Howard, Oliver Otis, 1830-1909

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Oliver Howard was born in Leeds, Maine, the son of Rowland Bailey Howard and Eliza Otis Howard. Rowland, a farmer, died when Oliver was 9 years old. Oliver attended Monmouth Academy in Monmouth, North Yarmouth Academy in Yarmouth, Kents Hill School in Readfield, and graduated from Bowdoin College in 1850 at the age of 19. He then attended the United States Military Academy, graduating in 1854, fourth in his class of 46 cadets, as a brevet second lieutenant of ordnance. He served at the Watervliet Arsenal near Troy, New York, and was the temporary commander of the Kennebec Arsenal in Augusta, Maine. In 1855, he married Elizabeth Anne Waite, with whom he would have seven children. In 1857 he was transferred to Florida for the Seminole Wars. It was in Florida that he experienced a conversion to evangelical Christianity and considered resigning from the Army to become a minister. His religious proclivities would later earn him the nickname "the Christian general." Howard was promoted first lieutenant in July 1857, and returned to West Point the following September to become an instructor of mathematics. As the Civil War began with the surrender of Fort Sumter, thoughts of the ministry were put aside and he decided to remain in the service of his country.

Howard was appointed colonel of the 3rd Maine Infantry regiment and temporarily commanded a brigade at the First Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to brigadier general effective September 3, 1861, and given permanent command of his brigade. He then joined Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac for the Peninsula Campaign.

On June 1, 1862, while commanding a Union brigade in the Fair Oaks, Howard was wounded twice in his right arm, which was subsequently amputated. (He received the Medal of Honor in 1893 for his heroism at Fair Oaks.) Brig. Gen. Philip Kearny, who had lost his left arm, visited Howard and joked that they would be able to shop for gloves together. Howard recovered quickly enough to rejoin the army for the Battle of Antietam, in which he rose to division command in the II Corps. He was promoted to major general in November 1862 and assumed command of the XI Corps the following April, replacing Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel. Since the corps was composed largely of German immigrants, many of whom spoke no English, the soldiers were resentful of their new leader and openly called for Sigel's reinstatement.

At the Battle of Chancellorsville, Howard suffered the first of two significant military setbacks, which together led to his occasional nickname, "Uh-Oh Howard". On May 2, 1863, his corps was on the right flank of the Union line, northwest of the crossroads of Chancellorsville. Robert E. Lee and Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson devised an audacious plan in which Jackson's entire corps would march secretly around the Union flank and attack it. Howard was warned by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, now commanding the Army of the Potomac, that his flank was "in the air", not anchored by a natural obstacle, such as a river, and that Confederate forces might be on the move in his direction. Howard failed to heed the warning and Jackson struck before dark, routing the XI Corps and causing a serious disruption to the Union plans.

At the Battle of Gettysburg, the XI Corps, still chastened by its humiliation in May, arrived on the field in the afternoon of July 1, 1863. Poor positioning of the defensive line by one of Howard's subordinate division commanders, Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, was exploited by the Confederate corps of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and once again the XI Corps collapsed, forcing it to retreat through the streets of Gettysburg, leaving many men behind to be taken prisoner. On Cemetery Hill, south of town, Howard quarreled with Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock about who was in command of the defense. Hancock had been sent by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade with written orders to take command, but Howard insisted that he was the ranking general present. Eventually he relented. Controversy centers on three points: 1) Howard's choice of Cemetery Hill as the key to defense; 2) the timing of Howard's mid-afternoon order to abandon positions north and west of town; and 3) Howard's reluctance to recognize that Hancock, his junior, had superseded him. Historian John A. Carpenter holds that Howard alone had wisely selected Cemetery Hill, that the order to withdraw was probably a sound one, and that the conflict between Howard and Hancock might have been avoided had Meade himself gotten onto the field.

Howard started circulating the story that his corps' failure had actually been triggered by the collapse of Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday's I Corps to the west, and this was a partial reason for Doubleday's removal from command of the corps. However, this excuse was not accepted by history—the reverse was actually true—and the reputation of the XI Corps was ruined. Some argue that Howard should get some credit for the eventual success at Gettysburg because he wisely stationed one of his divisions (Maj. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr's) on Cemetery Hill as a reserve and critical subsequent defensive line. For the remainder of the three-day battle, the corps remained on the defensive around Cemetery Hill, withstanding assaults by Maj. Gen. Jubal Early on July 2 and participating at the margin of the defense against Pickett's Charge on July 3. Also at Gettysburg, Howard's younger brother, Major Charles Henry Howard, served as his aide-de-camp.

