Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874

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Congressman, philanthropist, reformer.

From the description of Letter, 1840 May 16. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122379141

Gerrit Smith resided in Peterboro (N.H.?) at the time of these writings and was a strong supporter of emancipation and African American rights. Upon his death the African American citizens of Buffalo paid him a formal tribute.

From the description of Letters and broadsides, 1868-1871. (Buffalo History Museum). WorldCat record id: 34178334

Philanthropist and social reformer. Served in the U.S. House of Representatives; campaigned for the presidency in 1848, 1856, and 1860.

From the description of Gerrit Smith letter : Peterboro, Madison Co., to Augustus Porter, 1823 Sept. 1. (Buffalo History Museum). WorldCat record id: 173260162

Gerrit Smith was a Congressman, philanthropist, and abolitionist.

From the description of Letter, 1852. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 232007446

U.S. representative from New York, philanthropist, and abolitionist.

From the description of Gerrit Smith correspondence, 1840-1873. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70980473

Philanthropist and reformer.

From the description of "Returning books", 1862. 2" x 3". (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122629139

American philanthropist and reformer.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : to Horace Greeley, [18]70 Jan. 16. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270663908

From the description of Autograph letter signed : to Messrs. Parker, Blanchard and Hall, [18]57 July 2. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270663903

Abolitionist and philanthropist.

From the description of Gerrit Smith letter [manuscript], 1867 August 12. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647823514

American philanthropist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Peterboro, to the Rev. John Pierpont, 1842 Apr. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270663639

Philanthropist, businessman, reformer, and politician Gerrit Smith was born in Utica, N.Y., and educated at Hamilton College. His father had amassed a considerable fortune, including undeveloped land in the amount of a quarter of a million acres in several states, and Gerrit began managing the fortune in 1820. He also became active politics, reorganizing the Liberty party, which nominated him for the presidency during several elections, and in social issues, giving money and time to religious causes, suffrage, and especially the abolition of slavery. He formed a close friendship with John Brown, and after the raid on Harper's Ferry committed himself to a lunatic asylum for treatment, and perhaps to avoid prosecution as an accomplice.

From the description of Gerrit Smith letter to Dr. J.N. Quint (?) , 1855 May 30. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 70901366

U.S. representative from New York, philanthropist, and abolitionist. Smith resided in Peterboro, N.Y. at the time of these writings.

From the description of [Published letters of Gerrit Smith]. [1843-1857] (Dartmouth College Library). WorldCat record id: 707636283

American abolitionist and land speculator.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, 1869 Jan. 24. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 639938494

Gerrit Smith (1797-1874) was an American social reformer, abolitionist, politician, and philanthropist. Born in Utica, New York, he spent much of his life in nearby Peterboro. Smith's grandfather, Colonel James Livingston, fought in the American Revolution and his first cousin, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was a founder and leader of the women's suffrage movement. Smith was non-sectarian in his religious views, active in the temperance movement, an avid and outspoken abolitionist (he was a financial backer of John Brown of Kansas, whose raid on Harper's Ferry nearly led to Smith's prosecution), and three times ran for President of the United States. His philanthropic gifts are said to have exceeded $8 million over his lifetime. Although he rarely ventured far afield from his central New York village, and spent less than two years in elected public office, his biographer Ralph Volney Harrow says, "He and a few others like him furnished the oratory, the written propaganda, and the emotional fervor necessary to keep good causes constantly before the public" (Harlow, Ralph Volney, Gerrit Smith, Philanthropist and Reformer, New York, Henry Holt and Co., 1939, p.v.)

Gerrit Smith was born at Utica, New York, 1797, one of the six children of Peter and Elizabeth Livingston Smith. Peter was a successful businessman, a partner of John Jacob Astor in the fur trade, and owner of vast estates in New York State. These included 20,000 acres in the Mohawk Valley and a continuous tract of more than 60,000 acres in northern Madison County. In 1806 when Gerrit was nine years old, Peter moved his family to his Madison County preserves and named the village he established there Peterboro.

