Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1825-05-04
Death 1895-06-29
Britons
English

Biographical notes:

Huxley was an Britist botanist especially known for his work in comparative anatomy and vertebrate paleontology.

From the description of [Letter] 1857? May 31, Geological Survey of Great Britain [to] Sir / T. H. Huxley. (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 244251868

English scientist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Ilkley, to W.A. Knight, 1886 Dec. 6. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269526779

Student, Royal School of Mines, London, England, 1851-1852; Professor of Natural History and later Dean of the Royal College of Science, London, England, 1854-1895.

From the description of Papers. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 81106589

English zoologist and evolutionary biologist.

From the description of Letter, 1887, Sept. 30 : [London], to Mr. E.S. Colleys. (Duke University). WorldCat record id: 35092788

Thomas Henry Huxley was a Victorian author and scientist who made notable and lasting contributions in several fields. As an ardent supporter of Darwin's theories, he was tenacious in his efforts to show evolution in a positive way. As an excellent prose stylist, his essays on various topics were persuasive in shaping public thought. His contributions in education and public reform were significant; he held numerous responsible positions in societies and government. He created a new religious position, and coined the term "agnostic" to define his belief that it was better to express ignorance than to pretend to know something he considered unknowable. He is remembered as the most articulate voice of his generation's notable debaters.

From the description of T.H. Huxley letter to Dear sir, 1893 July 16. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 60494850

Born, Ealing, London, 1825; studied medicine; Assistant Surgeon, surveying ship HMS RATTLESNAKE around Australia, 1846-1850; Lecturer in Natural History, School of Mines, 1854; Naturalist to the Geological Survey, 1854; Hunterian professor, Royal College of Surgeons, 1863-1869; Fullerian professor, Royal Institution, 1863-1867; Professor of Biology and Dean, Normal School of Science (later Royal College of Chemistry), 1881-1895; Dean, Royal School of Mines, 1881-1895; Honorary Professor of Biology, 1885-1895; foremost advocate in England of Darwin's theory of evolution; died, 1895. Publications: include: On the educational value of the natural history sciences (London, 1854); The Oceanic Hydrozoa; a description of the Calycophoridae and Physophoridae observed during the voyage of HMS "Rattlesnake" in the years 1846-50 (London, 1859); Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy vol 1 (London, 1864); A catalogue of the collection of Fossils in the Museum of Practical Geology, with an explanatory introduction with Robert Etheridge (London, 1865); Lessons in Elementary Physiology (London, 1866); An Introduction to the Classification of Animals (London, 1869); Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Reviews (London, 1870); A Manual of the Anatomy of vertebrated animals (London, 1871); More Criticisms on Darwin, and Administrative Nihilism (D Appleton & Co, New York, 1872); A course of practical instruction in elementary biology assisted by H N Martin (London, Cambridge [printed], 1875); A Manual of the anatomy of Invertebrated Animals (London, 1877); Physiography: an introduction to the study of nature (London, 1877); Fish Diseases (London, 1883); Evolution and Ethics (The Romanes Lecture, 1893) (Macmillan and Co, London, 1893); Man's Place in Nature, and other essays [1906]; Collected Essays 9 vol (Macmillan and Co, London, 1894-1908); The Scientific Memoirs of T H Huxley edited by Professor Michael Foster and Professor E Ray Lankester 5 vol (Macmillan & Co, London, 1898-1903).

From the guide to the HUXLEY, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), 1839-1931, (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine)

T.H. Huxley, 1825-1895, biologist, spent three years in and around Australia, while serving as assistant surgeon on the survey vessel H.M.S. Rattlesnake.

From the description of Papers [microform]. (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 225845785

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), the noted British scientist, has numerous publications listed in the _National Union Catalog_.

From the description of From the hut to the pantheon, 19th c. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 191259449

Thomas Henry Huxley was a British scientist.