Howard and XI Corps were transferred to the Western Theater with fellow general Henry Slocum's XII Corps to become part of the Army of the Cumberland in Tennessee; they were commanded once again by "Fighting Joe" Hooker. In the Battles for Chattanooga, the corps joined the impulsive assault that captured Missionary Ridge and forced the retreat of Gen. Braxton Bragg. In July 1864, following the death of Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson, Howard became commander of the Army of the Tennessee, fought in the Atlanta Campaign, and led the right wing of Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's famous March to the Sea, through Georgia and then the Carolinas. Sherman, having favored Howard over John A. Logan for command of the Army of the Tennessee after McPherson's death, asked Howard to allow Logan to lead the army in the May 1865 Grand Review in Washington. Howard agreed when Sherman appealed to him as a Christian gentleman. Ultimately, by the war's end, Gen. Sherman would commend Howard as a corps commander of "the utmost skill, nicety and precision".

From May 1865 to July 1874, General Howard was commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau (the Army's Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands), where he played a major role in the Reconstruction era, and had charge of integrating freedmen (former slaves) into American society. Howard devised far-reaching programs and guidelines including social welfare in the form of rations, schooling, courts, and medical care. Howard often clashed with President Andrew Johnson, who strongly disliked the welfare aspects of the Freedman's Bureau, and especially tried to return political power to Southern whites. However, Howard had the support of the Radical Republicans in Congress. When the Radical Republicans gained power in 1867, they gave blacks the right to vote in the South and set up new elections, which the Republican coalition of freedmen, northern Republicans who came south and were referred to derogatorily as carpetbaggers, and southerners who supported Reconstruction, nicknamed scalawags, won (except in Virginia). The Bureau was very active in helping blacks organize themselves politically, and therefore it became a target of partisan hostility.

President Johnson called Howard a fanatic. By fusing the civil and the military power, the Bureau became a centralized dictatorship. Howard described the extent of his enormous powers as:

...Almost unlimited authority gave me scope and liberty of action... Legislative, judicial and executive powers were combined in my commission.

Andrew Johnson reacted to the meaning of such unlimited scope of action against civilians:

The power thus given to the commanding officer over all the people … is that of an absolute monarch … He alone is permitted to determine the rights of persons and property … It places at his free disposal all the lands and goods in his district, and he may distribute them without let or hindrance to whom he pleases. Being bound by no State law, and there being no other law to regulate the subject, he may make a criminal code of his own; and can make it as bloody as any in history … Everything is a crime which he chooses to call so, and all persons are condemned who he pronounces to be guilty.

The limited ideological framework of General Howard and his aides encouraged their attempt at radical reconstruction of southern society without realizing the need for essential legislation. They thought that the elimination of all statutory inequalities—for instance, Black court testimony—would be enough to assure protection. Southern states pretend to comply with this point in order to end the threat of the Freedmen's Bureau courts' system.

In 1872, Howard, accompanied by 1st Lt Joseph Alton Sladen, who served as his aide, was ordered to Arizona to negotiate a peace treaty with Cochise, resulting in a treaty on October 12, 1872.

He was placed in command of the Department of the Columbia in 1874, went west to Washington Territory's Fort Vancouver, where he fought in the Indian Wars, particularly against the Nez Perce, with the resultant surrender of Chief Joseph. He was criticized by Chief Joseph as precipitating the war by trying to rush the Nez Perce to a smaller reservation, with no advance notice, no discussion, and no time to prepare. Joseph said, "If General Howard had given me plenty of time to gather up my stock and treated Too-hool-hool-suit as a man should be treated, there would have been no war."

Subsequently, Howard was superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1881–82. He served as commander of the Department of the Platte from 1882 to 1886 and the Military Division of the Pacific from 1886 to 1888. From 1888, his final command was of the Department of the East (Military Division of the Atlantic) at Fort Columbus on Governors Island in New York Harbor, encompassing the states east of the Mississippi River. He retired from the United States Army at that posting in 1894 with the rank of major general. The French government made him a chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1884 and he was subsequently promoted to the ranks of officer and commander.

