despite his productive writing career, Squier is best known for his influence in the founding of American archaeology, and for his contribution to ethnology. It was during his time as editor of the Gazette that Squier became interested in the remnants of Mississippian culture in Ohio. Although he continued to engage in politics, as evidenced by his appointment in 1846 as House Clerk to the Ohio House of Representatives, the lure of ancient cultures and their material remains still intrigued him. He proved to be as prolific a writer of anthropology as he was as a journalist. His seminal publications are Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848), which he wrote with Edwin Hamilton Davis (1811-1888), and Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New-York (1849). Both volumes were based on extensive survey work conducted by Davis and Squier in Ohio and Squier himself in New York, and published by the Smithsonian Institution. As serious and ambitious anthropological works, the volumes contain cross-cultural analogies and provide detailed maps of survey work of mounds and earthworks, thus yielding a great deal of insight into the prehistory of New York and the Ohio Valley.

In 1849, Squier was offered a diplomatic position in Nicaragua. During his one-year tenure, he negotiated a treaty with Nicaragua for the construction of an American canal. Despite his diplomatic responsibilities, he was still able to find time to explore local archaeological sites, and to investigate and write on anthropological topics. Thus, his focus shifted to the archaeology of Central America. One publication that he wrote during this period was The Serpent Symbol and the Reciprocal Principles of Nature (1851). In 1852 he then published Nicaragua: Its People, Scenery, Monuments and the Proposed Inter-Oceanic Canal, which addresses both archaeological and ethnohistorical questions.

In addition to Nicaragua, Squier acquired other diplomatic positions in Central America in order to have access to archaeological sites, although he also used his station to promote development in the region. In 1853, he put forth the idea of building a railroad across part of Nicaragua and Honduras. However, the Honduras Interoceanic Railway Project never reached fruition. In the early 1860's, Squier once again returned to journalism, this time as an editor for a publishing firm owned by Frank Leslie (1821-1880). A few years later, he was appointed United States Commissioner to Peru between 1863 and 1865, after which he wrote his last major publication, Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (1877). In 1868, he was appointed Consul-General of Honduras. This was his last diplomatic appointment.

In 1873, Squier and his wife, Miriam Florence Follin (1828-1914), divorced. Shortly thereafter, he began to show signs of mental deterioration and was committed to an asylum before eventually becoming the ward of his brother Frank. He died in 1888. Although his anthropological pursuits ceased during the latter part of his life, Squier is nonetheless remembered as a passionate intellectual who attempted to answer theoretical questions about human behavior and the nature of the organization of societies. Above all, he sought to understand trans-historical and cross-cultural similarities between ancient societies, which has earned him a prominent place as one of the forerunners of modern anthropology.