From the description of Papers, 1846-1895. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122644668

English biologist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to Dr. Day, [1888?] Oct. 2. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270871087

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Eastbourne, to [John] M. Grover, 1893 Mar. 15. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270871094

From the description of Letter signed : London, to the editors of the American Journal of Science and Art, 1861 Nov. 6. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270874748

From the description of Autograph letter signed : West Cliff, Bournemouth, to [Jackey Martin?], 1888 Apr. 10. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270871086

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Edinburgh, to A.R. Grote, 1876 May 5. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270871092

From the description of Autograph letter signed : the Government School of Mines, London, to Mr. Harlowe, 1867 or 1857 Nov. 20. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270871095

Thomas Henry Huxley was an English scientist who had wide and varied interests in all subjects of natural history. He was an original member of the school board for London (1870-1872) and greatly influenced the scheme of education finally adopted.

From the description of Correspondence, 1851-1895. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122540747

Biologist.

Born in London in 1825, Huxley studied medicine at London, worked as a naval surgeon, and became interested in natural history while visiting the Australian coast. In 1854 he was appointed professor of natural history at the Royal School of Mines, and became the foremost expounder of Darwinism, to which he added an anthropological perspective in Man's Place in Nature.

He also studied fossils, influenced the teaching of science in schools, and wrote essays on theology and philosophy from an agnostic viewpoint, a term he introduced. He died in 1895.

From the description of Letter, 1870. (Florida State University). WorldCat record id: 50656038

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895, APS 1869) was an eminent Victorian surgeon, biologist, and educator best known as a passionate defender and popularizer of Darwin's theory of evolution. His partisanship earned him the nickname of "Darwin's Bulldog," although he did not accept the theory uncritically. In addition to his work in biology, he did original research in zoology and paleontology. He is also remembered as the progenitor of a family of highly successful scientists and thinkers.

Huxley was born on May 4, 1825 in Ealing, outside of London, the seventh of eight children of George Huxley and Rachel Withers. His family was not well-off, and his formal schooling was limited. Largely self-taught, he read extensively in a variety of subjects, began a medical apprenticeship at age 15, and soon won a scholarship with his brother James to study at Charing Cross Hospital. At Charing Cross his teacher Thomas Wharton Jones inspired his interests in physiology and anatomy, and assisted him with the publication of his first scientific paper on the discovery of a new layer of cells (Huxley’s layer) in the root sheath of a hair. In 1845 Huxley passed the M.B. examination at London University and subsequently the test for membership in the Royal College of Surgeons.

Afterward, Huxley took the position of assistant surgeon aboard the Royal Navy frigate H.M.S. Rattlesnake , when he was 21. This proved to be an important turning-point in his life, and set the course of his career toward zoology, rather than medicine. While the crew charted the seas around Australia and New Guinea, Huxley collected and studied specimens of marine invertebrates and mailed his research results back to England from each port of call. With limited equipment he focused his attention on the ample varieties of planktontic life. After extensive onboard dissections and library research in Sydney, Australia, he also submitted several papers to the Linnean Society, but received no reply. Through his studies Huxley was able to bring greater order to the classification of these minute organisms, instead of putting them in catchall categories like Linnaeus’s Vermes or Cuvier’s Radiata.

When he returned to England in 1850, Huxley found that his shipboard research had been well-received by the scientific establishment, and he became acquainted with the top rung of British scientists and thinkers, including the botanist Joseph Hooker, the geologist Charles Lyell, the philosopher Herbert Spencer, and the naturalist Charles Darwin. In 1849 he had sent a major paper “On the Anatomy and the Affinities of the family of the Medusae” to the Royal Society of London, and by the time Rattlesnake was back in port, his paper had appeared in the Philosophical Transactions. Although for the next several years Huxley was forced to support himself on a naval stipend and by writing popular science articles, success was close at hand. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1850, and received the Royal Medal in 1852. In 1854 he was appointed to a lectureship at the School of Mines in London.