General Howard is also remembered for playing a role in founding Howard University, which was incorporated by Congress in 1867. The school is nonsectarian and is open to both sexes without regard to race. On November 20, 1866, ten members, including Howard, of various socially concerned groups of the time met in Washington, D.C., to discuss plans for a theological seminary to train black ministers. Interest was sufficient, however, in creating an educational institute for areas other than the ministry. The result was the Howard Normal and Theological Institute for the Education of Preachers and Teachers. On January 8, 1867, the Board of Trustees voted to change the name of the institution to Howard University. Howard served as president from 1869 to 1874. He was quoted as saying "The opposition to Negro education made itself felt everywhere in a combination not to allow the freed men any room or building in which a school might be taught. In 1865, 1866, and 1867, mobs of the baser classes at intervals and in all parts of the South occasionally burned school buildings and churches used as schools, flogged teachers or drove them away, and in a number of instances murdered them." He also founded Lincoln Memorial University in Harrogate, Tennessee, in 1895, for the education of the "mountain whites."

General Howard was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and the Grand Army of the Republic.

A bust of Howard designed by artist James E. Kelly is on display at Howard University. An equestrian statue is on East Cemetery Hill on the Gettysburg Battlefield. A dormitory at Bowdoin College is named for Howard.

The Oliver O. Howard Relief Corps of the Grand Army of the Republic provided funds to help destitute former Union soldiers and to support worthy public causes. It contributed money and the design for the State Flag of Utah in 1920. An Army Reserve Center was named after him in Auburn, Maine, and is still used today by several U.S. Army Reserve units.

Howard High School of Technology in Wilmington, Delaware, is named in his honor, as is Howard County, Nebraska and the Howard School of Academics and Technology, in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Howard, Kansas is named in his honor.

The General O.O. Howard House, located on Officer's Row within the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1878 upon General Howard's order at a cost of $6,938.20. Completed in 1879, the building suffered a fire in 1986 and was left vacant until renovated by the City of Vancouver in 1998. The building serves as the headquarters of the Fort Vancouver National Trust.