Gerrit entered Hamilton College in 1814 and graduated as valedictorian in 1818. In January of the following year he married Wealtha Ann Backus, daughter of Hamilton’s president. Wealtha Ann died seven months after the wedding, and in l812, Gerrit married Ann Carroll Fitzhugh of Rochester, New York. There were four children of this union: Elizabeth, born September 20, 1822; Fitzhugh, born October 18, 1824 and died July 1836; Ann, born July 7, 1830 and died April 1835; and Green, born April 14, 1842.

In 1818 Gerrit purchased 18,000 acres of land in Oneida County. The following year his father Peter turned over responsibility for the management of all his property to Gerrit and Gerrit’s uncle, Daniel Cady. Gerrit moved into the "mansion house" in Peterboro, thus at age twenty-one assuming responsibility not only for the extensive lands in central New York, but also as "patron" for the village of Peterboro. By 1823 value of his purchase in Oneida County had increased and he took his first step in philanthropy, never ceasing from then until his death to provide funds generously for public causes, particularly those he considered "moral."

When Peter Smith died in 1837, he held some 556,000 acres of land in 43 counties of New York State. His will directed that the property should be sold and the proceeds divided among his son Peter Skenandoah, the children of his daughter Cornelia, and Gerrit. Gerrit gained the consent of the other heirs to maintain the property and bought out their shares for cash.

Gerrit Smith was something of a hypochondriac and imagined himself ill for most of his life. However, according to Harlow, "In the course of his life he had printed approximately two hundred circular letters, speeches, and pamphlets, dealing with the various questions, political, social, and theological, in which he happened to be interested. Then he kept a close oversight of his voluminous correspondence, both general and business, as the numerous notes and endorsements in his own hand show. He also wrote out drafts of replies for his clerks to copy. His land books carried about fifteen, hundred separate accounts, which ran on year after year. All these were in addition to the numerous transactions in which he bought or sold land for cash. Much of the routine work in connection with these accounts was done by his clerks, but Smith was always an observant employer.' (Harlow, pp.33, 35)

In addition to his land interests, in the 1830s Gerrit Smith was a director of the Utica branch of the Bank of the United States, held a franchise for the mail stage between Utica and Peterboro, and owned considerable stock in the Hudson and Mohawk Railroad, forerunner of the New York Central, During the 1840s, he helped to reorganize the Commercial Bank of Oswego and to promote the Syracuse and Oswego Railroad. One of his early ventures in business had been the purchase of 91 of the total 100 shares in the Oswego Canal Company, which proved to be one of his most profitable business investments, and during the 1840s, he also worked actively to prevent discriminatory rates on the Canal. Before he was fifty, then, he was a landholder of large estates, ¡r businessman, and a citizen of reputation as one ready to espouse business and commercial enterprises of public concern.

The record indicates, however, that Gerrit Smith's most significant contributions to his era were his efforts in the causes of social and moral reform. He used his powers of oratory and his ability to write on controversial issues on behalf of anti-slavery, anti-tobacco, and anti- Masonic movements; temperance, women's rights; religion; education; and international peace. His gifts to these causes were divided roughly into three categories: speaking, writing both for publication and privately, and providing funds.

One of Gerrit Smith's earliest concerns was religion, and he claimed its precepts as the basis of his reform efforts throughout his life. He was involved in the work of the American Bible Society, the American Tract Society, the American Sunday School Union, and the American Home Missionary Society. After he became interested in abolition, he thought Protestant denominationalism was wrong because he believed the churches, as organizations, were not taking a "sufficient" stand against slavery. He was instrumental in forming non-denominational churches in Oswego and Peterboro.