Huxley’s early zoological research was on invertebrates-cnidaria (jellyfish), filter feeding ascidians (like sea squirts) and cephalopods (mollusks). He published another major paper on mollusks in 1853, entitled “On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca” in which he first distinguished his theoretical notions of the development of species. He opened the paper with a quote from Richard Owen, “the highest authority,” in order to assert what he considered to be the “true aims of anatomical investigation”. Although Huxley used Owen’s favorite term “archetype,” he meant something different in his use of the term. Unlike Owen, who understood archetypes in a platonic or “naturphilosophische” sense, Huxley understood it merely as “the conception of a form embodying the most general propositions that can be affirmed” about an organism. Within a given class, such as the cephalopods, he believed the members might vary. Furthermore, he rejected the notion of any progression from a “lower” to a “higher” type within a group. Drawing upon the German zoological literature, Huxley used the term “evolution” in its historic sense, of an unrolling or [embryological] unfolding.

In 1854, after Huxley succeeded Edward Forbes as lecturer in the Government School of Mines, he shifted the focus of his research from invertebrates to vertebrates. The shift resulted from his new duties as a lecturer on natural history, that required him to prepare lectures on biological topics previously unfamiliar to him. He also had responsibilities with the Geological Survey that exposed him to a whole range of vertebrate fossils, which involved him in problems of geology and paleontology for the first time. These experiences would prove invaluable for Huxley in preparing him to understand and appreciate the Darwinian concepts of evolution about to unfold.

In the late 1850s Huxley began an investigation of the embryology of vertebrates that culminated in his Croonian lecture of 1858 to the Royal Society “On the Theory of the Vertebrate Skull.” His goal in the lecture was to put morphological studies on a more scientific basis, especially by using embryological criteria. Once again drawing upon the tradition of German biology exemplified by K.E. von Baer and M.H. Rathke, Huxley established the thesis that various vertebrate skulls are simply modifications of the same basic type.

By 1859 Huxley’s broad background in vertebrate and invertebrate zoology and paleontology prepared him for the role he was about to play in the Evolution controversy. He was at first opposed to any ideas of evolution, criticizing the theories of Lamarck and Chambers. By contrast, Huxley, response to Darwin's Origin of Species was quite favorable. He was reported to comment, "How stupid of me not to have thought of that." Indeed, after reading a prepublication copy of the Origin, he wrote to Darwin that nothing had impressed him more since his reading of Baer. He differed from Darwin in that he believed that the evolution was capable of making rapid changes, while Darwin saw it as a slow, steady process. Huxley warned Darwin of the abuse that his theory was likely to engender, and emerged as his most prominent English defender, nicknamed “Darwin’s Bulldog”. Huxley became well-known as a result of his famous debate with the Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce on the subject of evolution in June, 1860 at Oxford, sponsored by the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It is widely agreed that Huxley was the clear winner over Wilberforce in the debate, giving a reasoned and impassioned defense of evolution.

Huxley published Evidence on Man's Place in Nature in 1863, five years after the appearance of Darwin's Origin of Species. This book, probably his best known, presented a comprehensive review of human and primate paleontology, and is credited as being the first to explicitly apply the concept of evolution to the human race. Throughout his public life, Huxley found himself severely criticized by members of the clergy. He also had an on-going argument with the anatomist and taxonomist Richard Owen, who believed that primates lacked a hippocampus in their brains and therefore evolution from ape to man was impossible. Huxley was able to prove conclusively that primate brains do contain a hippocampus, which tarnished Owen's reputation as a scientist. Their dispute was satirized by Charles Kingsley in his children's book, The Water-Babies.

Apart from his involvement in the Darwinian debate, Huxley’s own most notable scientific research in the 1860s continued his earlier work on vertebrates. One of his chief contributions was to revise the taxonomy of several animal groups, based upon his own observations of their osteological characteristics (i.e. bone structure). In what was probably the first comparative study of a single avian organ system, Huxley divided birds into three principal groups: Saururae, Ratitae and Carinatae, based upon the bony structure of their palate.