In Portland, Oregon, on the 150th Anniversary of Howard's acts of valor on June 1, 1862, while leading his troops at the Battle of Fair Oaks; a commemorative wreath was laid by the Oregon Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission at the site of General O.O. Howard's former residence in downtown Portland at the corner of SW 10th and Morrison. The month of June 2012 will be dedicated to O.O. Howard with a lecture and programs by the Oregon Civil War Sesquicentennial spotlighting General Howard's activities in Portland and at Fort Vancouver, Washington; and his post-war achievements at the Freedmen's Bureau, Howard University and Lincoln Memorial University and the Indian Wars. In a New York Times interview given the day after Maj. Gen. Howard retired from the Army on November 8, 1894 at the age of 64, it was reported that he was traveling West to stay at his daughter's house in Portland, Oregon where he planned to start writing his memoirs.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
contributorOf 1887 - File No. [Blank] - Howard, O O - California United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Painter, William Charles, 1830-1900. Papers, 1846-1962 (bulk 1860-1905). Washington State Historical Society
referencedIn Wallace, Emma, fl. 1870. Photograph album of Emma Wallace [manuscript], ca. 1870. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn John A. Carpenter research material collection, 1948-1975 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
creatorOf District of Columbia. Office of the Surveyor. Map of the division of the north half of a tract of land called "St. Elisabeth," situated on the east side of the Anacostia River in the county of Washington, D.C. : surveyed into one acre lots for sale to freedmen / by direction of the trustees, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard Com'r ; B.D. Carpenter, Surveyor of Washington County, D.C. Library of Congress
referencedIn Grace Howard Gray Scrapbook, circa 1862-1966 Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Buchtel and Stolte (Portland, Or.),. Oregon legislators, governors, and other public figures photograph album [graphic], circa 1875-1880. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Records of the Army Staff. 1903 - 2009. Photographs of U.S. and Foreign Military Personnel, Defense Department and Other Government Officials, Royalty, and Heads of State. 1964-1974. National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Smith, Samuel Francis, 1808-1895. Samuel Francis Smith papers, 1835-1957. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Augustus Mendon Lord collection, Lord (Augustus Mendon) collection, (bulk 1876-1908), 1778-1908 John Hay Library, Special Collections
referencedIn United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Letter : Washington, D.C., to L.P. Rowland, Boston, Mass., 1870 Sept. 1. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Papers. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letters / O.O. Howard. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Luvaas, Jay. The Jay Luvaas collection, 1861-1877. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letter, 1866 July 18, Washington, D.C., to J.S. Sewall, Wenham, Mass. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : West Point, 1881 Jan. 27. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn National Archives And Records Administration. Henry Stevens Papers.
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Altschuler, Constance Wynn. Constance Wynn Altschuler collection, 1965-1996. Arizona State University Libraries
referencedIn Dorothea Lynde Dix papers, 1798-1893 (inclusive), 1827-1887 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Helsley, William Jefferson. Papers, 1861-1865. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Carreño, Teresa, 1853-1917,. Letters to Blanche Fitz Randolph from Teresa Carreño and Gen. O. O. Howard [manuscript] 1904, 1911. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Sutherland, George W., 1854-1949. Papers, 1872-1873, bulk 1872-1882. Eastern Washington University, JFK Library
creatorOf McClintock, James M. Papers of James M. McClintock, 1861-1909 (bulk 1861-1869). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn John Russell Young Papers, circa 1840-1959, (bulk 1858-1898) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
contributorOf McKinley (1897-1901): Howard, Oliver O. United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Autograph File, H, 1584-1988. Houghton Library
referencedIn Brinton, Daniel Garrison, 1837-1899. Dr. Daniel Garrison Brinton papers, 1863-1899 (bulk 1863-1864). Chester County Historical Society Library
creatorOf Howard, Oliver Otis, 1830-1909. Oliver Otis Howard reports 1863-1864. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
creatorOf United States. Army. Office of the Judge Advocate General. Materials relating to the court martial of Johnson C. Whittaker, 1879-1881. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
referencedIn Consolidated Military Officer's File of General Oliver O. Howard United States. National Archives and Records Administration
creatorOf Oliver Otis Howard reports, Howard, Oliver Otis, 1863-1864 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Letters: 1848 Sept. 12 and 1863 Nov. 24. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Oliver Otis Howard papers, 1850-1909. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
referencedIn Fuller, B. A. G. B. A. G. Fuller autograph collection. 1620-1920. Houghton Library
referencedIn Leggat, Alexander, 1876-1961. Alexander Leggat collection, 1864-1964. Montana State University (MSU) Library, MSU Library; Renne Library; MSU Library - Bozeman