Perhaps the first significant reform movement espoused by Smith was that of temperance. He was a member of the New York Temperance Society and spoke at its first annual meeting in January 1830, to the effect that alcohol was responsible for most of the crime and poverty in the world. He established a "temperance hotel" in Peterboro, where no liquor was sold or consumed, and had an interest in similar hostelries in Oswego and Utica. In 1833, he attended the National Temperance Convention of the American Temperance Society in Philadelphia, where he spoke at meetings, introduced resolutions, and wrote circular letters. He attacked with his oratory distilleries in Cazenovia and Eton, neighbors of Peterboro, and apparently "cleaned up" Peterboro, which "went dry" in 1846, following passage of the New York option law on the licensing of liquor sales.

As Smith's reputation as both reformer and philanthropist grew' he was besieged by founders of societies and organizations devoted to one or another of the social reforms, both for funds and for the support of his name. He either became a member of, wrote circular letters for, provided funds to--or all three--societies fighting the use of tobacco, vegetarian groups, societies to save the souls of canal workers, supporters of sexual purity' the American Peace Society, the Seamen's Friends Society, and organizations devoted to limiting the control of the federal government over canals, railroads' schools, and internal improvements. He supported women's rights movements, including Amelia Bloomer's drive for reform in women's dress, and responded with speeches, funds, and letters to requests for help from feminists Lucy Stone; Susan B. Anthony; his cousin, Elizabeth Cady Stanton; and his own wife and daughter Elizabeth, both of whom became active in the women's rights movement.

In December 1831, Benjamin Lundy, the Quaker publisher of the journal The Genius of Emancipation, visited Gerrit Smith in Peterboro, the first of many abolitionists to be entertained there over the ensuing years. For about four years, Smith remained more of an observer than active supporter of the more militant anti-slavery groups, but by the mid-thirties he had become an avowed abolitionist. He attended the convention in Utica In 1835 where the New York State Anti-Slavery Society was born, and from that time to the Civil War and beyond, he was a committed and articulate member of the country's anti- slavery forces. The Utica meeting was broken up by a mob of anti- abolitionists and Smith was appointed chairman of a committee to decide on the place and time of the next meeting; it reconvened in Peterboro the next day.

Gerrit Smith was elected president of the New York State Anti-Slavery Society in 1836, and began publication of approximately fifty essays on slavery printed in the form of circular letters. By the decade of the 1830s he also was helping slaves to escape and sheltering them at Peterboro before sending them on, usually to Canada. In some cases, he bought slaves and set them free.

The Liberty Party was born in Albany, New York, on April 1, 1840, on the basis of pledges by its members not to support pro-slavery candidates for office. Although he refused the party's nomination as a gubernatorial candidate in 1842, Gerrit Smith spoke at conventions, wrote his circular letters, gave his financial support, and seems to have had considerable influence in the party. He was nominated as a presidential candidate in 1848 by the National Liberty Party, the Liberty League, and the Industrial Congress. In New York State, Smith polled 2,545 votes out of more than 500,000, the moderate abolitionists of the state giving 120,510 votes to Martin Van Buren.

Combining his interests in land reform and in free labor as opposed to slavery, Gerrit Smith gave parcels of his lands, the greater part in the Adirondacks, to thousands of poor white and black families to give them a start as farmers. He also granted lands to 196 white families in Madison County, with an additional thousand grants going to other inhabitants of New York State.

In 1853 Gerrit Smith was elected to Congress, representing the 22nd New York District of Oswego and Madison counties. He was supported by anti- slavery Whigs, Democrats, Free Democrats, and other abolitionists. While an incumbent, he strongly advocated temperance, abolition, and peace, and fought the Kansas-Nebraska-Bill. But he resigned his seat in August 1854, giving as his reason "the pressure of my too extensive private business.

Gerrit Smith was caught up in the Kansas Aid movement, becoming its leader in Madison County and pledging more than $3000 to help pour anti-slavery settlers from the North into the-territory in order to secure a free state. He was active in supporting the "free soilers" of Kansas in their sometimes bloody battles with the Missouri slave-holders, who were determined to make Kansas a slave state.