From the guide to the Ephraim George Squier papers, Squier, Ephriam George, 1818-1886, 1861-1886, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn New York Historical Society. E. G. Squier Papers.
creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. Letter from E. George Squier to the Chevalier Jomard [manuscript], 1851 May 7. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Letters to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1761-1904 (inclusive) 1820-1888 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers, 1812-1897, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. Letter : to B. Sullivan, 1861 Mar. 29. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. Papers of E. G. Squier, 1852-1858. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Private Collection. [Contact repository for more information].
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referencedIn National Archives And Records Administration. Rg 78: Naval Observatory.
creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. The papers of Ephraim George Squier, 1841-1848. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. 1847.0.
creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. Letter : New York, [N.Y.], to [John Russell] Bartlett, 1870 Dec. 11. Newberry Library
creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. E.G. Squier papers, 1841-1888 (bulk 1846-1874). Library of Congress
creatorOf Claims Brought Before the United States and Peru Mixed Claims Commission, 1863-1864 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
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creatorOf Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888. Claims brought before the United States and Peru Mixed Claims Commission, 1863-1864. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
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referencedIn New York State Library. Manuscripts and Special Collections Unit. Autographs of American authors and statesmen collection, ca.1770-1865. American Periodical Series I
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. 1860.0.
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correspondedWith Anthony, Henry B. (Henry Bowen), 1815-1884 person
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correspondedWith Baird, Spencer F. person
associatedWith Balboa, Vasco Núñez de, 1475-1519. person
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correspondedWith Bartlett, Jonathan R. person
associatedWith Beekman, William, 1623-1707. person
associatedWith Benson, A. G. person
associatedWith Benson, A.G. person
associatedWith Berendt, C. Hermann (Carl Hermann), 1817-1878. person
correspondedWith Birch, Samuel, 1813-1885 person
associatedWith Blanco, B. person
correspondedWith Bourbourg, M. person
associatedWith Brewster, David, Sir person
associatedWith Brinton, Daniel Garrison, 1837-1899, person
associatedWith Brown, D. Tilden (David Tilden), 1822-1889. person
associatedWith Brown, Orlando, 1801-1867. person
associatedWith Brown, William, Sir, 1784-1864. person
associatedWith Byington, Cyrus person
associatedWith Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881. person
associatedWith Cereceda, Andrés de. person
associatedWith Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 1500-1558. person
associatedWith Chaves, Gabriel de. person
associatedWith Churchman, Samuel. person
associatedWith Churchman, Samuel. person
associatedWith Clayton, John M. person
correspondedWith Clayton, John M. (John Middleton), 1796-1856. person
associatedWith Compagnie belge de colonisation. corporateBody
correspondedWith Coombs, Edwin person
associatedWith Council of the Indies. corporateBody
associatedWith Dallas, George Mifflin, 1792-1864. person
associatedWith Dana & Company corporateBody
correspondedWith D. Appleton-Century Company. corporateBody
correspondedWith Davis, E. H. person
correspondedWith Davis, E. H. (Edwin Hamilton), 1811-1888 person
correspondedWith Davis, Joseph Barnard, 1801-1881 person
associatedWith Derby, Edward Henry Stanley, Earl of, 1826-1893. person
associatedWith Doughty, J. W. person
associatedWith Duarte, Alonso. person
associatedWith Easton, Chase. person
associatedWith Easton, Chase. person
associatedWith Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Eldridge, Thomas R. person
correspondedWith Erwin, John W. person
correspondedWith Ewbank, Thomas person
associatedWith Faraday, Michael person
correspondedWith Foreman, Edward (Dr.) person
associatedWith Francisco, Prior of Viana. person
associatedWith Frank Leslie's Publishing House. corporateBody
correspondedWith Gallatin, A. person
associatedWith García De Hermosilla, Juan. person
associatedWith Gasca, Pedro de la, 1493-1567. person
correspondedWith Gibbes, Robert Wilson person
correspondedWith Gibbs, George person
associatedWith Gibson, Thomas Milner, 1806-1884. person
associatedWith Gilliss, James Melville person
correspondedWith Gliddon, George R. (George Robins), 1809-1857 person
correspondedWith Gliddon, George Robins person
associatedWith González Dávila, Gil, ca. 1578-1658. person
associatedWith Goodrich, James W., 1803- person
correspondedWith Grable, John person
associatedWith Great Britain. 1850 Apr. 19 corporateBody