creatorOf Sherman, Edwin Allen, 1829-1914. Edwin Allen Sherman papers, 1872-1971, (bulk 1896-1913). UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to Gen. O.O. Howard, 1882 Sept. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Balloch, George Williamson, b. 1825. George Williamson Balloch papers, 1845-1902. Norwich University, Kreitzberg Library
creatorOf Settle, Josiah Thomas, 1850-1915. Josiah Thomas Settle collection, 1879-1915. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letter, November 30, 1907. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Photographic Portrait File The Huntington Library
referencedIn Lindsley, Maggie. Maggie Lindsley papers, 1862-1977. Library of Congress
referencedIn Carrington family. Carrington family papers, 1749-1929 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Howard, Francis Gilman, 1869-1937. Francis Gilman Howard papers, 1861-1936. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Matthew Paul Deady Papers, 1850-1923 Oregon Historical Society Research Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Papers, 1850-ca. 1925, (bulk 1890-1909). Lincoln Memorial University Library, Carnegie-Vincent Library
referencedIn Green-Guerrant family photograph collection, ca. 1860-1912. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to W.W. Belknap, 1872 July 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn National Archives And Records Administration. David Bailie Warden Papers.
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Oliver Otis Howard pen and ink drawing of the Battle of Gettysburg, 1899. Maine Historical Society Library
referencedIn Wilbur, Rueben Augustine. Rueben Wilbur Augustine papers, 1867-1897, 1871-1880. University of Arizona Libraries
creatorOf Akerman, Amos Tappan, 1821-1880. Letter books of Amos Tappan Akerman [manuscript] 1871-76. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Saxton, Rufus, 1824-1908. Rufus and S. Willard Saxton papers, 1834-1934 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Charles Sumner correspondence, 1829-1874. Houghton Library
referencedIn Edward Chambreau collection, 1847-1880 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries
referencedIn Congressional Medal of Honor File of Brigadier General Oliver O. Howard, U.S. Volunteers United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Name Index to Letters Sent to Commissioner Oliver O. Howard, 6/1865 - 12/1868 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
contributorOf Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands. 1817 - 1947. Letters and Orders Received from General Oliver O. Howard Relating to Peace Terms with Cochise
referencedIn Rufus and S. Willard Saxton papers, 1834-1934 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Fisher, Stanton G., 1840-1915. Papers, 1875-1915. Idaho State Archives, Idaho State Historical Society
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Deady, Matthew P. (Matthew Paul), 1824-1893. Matthew P. Deady papers, 1850-1923. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn American Freedman's Union Commission. American Freedman's Union Commission minute book, 1866-1869. Cornell University Library
referencedIn United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Letter : Washington, D.C., to L.P. Rowland, Boston, Mass., 1870 Sept. 1. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Smythe, Louisa McCord, 1845-1928. Recollections of Louisa Rebecca Hayne McCord (Mrs. Augustinge T. Smythe) [ca. 1928] ; daughter of David J. and Louisa Cheves McCord... University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Alfred Sully papers, 1816-1974 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letters, 1853 and 1868. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County Foundation, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
creatorOf Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 1852-1944. Papers of C. E. S. Wood, 1829-1980 (bulk 1870-1940). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Wallace, Emma, fl. 1870. Photograph album of Emma Wallace, ca. 1870. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library
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creatorOf Putnam, George Palmer, 1814-1872. Correspondence. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Alexander Leggat Collection, 1864-1964 Montana State University-Bozeman Library, Merrill G Burlingame Special Collections
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : West Point, N.Y., to Wayne MacVeagh, 1881 Mar. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Papers of O. O. Howard, 1865-1873. Library of Congress
contributorOf Letters Sent to Commissioner Oliver O. Howard, 6/1865 - 12/1868 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Philip Case Lockwood memorial collection of Civil War portraits and autographs, 1862-ca. 1886. Houghton Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Reports, 1863-1864. Maine Historical Society Library
referencedIn William Dudley Foulke Papers, circa 1470-1952, (bulk 1868-1935) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letter : Gov[ernor]'s I[slan]d, [N.Y.?], to Book Syndicate Press, [New York], N.Y., [18]90 Nov. 8. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Sneden, Robert Knox, 1832-1918. Plan of the battle of Chancellorsville. : Virginia position, 5 p.m., 2nd May 1863. Virginia Historical Society Library
referencedIn Whittier, John Greenleaf, 1807-1892. Letter, 1873 Aug. 30, Amesbury, Mass., to C.F. Coffin. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Markham, Edwin, 1852-1940. Letter 1908 Sept. 19, Landing, N.J. [to] O.O. Howard, Burlington, VT. / Edwin Markham. Wagner College, Horrmann Library