John Brown had been a leader for free soil in Kansas, but by 1857 the Kansas troubles had lessened, and Brown turned his thoughts to an attack on Virginia and the colonization of free-soilers there. He traveled about from place to place seeking funds, and arrived in Peterboro in February 1858' where he discussed his plans with Gerrit Smith and others. Documents indicate that Smith understood perfectly what John Brown had in mind and that it would involve violence. The attack on Harper's Ferry began on 0ctober 16, 1859. Brown was captured; charged with conspiracy, murder and treason; found guilty; sentenced; and hanged in early December.

During this period, the New York Herald printed documents disclosing Smith's connection with John Brown and his plot, and accused Smith of being an accessory. Smith's fear and anxiety over the possible effects of his involvement resulted in a nervous breakdown. Five days after John Brown was sentenced, Gerrit Smith was taken to the New York State Lunatic Asylum in Utica, where he remained for about two months before he was returned to Peterboro. He consistently denied any more than the most superficial knowledge of Brown's plans and activities and brought libel suits against those who published attacks on him. However, he settled out of court in preference to having his close connection with John Brown publicized through the documents held by his accusers.

For a year after his breakdown, Smith withdrew from public life and lived in retirement; he then resumed his activities in defense of the slaves. He ran for the United States presidency on an abolitionist ticket in 1861 but, while voting for himself, supported Lincoln and gave the administration his full approval once the Civil War had begun. Although he sometimes criticized Lincoln's attitude toward slavery, he made speeches and wrote public letters upholding the government. He advocated Negro suffrage but was in favor of making literacy a prerequisite of the ballot. He advocated bail for Jefferson Davis and, with Horace Greeley and Cornelius Vanderbilt, signed Davis' bail bond.

Gerrit Smith emerged from the Civil War a Republican. By the 1870's he had become active in the party and a supporter of business enterprise. At age 75, he was a delegate to the National Republican convention in Philadelphia, and even supported Ulysses S. Grant in spite of Grant's indulgence in liquor and Smith’s abhorrence of alcohol In his late years, Gerrit Smith continued to contribute funds liberally to any cause he thought worthwhile. He spent freely for his own village of Peterboro, providing for flagstone walks, swamp drainage, and the building of roads. He reopened the Peterboro Academy, providing a site for it in the village as well as a salary budget and free tuition for needy students. He gave money to Cornell University, Hampton Institute, Howard University, Alfred University, and finally, in the last year of his life, $10,000 to his alma mater, Hamilton College, although for many years he had disapproved of its policies and refused to have anything to do with it except to criticize.

Gerrit Smith died suddenly on December 28, 1874, in New York City, where he had gone to spend Christmas with his nephew, John Cochrane. He was buried in Peterboro. The New York Times of December 29 commented: "The history of the most important half century of our national life will be imperfectly written if it fails to place Gerrit Smith in the front rank of the men whose influence was most felt in the accomplishment of its results without official participation in politics, beyond a single session in Congress, he was active and powerful in forming the public sentiment that controlled politicians."

[Biography taken from the Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Gerrit Smith Papers, Microfilming Corporation of America, 1974.]

A genealogy of the Smith family is available here (if online) or at the end of this finding aid (if in hard copy).

From the guide to the Gerrit Smith Papers, 1762-1962, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

  • 1797 March 6: Born in Utica, N.Y., to wealthy landowners, Perer and Elizabeth Smith.
  • 1818: Graduated from Hamilton College with honors and inherited father's estate.
  • 1819 January 11: Married wealthy Ann Backus who died months later of dropsy of the brain.
  • 1822 January 3: Married Ann Carroll Fitzhugh and had four children.
  • 1826: Became member of Presbyterian Church. Built reputation of reform.
  • 1827: Nominated to office for State Senator on the Anti-Masonic ticket.
  • 1840: Helped to initiate Liberty Party.
  • 1846: Appointed a committee for land reformers and abolitionist to parcel out a land grant of 150,000 acres to poor white settlers and Negroes.
  • 1853 - 1854 : Elected as Independent to Congress.
  • 1858: Ran for Governor on the "People's State Ticket" advocating temperance, anti-slavery, and land reform.
  • 1874 December 28: Died in N.Y.