In his paleontological research Huxley revised the work of Louis Agassiz on Devonian fishes, based upon the new and growing collections to which he had access, as well as his own extensive studies of piscine embryology. He also did work on early tetrapods such as the Anthracosaurus of the Mississippian period. No doubt, Huxley’s most important contribution to paleontology was his study of Mesozoic reptiles, particularly dinosaurs. Perhaps as a result of his recent study of birds, he recognized that the bone structure of all dinosaurs had a strong ornithic character in the tetraradiate arrangement of the ililum, ischium, pubis and the femur. Huxley established the order Ornithischia for these reptiles, which included such forms as the Iguanodon. On the basis of their specific similarities, as well as more general evidence Huxley combined birds and reptiles into a single division, the Sauropsida. This was one of his three great divisions of Vertebrata; the others being Ichthyopsida (fishes and amphibians) and Mammalia.

In addition to his contributions to zoology, Huxley was a scientific educator, from his appointment as lecturer in the Government School of Mines in 1854 until the end of his life. In 1872 the School of Mines was incorporated in to the Royal College of Science, after which laboratory work became a principal part of Huxley’s courses. In his view, students’ work in the laboratory ought to include dissection and observation to verify the facts stated in the texts and in the lectures. As an innovative and popular science educator, Huxley did not limit instruction to the academy. As Fullerian professor at the Royal Institution, he gave a number of Friday evening lectures, and presented a wide array of special lectures at various locations. Of all his public lectures, Huxley was most interested in the series of workingmen’s lectures that he presented on a regular basis, beginning in 1855. He declared that he was “sick of the dilettante middle class” and wished to try his skill educating the working classes, who attended his lectures in large numbers. Huxley refused to talk down to his audiences, believing firmly that even the most complex ideas could be understood by the majority of the populace, if they were clearly and logically presented, step-by-step. Several of his finest addresses, such as his series on man’s place in nature or his 1868 talk “On a Piece of Chalk,” were presented to working people. For his accomplishments as a zoologist, paleontologist and educator Huxley was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1869.

Huxley's personal life also bears mention. He married Henrietta Heathorn in 1855, after an eight-year engagement dating from the time Rattlesnake put into port in Sydney, Australia in 1847. They had eight children. Their eldest surviving son, Leonard, was well-respected as a biographer and man of letters. Leonard's eldest son, Julian, was a biologist and one of the leading figures in 20th century evolutionary synthesis. Leonard's youngest son, Andrew, shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Both sons were knighted. Leonard's middle son, Aldous, was a prominent figure in modern English literature, best known for his anti-utopian novel, Brave New World.

Deafness eventually ended Huxley’s public speaking engagements, although he broke his silence in 1893 with the Romanes lecture on “Evolution and Ethics” at Oxford. In March of 1895 Huxley suffered a bout of influenza that led to bronchitis. Severely weakened, he suffered a heart attack at the end of June, and died on June 29, 1895.

From the guide to the Thomas Henry Huxley papers, 1846-1895, 1846-1895, (American Philosophical Society)

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895, APS 1869) was an eminent Victorian surgeon, biologist, and educator best known as a passionate defender and popularizer of Darwin's theory of evolution. His partisanship earned him the nickname of "Darwin's Bulldog," although he did not accept the theory uncritically. In addition to his work in biology, he did original research in zoology and paleontology. He is also remembered as the progenitor of a family of highly successful scientists and thinkers.

Huxley was born on May 4, 1825 in Ealing, outside of London, the seventh of eight children of George Huxley and Rachel Withers. His family was not well-off, and his formal schooling was limited. Largely self-taught, he read extensively in a variety of subjects, began a medical apprenticeship at age 15, and soon won a scholarship with his brother James to study at Charing Cross Hospital. At Charing Cross his teacher Thomas Wharton Jones inspired his interests in physiology and anatomy, and assisted him with the publication of his first scientific paper on the discovery of a new layer of cells (Huxley’s layer) in the root sheath of a hair. In 1845 Huxley passed the M.B. examination at London University and subsequently the test for membership in the Royal College of Surgeons.

Afterward, Huxley took the position of assistant surgeon aboard the Royal Navy frigate H.M.S. Rattlesnake , when he was 21. This proved to be an important turning-point in his life, and set the course of his career toward zoology, rather than medicine. While the crew charted the seas around Australia and New Guinea, Huxley collected and studied specimens of marine invertebrates and mailed his research results back to England from each port of call. With limited equipment he focused his attention on the ample varieties of planktontic life. After extensive onboard dissections and library research in Sydney, Australia, he also submitted several papers to the Linnean Society, but received no reply. Through his studies Huxley was able to bring greater order to the classification of these minute organisms, instead of putting them in catchall categories like Linnaeus’s Vermes or Cuvier’s Radiata.