associatedWith Guatemala corporateBody
associatedWith Guzmán, Pantaleón de, 1652?-ca. 1708. person
associatedWith Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 1790-1867, person
correspondedWith Hammond, James H. person
correspondedWith Haven, Samuel F. person
correspondedWith Hellwald, Frederick Von person
correspondedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878 person
associatedWith Henry W. Raborg person
associatedWith Hill, Benjamin Thomas. person
correspondedWith Hill, John person
associatedWith Honduras Interoceanic Railway. corporateBody
associatedWith Honduras Interoceanic Railway Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Humboldt, F. W. H. Alexander Von person
associatedWith Izaguirre, Pedro de. person
associatedWith Jenckes, Thomas A. (Thomas Allen), 1818-1875 person
correspondedWith Jenkins, Edward O. person
correspondedWith Jewett, Charles Coffin person
associatedWith J. F. Lasarte person
associatedWith Kinney, Henry E. person
associatedWith Kinney, Henry E. person
associatedWith Kossuth, Louis person
correspondedWith Lapham, Increase Allen person
associatedWith Le Conte, John Eatton, 1784-1860. person
associatedWith LeConte, John L., (John Lawrence), 1825-1883 person
associatedWith Le Plongeon, Augustus, 1826-1908. person
correspondedWith Lepsius, R. person
associatedWith Leslie, Frank, 1821-1880. person
associatedWith Leslie, Frank, Mrs., d. 1914. person
correspondedWith Lieber, Francis person
correspondedWith Locke, John person
correspondedWith Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 person
correspondedWith Lowell, James Russell, 1819-1891 person
associatedWith Mackie, James. person
associatedWith Mackie, James. person
correspondedWith Marcoleta, José de, 1802-1881 person
associatedWith Markoe, Francis, Jr. person
correspondedWith Marsh, George Perkins person
associatedWith Mason, J. M. (James Murray), 1798-1871. person
correspondedWith Mather, W. W. person
associatedWith Matthew Crosby person
correspondedWith Maury, Matthew Fontaine, 1806-1873 person
correspondedWith Mayer, Brantz person
correspondedWith Mayer, Brantz, 1809-1879 person
correspondedWith Molina, Luis, fl. 1857-1867 person
associatedWith Montero de Miranda, Francisco. person
associatedWith Moore, Robert Ross Rowan, 1811-1864. person
associatedWith Morazán, Francisco, 1792-1842. person
correspondedWith Morton, S. G. person
correspondedWith Mott, Albert J. person
associatedWith Muñoz, Juan Bautista, 1745-1799. person
associatedWith Navarrete, Martín Fernández de, 1765-1844. person
associatedWith Newberry Library. corporateBody
associatedWith New York Ethnological Society corporateBody
associatedWith New York State Library. Manuscripts and Special Collections Unit. corporateBody
associatedWith Niño, Andrés. person
correspondedWith Norton, Charles Eliot, 1827-1908 person
correspondedWith Nott, Josiah Clark, 1804-1873 person
correspondedWith Olmstead, Lemuel G. person
correspondedWith Orr family family
associatedWith Owen, Robert Dale, 1801-1877. person
associatedWith Parkman, Francis, 1823-1893. person
associatedWith Payne, John Howard, 1791-1852. person
associatedWith Peter, Mrs. person
associatedWith Pizarro, Francisco, ca. 1475-1541. person
associatedWith Porter, David D. (David Dixon), 1813-1891. person
correspondedWith Prescott, William person
associatedWith Preston, William Campbell person
associatedWith Priest, Mr. person
correspondedWith Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915 person
correspondedWith Putnam, George P. person
associatedWith Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel person
associatedWith Ramírez, Diego. person
correspondedWith Rau, Charles person
associatedWith Rau, Charles, 1826-1887. person
correspondedWith Richards, John person
associatedWith Riggs, Stephen person
associatedWith Robinson, Mr. person
correspondedWith Sanford, Henry Shelton, 1823-1891 person
associatedWith Sartori, Edmund W. person
associatedWith Sartori, Edmund W. person
correspondedWith Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe person
correspondedWith Scott, David R. person
associatedWith Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872. person
associatedWith Shea, John Gilmary, 1824-1892. person
associatedWith Sigourney, L. H. (Lydia Howard), 1791-1865. person
correspondedWith Silliman, Benjamin, Sr. person
correspondedWith Smith, Buckingham, 1810-1871 person
correspondedWith Smithsonian Institution corporateBody
correspondedWith Smithsonian Institution Board Of Regents corporateBody
associatedWith Sparks, Jared person
correspondedWith Squier, Frank person
associatedWith Squier, Frank. person
associatedWith Squier, Frank. person
correspondedWith Squier, Joel, Rev. person
associatedWith Stephen G. Montano person
correspondedWith Stevens, Henry, 1819-1886 person
associatedWith Stuart, George E. person
correspondedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
associatedWith Thorne, Rollin. person
associatedWith Thorne, Rollin. person
correspondedWith Tibbals, N. & Co. corporateBody
associatedWith Torresano, Estevan. person
correspondedWith Trautwine, John C. (John Cresson), 1810-1883 person
correspondedWith Travellers' Club corporateBody
correspondedWith Turner, William W. (William Wadden), 1810-1859 person