From the guide to the Gerrit Smith Collection, 1843-1871, (Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Autograph letter signed : Peterboro, to the Rev. John Pierpont, 1842 Apr. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
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creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Autograph letter signed : Peterboro, N.Y., to G. Smith, n.p., 1856 Feb. 10. University of Chicago Library
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referencedIn New York (State). Comptroller's Office. Land Tax Bureau. Receipt book of land grants from Gerrit Smith to "colored and poor white slaves from the South", 1846. New York State Archives
referencedIn Slavery Collection, 1709-1899 © 2011 New-York Historical Society
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referencedIn Astor, John Jacob, 1763-1848. Business records, 1784-1892 (inclusive), 1809-1848 (bulk) [microform]. Harvard Business School, Knowledge and Library Services/Baker Library
referencedIn New York (State). Comptroller's Office. Certificates of sale of land for unpaid taxes, 1815-1928. New York State Archives
referencedIn Brown, John, 1821-1895. John Brown, Jr., papers, 1857-1895. Rutherford B Hayes Presidential Center, Hayes Presidential Center
referencedIn Davis, Paulina W. (Paulina Wright), 1813-1876. Paulina Wright Davis papers, 1843-1890. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Fitzhugh family. Papers, 1783-1842. Massachusetts Historical Society
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Gerrit Smith letter to Dr. J.N. Quint (?) , 1855 May 30. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn U.S. History mss., 1612-1977 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Letter, 1843. American Periodical Series I
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Letter, 1863, April 3, to Rev. Charles Jones. Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Edward Morris Davis papers, 1830-1941 (inclusive), 1837-1850 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Cushman family. Cushman family papers, 1832-1868 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917. ALS, 1874 January 16 : Concord, [Massachusetts], to Ann C. Smith. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Letter, 1872 March 13, Peterboro, [N.Y.] to Asher Tyler. William & Mary Libraries
referencedIn Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895. Frederick Douglass papers, 1841-1967 (bulk 1862-1895). Library of Congress
referencedIn Joseph R. Hawley Papers, 1638-1906, (bulk 1841-1906) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Eleanor M. Tilton Papers, 1770-1991 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Salmon P. Chase Papers, 1775-1898, (bulk 1824-1872) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Bacon Family., 1824-1879. Papers. Letters. 1824-1879. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn Lake Ontario Shore Railroad and Henry L. Davis Papers, 1847-1880 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
creatorOf Noble, L. P. L.P. Noble letters to Myron Holley, 1839-1840. New-York Historical Society Library
creatorOf Astor family. Astor family papers, 1792-1916. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Gerrit Smith Papers, 1762-1962 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Child, Lydia Maria, 1802-1880. Papers, 1836-[ca. 1970], 1836-1879 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Weld-Grimké family papers, 1740-1930, 1825-1893 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Perkins, Della M. Della M. Perkins autograph book, 1879-1952. New York State Historical Documents
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Gerrit Smith letter [manuscript], 1867 August 12. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn [New York broadside collection 1802-1868]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Letter : Peterboro, N.Y., to Lewis Tappan, n.p., 1848 May 6. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 1815-1902. Papers, 1796-1921. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Slavery Collection, 1709-1864. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Arthur R. Kooker papers, 1850-1882 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Bovee, Marvin H. (Marvin Henry), 1827-1888. Correspondence of Marvin Henry Bovee, 1850-1887 (bulk 1860-1884). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn McGowen, M. Letters, 1859 October 1. American Periodical Series I