When he returned to England in 1850, Huxley found that his shipboard research had been well-received by the scientific establishment, and he became acquainted with the top rung of British scientists and thinkers, including the botanist Joseph Hooker, the geologist Charles Lyell, the philosopher Herbert Spencer, and the naturalist Charles Darwin. In 1849 he had sent a major paper “On the Anatomy and the Affinities of the family of the Medusae” to the Royal Society of London, and by the time Rattlesnake was back in port, his paper had appeared in the Philosophical Transactions. Although for the next several years Huxley was forced to support himself on a naval stipend and by writing popular science articles, success was close at hand. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1850, and received the Royal Medal in 1852. In 1854 he was appointed to a lectureship at the School of Mines in London.

Huxley’s early zoological research was on invertebrates-cnidaria (jellyfish), filter feeding ascidians (like sea squirts) and cephalopods (mollusks). He published another major paper on mollusks in 1853, entitled “On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca” in which he first distinguished his theoretical notions of the development of species. He opened the paper with a quote from Richard Owen, “the highest authority,” in order to assert what he considered to be the “true aims of anatomical investigation”. Although Huxley used Owen’s favorite term “archetype,” he meant something different in his use of the term. Unlike Owen, who understood archetypes in a platonic or “naturphilosophische” sense, Huxley understood it merely as “the conception of a form embodying the most general propositions that can be affirmed” about an organism. Within a given class, such as the cephalopods, he believed the members might vary. Furthermore, he rejected the notion of any progression from a “lower” to a “higher” type within a group. Drawing upon the German zoological literature, Huxley used the term “evolution” in its historic sense, of an unrolling or [embryological] unfolding.

In 1854, after Huxley succeeded Edward Forbes as lecturer in the Government School of Mines, he shifted the focus of his research from invertebrates to vertebrates. The shift resulted from his new duties as a lecturer on natural history, that required him to prepare lectures on biological topics previously unfamiliar to him. He also had responsibilities with the Geological Survey that exposed him to a whole range of vertebrate fossils, which involved him in problems of geology and paleontology for the first time. These experiences would prove invaluable for Huxley in preparing him to understand and appreciate the Darwinian concepts of evolution about to unfold.

In the late 1850s Huxley began an investigation of the embryology of vertebrates that culminated in his Croonian lecture of 1858 to the Royal Society “On the Theory of the Vertebrate Skull.” His goal in the lecture was to put morphological studies on a more scientific basis, especially by using embryological criteria. Once again drawing upon the tradition of German biology exemplified by K.E. von Baer and M.H. Rathke, Huxley established the thesis that various vertebrate skulls are simply modifications of the same basic type.

By 1859 Huxley’s broad background in vertebrate and invertebrate zoology and paleontology prepared him for the role he was about to play in the Evolution controversy. He was at first opposed to any ideas of evolution, criticizing the theories of Lamarck and Chambers. By contrast, Huxley, response to Darwin's Origin of Species was quite favorable. He was reported to comment, "How stupid of me not to have thought of that." Indeed, after reading a prepublication copy of the Origin, he wrote to Darwin that nothing had impressed him more since his reading of Baer. He differed from Darwin in that he believed that the evolution was capable of making rapid changes, while Darwin saw it as a slow, steady process. Huxley warned Darwin of the abuse that his theory was likely to engender, and emerged as his most prominent English defender, nicknamed “Darwin’s Bulldog”. Huxley became well-known as a result of his famous debate with the Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce on the subject of evolution in June, 1860 at Oxford, sponsored by the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It is widely agreed that Huxley was the clear winner over Wilberforce in the debate, giving a reasoned and impassioned defense of evolution.