referencedIn Gray, Mary Augusta, 1882-1972. Family of Oliver Otis Howard and Elizabeth Ann Waite Howard, [19--]. University of Oregon Libraries, UO Libraries
referencedIn Huntington Library. William Jones Rhees Collection.
contributorOf Howard, Oliver O. - Commission to Negotiate with the Five Civilized Tribes (The Dawes Commission) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Henry L. Dawes Papers, 1833-1933, bulk 1833-1903 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Andrew, John A. (John Albion), 1818-1867,. Lee family papers [microform] 1652 [1769-1870] 1890. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Oliver Otis Howard Collection, 1850-1906 Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University
referencedIn James Gillespie Blaine Papers, 1777-1945, (bulk 1870-1892) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Stanley Roland Davison Papers, 1850-1985 Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library Archives and Special Collections
referencedIn Pickard-Whittier papers, 1815-1915. Houghton Library
referencedIn Woolsey family papers, 1750-1969, 1811-1921 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Markham, Edwin, 1852-1940. Letter 1908 Sept. 9, Landing, N.J. [to] O.O. Howard, Unknown / Edwin Markham. Wagner College, Horrmann Library
referencedIn Miller, Merritt. Papers, 1862-1866. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 33: Office Of The Secretary, Outgoing Corres..
referencedIn Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Papers, 1775-1913, (bulk 1828-1913) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Balloch, George Williamson. Papers, 1852-1907. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Papers, 1870. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Howard, Oliver Otis. Oliver O. Howard, papers, undated. Detroit Public Library, Detroit Main Library
referencedIn Streamer, Francis Marion, 1834-1912. Papers, 1876-1898. Washington State Historical Society
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referencedIn Dupree, William B. Papers, 1895. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
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creatorOf United States. Army. Maine Infantry Regiment, 5th (1861-1864). Fifth Maine Infantry Regiment general order book, 1861 Jun 4-July 27. Maine Historical Society Library
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referencedIn Foulke, William Dudley, 1848-1935. Papers of William Dudley Foulke, circa 1470-1952 (bulk 1868-1935). Library of Congress
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letter : to General Hector Tyndale, 1864 February 7. University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB Library
referencedIn Langston, John Mercer, 1829-1897. Papers of John Mercer Langston [manuscript] 1853-98. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. O. O. Howard letters to S. S. McClure [manuscript], 1890, 1893. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Gray, Grace Howard, 1857-1949. Recollections, 1936. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn United States. Army. Maine Infantry Regiment, 3rd (1861-1864). Company G. Descriptive roll of Company G, 3rd Maine Volunteers, U.S. Army, ca. 1861-1864. Maine Historical Society Library
referencedIn SIA RU000026, Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1863-1879 Smithsonian Institution Archives
referencedIn Ayer, Frederick, d. 1867. Frederick Ayer papers, 1865-1866. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letter signed : Omaha, Nebraska, to J.M. Dalzell, 1885 Sept. 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn James Henry Coffin Papers, 1848-1884 Smithsonian Institution Archives
referencedIn Carpenter, John A. (John Alcott), 1921-. John A. Carpenter research material collection, 1948-1975. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Papers 1876-1882. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Foster, Herbert Sidney, 1853-1932. Cadet notebooks, 1874-1875. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
referencedIn Markham, Edwin, 1852-1940. Letter 1908 Oct 10, Landing, N.J. [to] B.F. Funk, Unknown / Edwin Markham. Wagner College, Horrmann Library
referencedIn Francis Gilman Howard papers, 1861-1936 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. O. O. Howard Correspondence, 1876-1878. Spokane Public Library, Downtown Branch
referencedIn Approved Pension File for Elizabeth A. Howard, Widow of Oliver O. Howard, Major General, U.S. Army (WC-705217) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Childs, George William, 1829-1894. George William Childs papers [manuscript], 1882-1892. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Hillyer, William Silliman, 1831-1874. Papers of William Silliman Hillyer, 1822 (1861-1874) 1931, [manuscript]. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Compiled Military Service Record of Colonel Oliver O. Howard, 3rd Maine Infantry Regiment United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Woolsey family. Woolsey family papers, 1750-1976 (inclusive), 1811-1921 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn May Anti-Slavery manuscript collection, 1749-1933, (bulk 1840-1880) Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Gray, Grace Howard, 1857-1949,. Grace Howard Gray Scrapbook [scrapbook], ca. 1862-1966. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Smythe, Louisa McCord, 1845-1928. Louisa McCord Smythe memoir 1850-1877 Georgia Historical Society
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Letter, 1863 December 25. American Periodical Series I
referencedIn Young, John Russell, 1840-1899. John Russell Young papers, circa 1840-1959 (bulk 1858-1898). Library of Congress