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Letter : Peterboro, N.Y., to unknown person, 1857 July 14. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Letter, 1852. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. Samuel Joseph May diary, 1868. Cornell University Library
referencedIn May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. Samuel J. May diary, 1860. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Smith, Gerrit, 1797-1874. Gerrit Smith papers, 1771-1950. New York State Historical Documents
referencedIn Greene Smith Papers, 1860-1907 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Harris, M. A., 1908-. Middleton "Spike" Harris slavery and abolition collection, 1718-1876. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Smith family. Smith family papers, 1769-1907. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Treadwell, S. B. (Seymour Boughton), 1795-1867. Seymour Boughton Treadwell papers, 1818-1869 and undated. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Slaughter, Henry P.,. Henry P. Slaughter collection, 1697-1946 (bulk 1797-1890). Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
creatorOf Weld family. Weld-Grimké family papers, 1740-1930, bulk 1825-1893. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Wright, Elizur, 1804-1885. Elizur Wright papers, 1793-1935 (bulk 1830-1885). Library of Congress
creatorOf Gerrit Smith Collection, 1843-1871 Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Abbot, Francis Ellingwood, 1836-1903 person
associatedWith Allen, Otis, 1804-1865. person
correspondedWith American Colonization Society person
associatedWith Ames, Julius Rubens, 1801-1850. person
associatedWith Anthony, Susan B. (Susan Brownell), 1820-1906. person
correspondedWith Armstrong, Thomas, 1785-1867. person
associatedWith Astor family family
associatedWith Astor family. family
associatedWith Astor, John Jacob, 1763-1848. person
associatedWith Bacon Family., 1824-1879. family
associatedWith Barton, William Eleazar, 1861-1930, person
associatedWith Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887 person
associatedWith Birney, James Gillespie, 1792-1857. person
associatedWith Blackwell, Antoinette Louisa Brown, 1825-1921 person
associatedWith Blossom, Thomas. person
correspondedWith Bovee, Marvin H. (Marvin Henry), 1827-1888. person
correspondedWith Brainard, Charles Henry, 1817-1885 person
correspondedWith Brown family. family
associatedWith Brown, John, 1800-1859. person
correspondedWith Brown, John, 1821-1895. person
associatedWith Brownson, Isaac Kellogg. person
associatedWith Bush, George, Rev., 1796-1859. person
associatedWith Butler-Gunsaulus Collection (University of Chicago. Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Butterfield, Justin, 1790-1855. person
associatedWith Calkins, Caleb. person
associatedWith Camp, Elisha. person
associatedWith Canastota and Morrisville Plank Road Company. corporateBody
correspondedWith Chase, Salmon P. (Salmon Portland), 1808-1873. person
associatedWith Cheek, Jeannette Bailey, 1906- person
associatedWith Child, Lydia Maria, 1802-1880. person
associatedWith Clarke, James Freeman, 1810-1888 person
associatedWith Clay, Cassius Marcellus, 1810-1903 person
associatedWith Cochran family family
associatedWith Conkling, Alfred, 1789-1874 person
associatedWith Conkling, Roscoe, 1829-1888 person
associatedWith Crapo, Henry Howland, 1804-1869 person
correspondedWith Crozier, Hiram P. person
associatedWith Cushman family. family
associatedWith Dana, Charles A. (Charles Anderson), 1819-1897 person
correspondedWith Davis, Edward Morris, 1811-1887 person
associatedWith Davis, Henry L. person
associatedWith Davis, Paulina W. (Paulina Wright), 1813-1876. person
associatedWith Delavan, Edward C. (Edward Cornelius), 1793-1871 person
associatedWith Doolittle, Potter. person
associatedWith Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895. person
