Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903

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Born 1820; educated at Hinton Charterhouse near Bath, 1833-1836; assistant schoolmaster at Derby, 1837; worked as a draftsman and engineer during the building of the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, 1837-1841; sub-editor of the Pilot , the organ of the Complete Suffrage Movement, 1844; occupied himself anew with engineering, 1844-1846, and experimented with mechanical inventions, 1846-1847; sub-editor of The Economist in London, 1848-1853; visited house of John Chapman, the advanced publisher, 1849, and became part of a literary circle which included George Eliot, Huxley and Tyndall; published Social Statics (1851), advocating an extreme individualism; contributed articles to the Leader , Westminster Review , and other periodicals, collecting many of these in Essays (1857, 1863, and 1864); published Principles of Psychology (1855), but during the writing of this book his health gave way, and was never fully restored; in 1858 he planned a system of synthetic philosophy, covering metaphysics, biology, psychology, sociology, and ethics, which broke down about 1865, though he published Principles (1862) and Principles of Biology (1864 and 1867); wrote Education (1861), a treatise aiming at a natural development of the child's intelligence, which became a leading textbook; in order to deal with the principles of sociology he employed assistants to collect systematically large masses of facts, of which eight volumes under general title of Descriptive Sociology were issued by 1881, while additional volumes appeared after Spencer's death; he wrote extensively on philosophical and social issues, including Principles of Sociology (1876, 1882, and 1896), Principles of Ethics (1892 and 1893); formed with Frederic Harrison and John Morley and others an Anti-Aggression League, 1882; died 1903.

From the guide to the SPENCER, Herbert, 1820-1903, philosopher, [1838-1839], (British Library of Political and Economic Science)

Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher and theorist. He was born and raised in Derby, privately educated by his uncle, a schoolmaster in Bath, and worked a variety of jobs, including civil engineer and editor. He began publishing essays, and later books, on various subjects, gradually acquiring the reputation as one of the greatest thinkers of his generation. His influential and wide-ranging works include contributions in ethics, metaphysics, grammar, political theory, biology, and psychology. He anticipated much of Darwin's Theory of Evolution, coining the phrase "Survival of the fittest," and applied the theory to societies to help pioneer the science of sociology. He was also critical of religion, preferring science, and was considered one of the leading theorists of capitalism.

From the description of Herbert Spencer letter to Dear sirs, 1892 May 12. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 71225932

Philosopher.

From the description of Herbert Spencer correspondence, 1867-1869. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70980501

Herbert Spencer was born in Derby in 1820. He was educated at Hinton Charterhouse near Bath and returned to Derby at the age of 17 to take up a post as an assistant schoolmaster. After three months, he became a civil engineer with the London and Birmingham Railway. In 1842, he was appointed honorary secretary of the Complete Suffrage Movement - allied to the Chartist agitation - and became editor of The Pilot , the newspaper of the Chartist movement. He became sub-editor of The Economist in 1848 and in 1850 published his first book, Social Statistics , detailing theories of evolution. In 1855, he published his second book, The Principles of Psychology . From 1860 to 1893, Spencer worked on a series of volumes with the intention of applying evolution to all the sciences and developing an all-inclusive philosophical theory. His volumes covered biology, psychology, sociology, and ethics. He died in 1903.

From the guide to the Spencer, Herbert, 1830-1936, (Senate House Library, University of London)

English philosopher.

From the description of Autograph signature to 7 dictated letters : to Prof. Knight, 1872 Dec. 9-1900 Jul. 26. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270580522

English economist, philosopher, scientist.

From the description of Letters to Robert McClure and Miss Thickle, 1895, n.d. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 49803225

From the description of Letters to Robert McClure and Miss Thickle [manuscript], 1895, n.d. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647923528