referencedIn Sully, Alfred, 1821-1879. Alfred Sully papers 1816-1974. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
contributorOf 1886 - File No. [Blank] - Howard, O O - Arizona United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Hopkinson, James, Esq. James Hopkinson papers, 1847-1917. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : Omaha, Neb., to J.M. Dalzell, 1883 03 06. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn [Maine] Howard, Oliver O - 3rd Infantry, Company F&S United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Chambreau, Edward, 1821-1902. Edward Chambreau papers, 1845-1902. Reed College Library
referencedIn William Roscoe Thayer papers, 1762-1927 (bulk 1872-1921) Houghton Library
referencedIn United States. Army. Fort Dalles records, 1850-1885. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Smythe, Louisa McCord, 1845-1928. Louisa McCord Smythe papers, 1862-[ca. 1920]. South Carolina Historical Society
creatorOf Howard, O. O. (Oliver Otis), 1830-1909. Autograph letter signed : Governor's Island, N.Y.C., to J.M. Dalzell, 1891 Feb. 26. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Scott, Robert Kingston, 1826-1900. Papers 1849-1900. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. Samuel J. May diary, 1869. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Dickinson, John, fl. 1863. Order signed : "H.Q. Army of Potomac," addressed to General Howard, 1863 Apr. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871,. May Anti-Slavery manuscript collection, 1749-1933 (bulk 1840-1880). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Chambreau, Edward, 1821-1902. Edward Chambreau collection, 1847-1880. University of Oregon Libraries, UO Libraries
referencedIn Blaine, James Gillespie, 1830-1893. James Gillespie Blaine family papers, 1777-1945 (bulk 1870-1892). Library of Congress
referencedIn Howells family papers, 1850-1954 (inclusive). Houghton Library
creatorOf Vallejo, Mariano Guadalupe, 1808-1890. Judgment roll in the case of M.G. Vallejo vs. O.O. Howard, U.S. Circuit Court 4152 [microform] : mss., 1890. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Carrington Family papers, 1749-1929 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
contributorOf Howard, Oliver O - Washington - 1856 - File No. H294 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Akerman, Amos Tappan, 1821-1880. person
associatedWith Altschuler, Constance Wynn. person
associatedWith American Freedman's Union Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith Ames, Adelbert, 1835-1933. person
associatedWith Andrew, Thomas (Rev.) person
associatedWith Ayer, Frederick, d. 1867. person
associatedWith Balloch, George Williamson, b. 1825. person
associatedWith Bancroft, Hubert Howe, 1832-1918. person
correspondedWith Belknap, William W. person
associatedWith Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890, person
correspondedWith Blaine, James Gillespie, 1830-1893. person
correspondedWith Blaine, James G., Mrs., 1828-1903 person
associatedWith Book Syndicate Press (New York, N.Y.), corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf Bowdoin College corporateBody
associatedWith Boynton, Charles Brandon, 1806-1883. person
associatedWith Boynton, Henry Van Ness, 1835-1905. person
associatedWith Brinton, Daniel Garrison, 1837-1899. person
associatedWith Buchtel and Stolte (Portland, Or.), corporateBody
associatedWith Carpenter, John A. (John Alcott), 1921- person
associatedWith Carrington family family
associatedWith Carrington family. family
associatedWith Carrington family. family
correspondedWith Century Company corporateBody
correspondedWith Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence, 1828-1914. person
associatedWith Chambreau, Edward, 1821-1902. person
associatedWith Childs, George William, 1829-1894. person
associatedWith Dalzell, James McCormick, 1838-1924, person
associatedWith Davison, Stanley Roland person
correspondedWith Dawes, Henry L. (Henry Laurens), 1816-1903 person
associatedWith Deady, Matthew P. (Matthew Paul), 1824-1893 person
correspondedWith Deady, Matthew P. (Matthew Paul), 1824-1893. person
correspondedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876 person
correspondedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith Dickinson, John, fl. 1863. person
associatedWith District of Columbia. Office of the Surveyor. corporateBody
correspondedWith Dix, Dorothea Lynde, 1802-1887 person
associatedWith Doubleday, Abner, 1819-1893. person
associatedWith Dupree, William B. person
associatedWith Fisher, Stanton G., 1840-1915. person
associatedWith Foster, Herbert Sidney, 1853-1932. person
correspondedWith Foulke, William Dudley, 1848-1935. person
associatedWith Fuller, B. A. G. (Benjamin Apthorp Gould), 1879-1956 person
correspondedWith Government Hospital For The Insane (St. Eliz.) corporateBody
associatedWith Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. person
associatedWith Gray, Grace Howard, 1857-1949. person
associatedWith Greble, Edwin. person
associatedWith Greble, John Trout, 1834-1861. person
associatedWith Hall, David. person
associatedWith Hancock, Winfield Scott. person
correspondedWith Hardie, James A. person
associatedWith Helsley, William Jefferson. person
correspondedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878 person
associatedWith Hillyer, William Silliman, 1831-1874. person
correspondedWith Hopkinson, James, Esq. person
associatedWith Howard family. family
associatedWith Howard, Francis Gilman, 1869-1937. person
leaderOf Howard University. corporateBody
associatedWith Joseph, Nez Percé Chief, 1840-1904. person
alumnusOrAlumnaOf Kents Hill School (Kents Hill, Me.) corporateBody
associatedWith Langston, John Mercer, 1829-1897. person