correspondedWith Dow, Neal, 1804-1897. person
associatedWith Downing, George T. (George Thomas), 1819-1903. person
associatedWith Elisha Camp. person
associatedWith Fairchild, Helen L. (Helen Lincklaen), 1845-1931, person
associatedWith Finney, Charles G., 1792-1875 person
associatedWith Fitzhugh family. family
associatedWith Foster, Abby Kelley, 1811-1887 person
associatedWith Gage, Matilda Joslyn, 1826-1898. person
associatedWith Garnet, Henry Highland, 1815-1882 person
correspondedWith Garrison family. family
associatedWith Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879. person
associatedWith Geddes, George. person
correspondedWith Giffing, E. M. person
associatedWith Goodell, William, 1792-1878. person
correspondedWith Goodwin, H. C. (Henry Charles), 1824-1860 person
correspondedWith Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872. person
associatedWith Green, Beriah, 1795-1874 person
correspondedWith Grimké, Angelina Emily, 1805-1879 person
associatedWith Grimké family family
correspondedWith Grimké, Sarah Moore, 1792-1873 person
associatedWith Hall, Nathan Kelsey, 1810-1874. person
associatedWith Harris, M. A., 1908- person
associatedWith Hawley, Joseph R. (Joseph Roswell), 1826-1905. person
associatedWith Heaton, Jacob, 1809-1888, person
associatedWith Helper, Hinton Rowan, 1829-1909 person
associatedWith Holley, I. B. (Irving Brinton), 1919- . person
correspondedWith Holley, O. L. (Orville Luther), 1791-1861 person
correspondedWith Holley, Sallie, 1818-1893 person
correspondedWith Hornblower family. family
associatedWith Howe, Julia Ward, 1819-1910 person
associatedWith Howe, S. G. (Samuel Gridley), 1801-1876 person
associatedWith Jacobs, Anna T., person
associatedWith Johnson, Andrew, 1808-1875. person
associatedWith Jones, Charles, Reverend, person
associatedWith Keppel, David. person
associatedWith Kooker, Arthur R. (Arthur Raymond), 1907-1918, person
associatedWith Kooker, Arthur R. (Arthur Raymond), 1907-1978 person
associatedWith Liberty Party (Madison County, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Liberty Party (N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Liberty Party (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Liberty Party (U.S. : 1840-1848) corporateBody
associatedWith Littlejohn, De Witt Clinton, 1818-1892 person
correspondedWith Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 person
associatedWith Loomis, Augustus Ward. person
associatedWith Loomis, Augustus Ward. person
associatedWith Man family. family
associatedWith Mann, Horace, 1796-1859 person
correspondedWith Marsh, Luther R. (Luther Rawson), 1813-1902 person
associatedWith MATILDA (JOSLYN) GAGE, 1826-1898 person
associatedWith May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. person
associatedWith McCall family. family
associatedWith McGowen, M. person
associatedWith Miller, Gerrit S. (Gerrit Smith), 1869-1956 person
associatedWith Moore family. family
associatedWith New York Central College, McGraw. corporateBody
associatedWith New York (State). Comptroller's Office. corporateBody
associatedWith New York (State). Comptroller's Office. Land Tax Bureau. corporateBody
associatedWith New York Tribune (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Noble, L. P. person
associatedWith Noyes, John Humphrey, 1811-1886 person
associatedWith Oneida Turnpike Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Oswego Canal Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Owen D. Young Library. Special Collections. corporateBody
associatedWith Parish, Jasper, 1767-1836. person
associatedWith Parker, Blanchard and Hall, corporateBody
associatedWith Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer, 1804-1894 person
associatedWith Perkins, Della M. person
associatedWith Phelps, J. W. (John Wolcott), 1813-1885 person
correspondedWith Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884 person
associatedWith Pierpont, John, 1785-1866, person
associatedWith Pillsbury, Parker, 1809-1898 person
associatedWith Porter, Augustus, 1769-1849. person
associatedWith Prescott, Brainard E., person
associatedWith Ray, Charles B. person
associatedWith Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917. person