correspondedWith Turner, W. W. person
associatedWith United States and Peru Mixed Claims Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Commission corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. District Court corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Mixed Claims Commission corporateBody
associatedWith Velasco, Luis de, 1500?-1564. person
correspondedWith Wailes, B. L. C. person
associatedWith Washington Monument corporateBody
associatedWith Weer, Paul, person
associatedWith Weer, Paul, comp. person
correspondedWith West, W. S. person
associatedWith Whig Party (U.S.) corporateBody
correspondedWith Whitaker, B. person
correspondedWith White, H. person
correspondedWith Whittlesey, Charles person
correspondedWith Wright, Thomas, 1810-1877 person
correspondedWith Wyman, Jeffries person
associatedWith Zurita, Alonso de, ca. 1512-1585. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Societies, etc.--United States
United States
Sacsahuaman (Peru)
Honduras
Ohio
Washington (D.C.)
Peru
North America
United States
Nicaragua Canal (Nicaragua)
Latin America
New York (State)
Peru--Sacsahuaman
Mississippi River Valley
Great Britain
Latin America
Central America
Nicaragua
Mississippi River Valley
Central America
Central America
Honduras
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Peru
United States
Latin America
El Salvador
Islas de la Bahía (Honduras)
Central America
United States
Ohio
New York (State)--New York
Peru
El Salvador
Mexico
Honduras
Latin America
Honduras
Central America
United States
Central America
United States
Honduras
Nicaragua
Peru--Ollantaytambo
United States
Guatemala
Ohio
Honduras
United States
Peru
Honduras
Central America
New York (State)--New York
Ollantaytambo (Peru)
Honduras
Peru
Pacific Ocean
Chillicothe (Ross County, Ohio)
New York (State)--Buffalo
United States
Honduras
Subject
Congress
Seizure of vessels and cargoes--Peru
Indians of Central America--Antiquities
Scientific publications
Indians of Central America--Colonization--History--Sources
Canals, Interoceanic
Journalism--Political Aspects--United States History--19th Century
Nicaragua--Foreign Relations--United States
Incas--Antiquities
Seat of the Inca (Peru)--19th century
Applications for positions
Contracts, Maritime--Peru
Diplomatic and consular service, American
Diplomats--Archives
Seizure of vessels and cargoes
American Assoc. For The Advancement Of Science (+ Aagn Etc.)
University of Pennsylvania
Archaeologists--Diaries
Indian art
Indians of Central America--Languages
Diplomatic and consular service, Honduran--United States
El Salvador--Description and travel
Hieroglyphics
Toltecs--Antiquities
Surveying
Mound builders
American Journal Of Science (Silliman's)
Lenca language--Glossaries, vocabularies, etc
Diplomatic and consular service, Honduran--Washington (D.C.)
Archaeology
Peru--Relations--United States
Princeton (College Of New Jersey)
Albumen prints--19th century
Guano industry--Law and legislation--Peru
Anthropology--Societies, etc.--New York (State)
Ethnology
Indians
Ethnology--Societies, etc.--United States
Diplomatic and consular service, Honduran--New York (State)--New York
Archaeology--Mississippi River Valley
Smithsonian Building
Smithsonian Library
Diplomatic and consular service, American--Hondurans
Smithsonian Weather Service
Diplomatic and consular service, American--Peru
Canals, Interoceanic--History--Sources
Archaeology--South America
Smithsonian Institution
Anthropology--Societies, etc
Religion
International law--Peru
Guano industry--Peru
Archaeologists--United States--Diaries
Anthropology--History--19th Century
Excavations (Archaeology)--19th century--Drawings
Recommendations For Positions
Architecture
Meteorology
Contracts, maritime
Science In America
National Museum
Indians of South America--Languages
District of columbia
International law
Manuscripts--English
Diplomatic and consular service, American--Central America
Smithsonian Exchange
Smithsonian Publications
Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888
Railroads
False imprisonment--Peru
President Of United States
Diplomatic and consular service, Nicaraguan--United States
Indians of North America
Railroads--Honduras
Ethnology Archaeology Anthropology
Indians of North America--Antiquities
Henry, Joseph, Personality, Etc
Draft
Indians--Languages
Archaeology--New York (State)
Patent Office
Indians of North America--Languages
Lenca Indians
Diplomatic and consular service, American--Nicaragua
Surveys And Explorations, General
Scientific organizations
Smithsonian Board Of Regents
Manuscripts, American
Blacks
Photography
Signatures (writing)
Aztecs--Antiquities
Incas
Indians of North America--Art
Watercolors, American--19th century
Diplomatic and consular service, American--Honduras
False imprisonment
Physical geography
Indian architecture
Henry Family
Archaeology--Latin America
Americans On Europe
Diplomatic and consular service, Honduran
Lectures, Popular
Occupation
Businessmen
Diplomats
Archaeologists
Function

Person

Birth 1821-06-17

Death 1888-04-17

Americans

Spanish; Castilian,

Central American Indian languages,

South American Indian (Other),

German,

English,

French

Information

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