associatedWith Leggat, Alexander, 1876-1961. person
associatedWith Libby, Frederic M. person
founderOf Lincoln Memorial University corporateBody
correspondedWith Lindsley, Maggie. person
correspondedWith Lockwood, Philip Case, 1844-1897 person
associatedWith Lord, Augustus Mendon, 1861-1941 person
associatedWith Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891. person
correspondedWith Luvaas, Jay. person
associatedWith MacVeagh, Isaac Wayne, 1833-1917, person
associatedWith Markham, Edwin, 1852-1940. person
associatedWith May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. person
associatedWith McClintock, James M., 1838-fl. 1920. person
associatedWith McClure, S. S. (Samuel Sidney), 1857-1949, person
associatedWith Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. corporateBody
associatedWith Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Commandery of the State of Massachusetts, collector. corporateBody
associatedWith Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Commandery of the State of Massachusetts, collector. corporateBody
associatedWith Miller, Merritt. person
associatedWith Monteith, John B. person
associatedWith National Council of Congregational Churches (Organization) corporateBody
associatedWith Online Archive of California. corporateBody
correspondedWith Painter, William Charles, 1830-1900. person
associatedWith Philips, Martin Wilson. person
associatedWith Putnam, George Palmer, 1814-1872. person
associatedWith Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph) May, 1797-1871. person
associatedWith Saxton, Rufus, 1824-1908. person
associatedWith Scott, Robert Kingston, 1826-1900. person
associatedWith Settle, Josiah Thomas, 1850-1915. person
associatedWith Sewall, J. S. person
associatedWith Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888. person
associatedWith Sherman, Edwin Allen, 1829-1914. person
associatedWith Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891. person
associatedWith Smith, Samuel Francis, 1808-1895. person
correspondedWith Smithsonian Institution corporateBody
associatedWith Smythe, Louisa McCord, 1845-1928 person
associatedWith Sneden, Robert Knox, 1832-1918. person
correspondedWith Streamer, Francis Marion, 1834-1912. person
associatedWith Stuart, Jeb, 1833-1864. person
associatedWith Sully, Alfred, 1821-1879. person
correspondedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
associatedWith Sutherland, George W., 1854-1949. person
correspondedWith Thayer, William Roscoe, 1859-1923 person
associatedWith Tyndale, Hector, 1821-1880, person
associatedWith United States. Army corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. corporateBody
leaderOf United States. Army. Dept. of Tennessee. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Dept. of the Tennessee. corporateBody
leaderOf United States. Army. Maine Infantry Regiment, 3rd (1861-1864) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Maine Infantry Regiment, 3rd (1861-1864). Company G. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Maine Infantry Regiment, 5th (1861-1864) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Office of the Judge Advocate General. corporateBody
leaderOf United States. Army of the Cumberland. IV Corps. corporateBody
leaderOf United States. Army of the Potomac. Corps, 11th corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. corporateBody
leaderOf United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf United States Military Academy. corporateBody
correspondedWith Villard, Henry, 1835-1900 person
associatedWith Wallace, Emma, fl. 1870. person
memberOf Watervliet Arsenal (N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Whittier, John Greenleaf, 1807-1892. person
associatedWith Wilbur, Reuben H. person
associatedWith Wilbur, Rueben Augustine. person
associatedWith Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 1852-1944. person
associatedWith Woolsey family. family
associatedWith Woolsey family. family
associatedWith Woolsey family. family
associatedWith Worth, Margaret S. person
associatedWith Ymca corporateBody
correspondedWith Young, John Russell, 1840-1899. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
West Point NY US
Florida FL US
Fort Vancouver National Historical Site WA US
Leeds ME US
Burlington VT US
Brunswick ME US
Augusta ME US
North Carolina NC US
Virginia VA US
Tennessee TN US
District of Columbia DC US
Watervliet Arsenal NY US
Yarmouth ME US
Georgia GA US
South Carolina SC US
Subject
Lookout Mountain, Battle of, Tenn., 1863
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Campaigns
United States. Army--Corps, XI
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Reconstruction--1865-1877
Nez Perce Indians--Wars, 1877--Sources
Nez Perce Indians--Wars, 1877
Missionary Ridge, Battle of, Tenn., 1863
Wauhatchie, Battle of, Wauhatchie, Tenn., 1863
Peninsula Campaign, 1862
Fair Oaks, Battle of, Va., 1862
Sherman's March through the Carolinas
Medal of Honor
Gettysburg Campaign, 1863
Indians of North America
Gettysburg, Battle of, Gettysburg, Pa., 1863--Drawings
Sherman's March to the Sea, 1864
Lectures, Popular
Bannock Indians--Wars, 1878
Antietam, Battle of, Md., 1862
Bull Run, 2nd Battle of, Va., 1862
Evangelicalism--19th century
Atlanta Campaign, 1864
Chancellorsville, Battle of, Chancellorsville, Va., 1863
Higher education
Gettysburg, Battle of, Gettysburg, Pa., 1863
Civil War, 1861-1865
Chattanooga, Battle of, Chattanooga, Tenn., 1863
Occupation
Soldiers--19 century.--United States
Academia
President, Educational Institution
Generals--United States
Army officers
Function

Person

Birth 1830-11-08

Death 1909-10-26

Male

Americans

English

Information

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