associatedWith Sanford, George H., 1836-1871. person
associatedWith Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 person
associatedWith Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Mrs. person
associatedWith Scovell, O. P. person
associatedWith Sedgwick, C. B. (Charles Baldwin), 1815-1883 person
correspondedWith Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872 person
associatedWith Slaughter, Henry P., person
correspondedWith Smith, Ann Carroll Fitzhugh, 1805-1875 person
associatedWith Smith, Elizabeth Oakes Prince, 1806-1893 person
associatedWith Smith family family
associatedWith Smith family. family
associatedWith Smith family. family
associatedWith Smithfield (N.Y. : Town), corporateBody
associatedWith Smith, G., fl. 1856 person
associatedWith Smith, G., fl. 1856. person
associatedWith Smith, Greene, 1842-1886 person
associatedWith Smith, James McCune, 1813-1865 person
associatedWith Smith, Peter, 1768-1837. person
associatedWith Spooner, Lysander, 1808-1887. person
correspondedWith Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 1815-1902. person
associatedWith Stanton, Henry B. (Henry Brewster), 1805-1887 person
associatedWith Stearns, Mary Elizabeth Preston, fl. 1820-1874. person
associatedWith Stone, Lucy, 1818-1893 person
associatedWith Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 1811-1896 person
associatedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
associatedWith Sumner, Chas., Hon., person
associatedWith Tappan, Lewis, 1788-1873. person
associatedWith Ticonderoga Historical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Tilton, Eleanor M. (Eleanor Marguerite), 1913- person
associatedWith Tilton, Theodore, 1835-1907. person
associatedWith Treadwell, S. B. (Seymour Boughton), 1795-1867. person
associatedWith Truth, Sojourner, d. 1883 person
associatedWith Tyler, Asher, 1798-1875. person
associatedWith United States. corporateBody
associatedWith Van Buren, Martin, 1782-1862 person
associatedWith Van Schaack, Henry Cruger, 1802-1887. person
associatedWith Van Vechten, Jacob, 1788-1871 person
associatedWith Walker, William Johnson, 1790-1865. person
correspondedWith Warren, Samuel P. (Samuel Prowse), 1841-1915 person
associatedWith Weed, Thurlow, 1797-1882 person
associatedWith Weld family family
associatedWith Weld family. family
correspondedWith Weld, Theodore Dwight, 1803-1895 person
associatedWith Western Anti-slavery Society. corporateBody
associatedWith White, Andrew Dickson, 1832-1918 person
associatedWith Whittier, John Greenleaf, 1807-1892 person
associatedWith William E. Barton Collection of Lincolniana (University of Chicago) corporateBody
associatedWith Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875. person
associatedWith Woodhull, Victoria C. (Victoria Claflin), 1838-1927 person
correspondedWith Wright, Elizur, 1804-1885. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
New York (State)
New York (State)
Madison County (N.Y.)
United States
New York (State)
Madison County (N.Y.)
Peterboro (N.Y.)
Madison County (N.Y.)
New York (State)
New York (State)
Peterboro (N.Y.)
United States
United States
United States
New York (State)--New York
New York (State)
New York (State)--Syracuse
Subject
Land titles
Slavery
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Abolitionism
Antislavery movements--United States
Politics, government and public administration
Slaves--Emancipation
Freedmen
Families
African Americans--Suffrage
Abolitionists--United States
Women--Education (Higher)
Temperance
Temperance--Societies, etc
Manuscripts, American
Activism and social reform
New York State
Books and reading
Charities
Philanthropists--19th century--Correspondence
Letters to the editor
Land grants
Political science
Land tenure
Women--Suffrage--United States
Social reformers--United States
Abolitionists
Private libraries
Books
Presidential candidates
Land use
Business and industry
Antislavery movements
Oneida Indians
Occupation
Social reformers
Abolitionists
Philanthropists
Representatives, U.S. Congress--New York (State)
Reformers
Function

Person

Birth 1797-03-06

Death 1874-12-28

Americans

Information

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