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Cope, E. D. (Edward Drinker), 1840-1897. Papers, 1848-1940 (bulk 1855-1896). Haverford College Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Psychology. Brown University, Brown University Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letter to "My dear Miss Kennell" : Queens Gardens, Bayswater, England : ALS, 1882 Apr. 4. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Portrait file: Guide. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Papers, 1862. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Herman W. Liebert manuscript collection, 1604-1987 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Autograph File, S, 1556-1996. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn James, William, 1842-1910. William James papers, 1803-1941 (inclusive) 1862-1910 (bulk). Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Autograph signature to 7 dictated letters : to Prof. Knight, 1872 Dec. 9-1900 Jul. 26. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Skilton, James Avery, 1829-1904. Skilton family papers, 1845-1917. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rensselaer Libraries
creatorOf Ward, Lester Frank, 1841-1913. Correspondence, 1865-1913, "Savage" to "Sullemand". Brown University, John Hay Library
creatorOf Janes, Lewis George. Letters to Lewis George Janes, 1865-1900. Indiana University
referencedIn Papers of Beatrice and Sidney Webb, including Beatrice Webb's diaries and correspondence, 1835-[1985] British Library of Political and Economic Science
referencedIn British authors collection, 1840-1953. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Hodgskin, Thomas, 1787-1869. Thomas Hodgskin papers, 1802-1903 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn William George Spencer letters, 1839-1849, to Caroline Watts, 1839-1849 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf SPENCER, Herbert, 1820-1903, philosopher, [1838-1839] British Library of Political and Economic Science
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Autograph letter signed and letter signed : Bayswater and London, to Alexander Bain, 1880 Feb. 13 and 1886 Aug. 2. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Liebert, Herman W.,. Herman W. Liebert manuscript collection, 1604-1987. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Sir James Paget correspondence, 1784-1932, 1784-1932 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William Torrey Harris Papers, 1865-1908 Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Lanier, Sidney, 1842-1881. Sidney Lanier papers, 1838-1972. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. Correspondence, 1784-1932. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Printed form letter unsigned : Brighton, to James Marchant, 1902 Feb. 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn American Institute of Phrenology. Letter, 1905 February 8, New York City [to] Mr. Edward Markham, [Staten Island] / Jessie A. Fowler. Wagner College, Horrmann Library
referencedIn Sabatier, Paul, 1858-1928. [Philosophy : Mazzoni pamphlet collection] Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn William Roscoe Thayer papers, 1762-1927 (inclusive), 1872-1921 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Andrew Carnegie Papers, 1803-1935, (bulk 1890-1919) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919. Papers of Andrew Carnegie, 1803-1935 (bulk 1890-1919). Library of Congress
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Ellis, Havelock, 1859-1939. Havelock Ellis papers, 1871-1939 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Hodgskin, Thomas, 1787-1869. Thomas Hodgskin papers, 1802-1903 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1830-1936 Senate House Library, University of London
referencedIn Manton Marble Papers, 1838-1916, (bulk 1864-1898) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Ingleby, C. M. (Clement Mansfield), 1823-1886,. Autograph letters to Clement Mansfield Ingleby signed from various correspondents [manuscript], 1864-1880. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Album materials, 1777-1925 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Eliot, George, 1819-1880. The George Eliot and George Henry Lewes collection, 1834-1981. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Crouse, John Robert, 1874-1946. John Robert Crouse autograph collection, [15--]-ca. 1946. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Liebert, Herman W.,. Herman W. Liebert manuscript collection, 1604-1987. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn John Stuart Mill papers, 1812-1888 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Russell, Bertrand, 1872-1970. [Letter] 1923 July 2, London [to] Mrs. Cobden-Sanderson / Bertrand Russell. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Collection of miscellaneous European correspondence, 1800-1954. Temple University Libraries, Paley Library
referencedIn Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913. Letter : Godalming, England, to Charles Marseilles, Exeter, N.H., 1885 Apr. 11. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Spencer, William George. Letters, 1839-1849, to Caroline Watts. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn George Eliot and George Henry Lewes collection, 1834-1981 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letter to [Mr. Doubleday?]. Bayswater, London, Eng. 1881 Feb. 12. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Eliot, George, 1819-1880. Letters to George Eliot [manuscript], 1865-1878. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letter to "My dear Sir" : Bayswater, England : ALS, 1872 Feb. 4. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Osborne, W. A. (William Alexander), b. 1873. Papers of William Alexander Osborne [manuscript]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Sumner, William Graham, 1840-1910. William Graham Sumner papers, 1863-1946 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913. Letter : Godalming, England, to Charles Marseilles, Exeter, N.H., 1885 Apr. 11. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Herbert Spencer letter to Dear sirs, 1892 May 12. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Letters from various correspondents, American period, 1876-1937. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Chapman, John, 1822-1894. John Chapman collection, 1851-1868. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. [Letter] 1894 July 27, Regents Park [London, to] M.D. O'Brien / Herbert Spencer. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
creatorOf Landau, Rom, 1899-1974. The Rom Landau Collection, 1899-1965. University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB Library
referencedIn Letters of scientists, 1655-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn American Institute of Phrenology. Letter, 1905January 24, New York City [to] Mr. Edward Markham, [Staten Island] / Jessie A, Fowler. Wagner College, Horrmann Library