Huxley published Evidence on Man's Place in Nature in 1863, five years after the appearance of Darwin's Origin of Species. This book, probably his best known, presented a comprehensive review of human and primate paleontology, and is credited as being the first to explicitly apply the concept of evolution to the human race. Throughout his public life, Huxley found himself severely criticized by members of the clergy. He also had an on-going argument with the anatomist and taxonomist Richard Owen, who believed that primates lacked a hippocampus in their brains and therefore evolution from ape to man was impossible. Huxley was able to prove conclusively that primate brains do contain a hippocampus, which tarnished Owen's reputation as a scientist. Their dispute was satirized by Charles Kingsley in his children's book, The Water-Babies.

Apart from his involvement in the Darwinian debate, Huxley’s own most notable scientific research in the 1860s continued his earlier work on vertebrates. One of his chief contributions was to revise the taxonomy of several animal groups, based upon his own observations of their osteological characteristics (i.e. bone structure). In what was probably the first comparative study of a single avian organ system, Huxley divided birds into three principal groups: Saururae, Ratitae and Carinatae, based upon the bony structure of their palate.

In his paleontological research Huxley revised the work of Louis Agassiz on Devonian fishes, based upon the new and growing collections to which he had access, as well as his own extensive studies of piscine embryology. He also did work on early tetrapods such as the Anthracosaurus of the Mississippian period. No doubt, Huxley’s most important contribution to paleontology was his study of Mesozoic reptiles, particularly dinosaurs. Perhaps as a result of his recent study of birds, he recognized that the bone structure of all dinosaurs had a strong ornithic character in the tetraradiate arrangement of the ililum, ischium, pubis and the femur. Huxley established the order Ornithischia for these reptiles, which included such forms as the Iguanodon. On the basis of their specific similarities, as well as more general evidence Huxley combined birds and reptiles into a single division, the Sauropsida. This was one of his three great divisions of Vertebrata; the others being Ichthyopsida (fishes and amphibians) and Mammalia.

In addition to his contributions to zoology, Huxley was a scientific educator, from his appointment as lecturer in the Government School of Mines in 1854 until the end of his life. In 1872 the School of Mines was incorporated in to the Royal College of Science, after which laboratory work became a principal part of Huxley’s courses. In his view, students’ work in the laboratory ought to include dissection and observation to verify the facts stated in the texts and in the lectures. As an innovative and popular science educator, Huxley did not limit instruction to the academy. As Fullerian professor at the Royal Institution, he gave a number of Friday evening lectures, and presented a wide array of special lectures at various locations. Of all his public lectures, Huxley was most interested in the series of workingmen’s lectures that he presented on a regular basis, beginning in 1855. He declared that he was “sick of the dilettante middle class” and wished to try his skill educating the working classes, who attended his lectures in large numbers. Huxley refused to talk down to his audiences, believing firmly that even the most complex ideas could be understood by the majority of the populace, if they were clearly and logically presented, step-by-step. Several of his finest addresses, such as his series on man’s place in nature or his 1868 talk “On a Piece of Chalk,” were presented to working people. For his accomplishments as a zoologist, paleontologist and educator Huxley was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1869.

Huxley's personal life also bears mention. He married Henrietta Heathorn in 1855, after an eight-year engagement dating from the time Rattlesnake put into port in Sydney, Australia in 1847. They had eight children. Their eldest surviving son, Leonard, was well-respected as a biographer and man of letters. Leonard's eldest son, Julian, was a biologist and one of the leading figures in 20th century evolutionary synthesis. Leonard's youngest son, Andrew, shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Both sons were knighted. Leonard's middle son, Aldous, was a prominent figure in modern English literature, best known for his anti-utopian novel, Brave New World.

Deafness eventually ended Huxley’s public speaking engagements, although he broke his silence in 1893 with the Romanes lecture on “Evolution and Ethics” at Oxford. In March of 1895 Huxley suffered a bout of influenza that led to bronchitis. Severely weakened, he suffered a heart attack at the end of June, and died on June 29, 1895.

From the guide to the Thomas Henry Huxley Papers, 1851-1895, 1851-1895, (American Philosophical Society)

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