referencedIn MELDOLA, Professor Raphael (1849-1915), 1862-1915 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIf, 1866-1886 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Draper, John William, 1811-1882. John William Draper family papers, 1777-1951 (bulk 1860-1882). Library of Congress
referencedIn Alison, Archibald, 1757-1839. Papers pertaining to Charles Darwin and evolution [manuscript], 1771-1921. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letters to Robert McClure and Miss Thickle, 1895, n.d. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Mill, John Stuart, 1806-1873. John Stuart Mill papers, 1812-1888 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Chapman, John, 1822-1894. John Chapman collection, 1851-1868. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Royer, Rose de Vaux. Letter 1910-1920, New York City [to] Mr. [Edwin] Markham, [Staten Island] / Rose de Vaux Royer. Wagner College, Horrmann Library
referencedIn Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. Papers, 1846-1895. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Havelock Ellis papers, 1871-1939 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letters to Robert McClure and Miss Thickle [manuscript], 1895, n.d. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letter to [?]. London, Eng. 1877 Jan. 16. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Alison, Archibald, 1757-1839,. Papers pertaining to Charles Darwin and evolution, 1771-1821. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Fiske, John, 1842-1901. Papers of John Fiske, 1850-1901. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906. S.P. Langley papers, 1866-1926. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Herbert Spencer correspondence, 1867-1869. Library of Congress
referencedIn Peace Dale Manufacturing Company. Records, 1742-1919 (inclusive) [microform]. Harvard Business School, Knowledge and Library Services/Baker Library
referencedIn HUXLEY, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), 1839-1931 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
referencedIn Marble, Manton, 1834-1917. Manton Marble papers, 1838-1916 (bulk 1864-1898). Library of Congress
referencedIn Thomas Hodgskin papers, 1802-1903 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Alfred Russel Wallace Collection, 1867-1913 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Thomas Henry Huxley papers, 1846-1895, 1846-1895 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn John William Draper Family Papers, 1777-1951, (bulk 1860-1882) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Ralph Waldo Emerson letters from various correspondents, ca. 1814-1882. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Spencer, Herbert, 1820-1903. Letter signed : Upper Norwood, to Sir Andrew Clark, 1886 June 20. Pierpont Morgan Library.
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873 person
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associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
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associatedWith Darlington, William, 1782-1863 person
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correspondedWith Draper, John C. (John Christopher), 1835-1885 person
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correspondedWith Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1803-1882 person
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correspondedWith Fiske, John, 1842-1901. person
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associatedWith Genth, F. A., (Frederick Augustus), 1820-1893 person
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associatedWith Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911. person
associatedWith Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. person
correspondedWith Ingleby, C. M. (Clement Mansfield), 1823-1886, person
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associatedWith James, William, 1842-1910. person
associatedWith Janes, Lewis George. person
associatedWith Kennell, Miss. person
associatedWith Knight, William Angus, 1836-1916, person
associatedWith Landau, Rom, 1899-1974. person
associatedWith Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906. person
associatedWith Lanier, Sidney, 1842-1881. person
associatedWith Liebert, Herman W., person
associatedWith Liebert, Herman W., collector. person
associatedWith Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. person
correspondedWith Marble, Manton, 1834-1917. person
associatedWith Marchant, James, person
associatedWith Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. person
associatedWith McClure, Robert, fl. 1895. person
associatedWith Meldola, Raphael, 1849-1915 person
associatedWith Mill, John Stuart, 1806-1873. person
associatedWith Newcomb, Simon person
associatedWith Newton, Isaac, Sir, 1642-1727 person
associatedWith Ogden, C. K. (Charles Kay), 1889-1957. person
correspondedWith Osborne, W. A. (William Alexander), b. 1873. person
associatedWith Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. person
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associatedWith Peace Dale Manufacturing Company. corporateBody
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associatedWith Ray, Gordon Norton, 1915- person
associatedWith Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796 person
associatedWith Royer, Rose de Vaux. person
associatedWith Rush, Benjamin, 1746-1813 person
associatedWith Russell, Bertrand, 1872-1970. person
associatedWith Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 person
associatedWith Seybert, Adam, 1773-1825 person
associatedWith Sieveking, Albert Forbes, 1857- person
associatedWith Skilton, James Avery, 1829-1904. person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Spencer, William George. person
associatedWith Stevens, Henry person
associatedWith Sully, Thomas, 1783-1872 person
associatedWith Sumner, William Graham, 1840-1910. person
correspondedWith Thayer, William Roscoe, 1859-1923 person
associatedWith Thickle, Miss, person
associatedWith Thieblin, Nicholas Leon, 1834-1889. person
associatedWith Thomson, Charles, 1729-1824 person
associatedWith Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913. person
associatedWith Ward, Lester Frank, 1841-1913. person
associatedWith Waterton, Charles, 1782-1865 person
associatedWith Wayne, Anthony person
associatedWith Webb, (Martha) Beatrice, 1858-1943, wife of 1st Baron Passfield, social reformer and historian person
associatedWith Webb, Sidney James, 1859-1947, 1st Baron Passfield, social reformer and historian person
associatedWith Youmans, William Jay, 1838-1902. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
London England
Gloucester Gloucestershire England
Great Britain
Avon England
Subject
Engineering
Psychology
Transport
Railway transport
Philosophers--19th century--Correspondence
Transport infrastructure
Occupation
Philosophers
Function

Person

Birth 1820-04-27

Death 1903-12-08

Britons

English

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